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1. Saladzinskas Z, Tamelis A, Paskauskas S, Pranys D, Pavalkis D: Facial skin metastasis of colorectal cancer: a case report. Cases J; 2010;3:28
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Facial skin metastasis of colorectal cancer: a case report.
  • INTRODUCTION: Liver and lungs are common locations of distant metastases of colorectal cancer.
  • Skin metastases of colorectal cancer are very rare, and facial lesions are extremely uncommon.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: An anterior resection of the rectum was performed for rectal cancer T3N0M0G3.
  • Metastasis of adenocarcinoma was confirmed histologically, and local excision was performed.
  • At the same time, a solitary metastasis in the right lung was diagnosed, and the right lower lobectomy was performed.
  • No other metastasis or local recurrences were observed during the next 7 months.
  • CONCLUSION: Skin metastases in the face from colorectal cancer are very rare and may indicate tumour relapse several years after primary resection.

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  • (PMID = 20157437.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-1626
  • [Journal-full-title] Cases journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cases J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2821305
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2. Salvati M, Caroli E, Paone C, Frati A, Ferrante L, Giangaspero F, Delfini R: Brain metastasis from cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma of the dorsum. Case report. J Neurosurg; 2005 Jun;102(6):1155-8
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  • [Title] Brain metastasis from cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma of the dorsum. Case report.
  • The majority of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) are diagnosed early and cured using local treatment, although a minority of cases metastasize to regional structures.
  • In this report the authors describe an unknown feature of skin SCC, namely, distant brain metastasis.
  • A metastatic work-up showed enlarged inguinal and para-aortic lymph nodes that were histologically examined using excisional biopsy.
  • Inguinal lymph nodes were tumor-positive and were dissected.
  • Although the described case is unique, knowledge of the potential for this uncommon behavior in cutaneous SCC may be useful, especially because of its increasing incidence.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Cerebellar Neoplasms / secondary. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Back. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged


3. Fernandez-Flores A: Podoplanin immunostaining in cutaneous apocrine carcinoma and in cutaneous metastasis from the breast. Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol; 2010 Dec;18(6):573-4
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  • [Title] Podoplanin immunostaining in cutaneous apocrine carcinoma and in cutaneous metastasis from the breast.

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  • (PMID = 20697264.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-4058
  • [Journal-full-title] Applied immunohistochemistry & molecular morphology : AIMM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Appl. Immunohistochem. Mol. Morphol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Mammaglobin A; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / PDPN protein, human; 0 / SCGB2A2 protein, human; 9060-09-7 / Uteroglobin
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4. Snoj M, Cemazar M, Slekovec Kolar B, Sersa G: Effective treatment of multiple unresectable skin melanoma metastases by electrochemotherapy. Croat Med J; 2007 Jun;48(3):391-5
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  • [Title] Effective treatment of multiple unresectable skin melanoma metastases by electrochemotherapy.
  • Multiple unresectable melanoma skin metastases pose a treatment problem, especially in centers where isolated limb perfusion is not available.
  • We report the case of a 59-year-old woman who developed multiple small unresectable cutaneous melanoma metastases on the thigh after her lower limb was amputated.
  • Electrochemotherapy with bleomycin resulted in good local control of the disease, with a complete response of the treated melanoma nodules (224 tumor nodules) after 4 treatment sessions.
  • Electrochemotherapy with intravenous bleomycin can also be used as a treatment of choice for local control of multiple unresectable cutaneous melanoma skin metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 17589984.001).
  • [ISSN] 1332-8166
  • [Journal-full-title] Croatian medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Croat. Med. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Croatia
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2080549
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5. Onak Kandemir N, Barut F, Yılmaz K, Tokgoz H, Hosnuter M, Ozdamar SO: Renal cell carcinoma presenting with cutaneous metastasis: a case report. Case Rep Med; 2010;2010
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  • [Title] Renal cell carcinoma presenting with cutaneous metastasis: a case report.
  • Renal cell carcinoma is the most common kidney tumor in adults.
  • Cutaneous metastasis is a rare first symptom of the disease.
  • This paper describes the diagnosis of a renal cell carcinoma that was indicated by cutaneous metastasis in the head and neck region, and considers the etiopathogenesis of such cases.
  • A careful skin examination is important to detect cutaneous metastasis associated with renal cell carcinomas.
  • Metastatic skin lesions in the head and neck region must be taken into consideration during a differential diagnosis.

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  • (PMID = 20811607.001).
  • [ISSN] 1687-9635
  • [Journal-full-title] Case reports in medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Case Rep Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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6. Rasi A, Tajziehchi L, Shaianfar N: Metastatic carcinoma of the ovary presenting as zosteriform lesions. Arch Iran Med; 2007 Apr;10(2):250-2
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  • [Title] Metastatic carcinoma of the ovary presenting as zosteriform lesions.
  • Distant metastases are unusual at presentation and during the course of ovarian carcinoma.
  • Skin metastases may be the first presenting sign of metastatic carcinoma of the ovary.
  • Ovarian epithelial adenocarcinoma rarely metastasizes to the skin, and can be seen in less than 4% of patients.
  • It usually presents as subcutaneous nodules and, less commonly, as inflammatory metastases, which mimic viral or bacterial skin infections.
  • We report a patient with widespread skin metastases and review the literature on this rare presentation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 17367234.001).
  • [ISSN] 1029-2977
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of Iranian medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Iran Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Iran
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7. Cil T, Altintas A, Pasa S, Isikdogan A: Atypical skin metastases from early tubular breast carcinoma. Int J Dermatol; 2008 Dec;47(12):1311-3
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  • [Title] Atypical skin metastases from early tubular breast carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / secondary. Skin Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 19126026.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-4632
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
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8. Ozsoy Z, Ozyigit MT, Turkaslan T, Gulluoglu MG: Ultralate metastasis of cutaneous melanoma. Dermatol Surg; 2006 Oct;32(10):1287-9
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  • [Title] Ultralate metastasis of cutaneous melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Melanoma / secondary. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17034382.001).
  • [ISSN] 1076-0512
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatologic surgery : official publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et al.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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9. Camara O, Jörke C, Hammer U, Egbe A, Rabenstein C, Runnebaum IB, Hoeffken K, Pachmann K: Monitoring circulating epithelial tumour cells (CETC) to gauge therapy: in patients with disease progression after trastuzumab persisting CETC can be eliminated by combined lapatinib treatment. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol; 2009 Apr;135(4):643-7
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  • BACKGROUND: In breast cancers, the gene for the growth factor receptor HER2 can be amplified leading to increased aggressiveness and metastasis formation.
  • After stopping trastuzumab skin metastases occurred.

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  • (PMID = 18936973.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1335
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cancer research and clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Quinazolines; 0VUA21238F / lapatinib; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2; P188ANX8CK / Trastuzumab
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10. Ardavanis A, Orphanos G, Ioannidis G, Rigatos G: Skin metastases from primary lung cancer. Report of three cases and a brief review. In Vivo; 2006 Sep-Oct;20(5):671-3
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  • [Title] Skin metastases from primary lung cancer. Report of three cases and a brief review.
  • Skin metastasis from lung cancer is an unusual event carrying an ominous prognosis.
  • Three cases with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with skin involvement and rapidly fatal clinical course due to extensive CNS metastasis are reported.
  • The eventual association of skin metastases and a phenotype with "CNS-predilection" or an aggressive phase of NSCLC are discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 17091776.001).
  • [ISSN] 0258-851X
  • [Journal-full-title] In vivo (Athens, Greece)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] In Vivo
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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11. De Matos AJ, Lopes CC, Faustino AM, Carvalheira JG, Dos Santos MS, Rutteman GR, Gärtner Mde F: MIB-1 labelling indices according to clinico-pathological variables in canine mammary tumours: a multivariate study. Anticancer Res; 2006 May-Jun;26(3A):1821-6
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  • The relationship between MIB-1 labelling indices (LI), as detected by immunohistochemical methods, and other clinico-pathological characteristics was studied in a series of 77 malignant mammary tumours surgically removed from 47 female dogs.
  • MIB-1 LI was significantly related to the size of the tumour, necrosis, invasive growth and histological grade, but not with ulceration, lymph node metastasis, skin fixation or E-cadherin expression.
  • The significant relationship between MIB-1 LI and other known factors of poor prognosis suggests that a high LI may have prognostic value in canine malignant mammary tumours.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Dogs. Female. Immunohistochemistry. Logistic Models. Lymphatic Metastasis. Multivariate Analysis. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 16827113.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen
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12. Paradela S, Castiñeiras I, Cuevas J, Almagro M, del Pozo J, Fonseca E: Mucinous carcinoma of the skin: evaluation of lymphatic invasion with D2-40. Am J Dermatopathol; 2008 Oct;30(5):504-8
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  • [Title] Mucinous carcinoma of the skin: evaluation of lymphatic invasion with D2-40.
  • Primary cutaneous mucinous carcinoma is a rare adnexal sweat gland neoplasm that mainly affects elderly people.
  • Differential diagnosis includes mammary and gastrointestinal metastatic mucinous carcinoma (MC) and secondary cutaneous involvement by underlying neoplasms.
  • She underwent partial excision of the tumor and local radiotherapy.
  • Imaging studies showed widespread cutaneous dissemination with enlargement of ipsilateral axillary lymph nodes but without evidence of underlying breast cancer.
  • A diagnosis of primary cutaneous mucinous carcinoma was made.
  • Our aim was to reevaluate the differential clinical, histopathological, and immunohistochemical criteria for distinguishing primary cutaneous mucinous carcinoma from skin metastases of visceral mucinous carcinoma, especially those arising in breast.
  • We also propose D2-40 as a reliable marker to detect lymphatic invasion that indicates a strong aggressive trend with shorter recurrence-free and predicts nodal metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Antibodies, Monoclonal / metabolism. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis

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  • (PMID = 18806501.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / monoclonal antibody D2-40
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13. Jimeno Sáinz A, Guerrero L, Polo E: Cutaneous metastasis of unusual cause. Eur J Intern Med; 2006 Oct;17(6):451
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cutaneous metastasis of unusual cause.

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  • (PMID = 16962960.001).
  • [ISSN] 0953-6205
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of internal medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Intern. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Letter
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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14. Almazán-Fernández FM, Fernández-Pugnaire MA, Hernández-Gil J, Arias-Santiago S, Abad-Romero J, Serrano-Ortega S, Naranjo-Sintes R: Homogeneous blue pattern: A rare presentation in an acral congenital melanocytic nevus. Dermatol Online J; 2010;16(8):10
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  • The homogeneous blue pattern is typical of blue nevus and is not typical of acral localization and metastasis of cutaneous melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Nevus, Blue / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Dermoscopy. Female. Humans. Melanoma / diagnosis. Surgical Flaps. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20804687.001).
  • [ISSN] 1087-2108
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatology online journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol. Online J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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15. Sciacca V, Ciorra AA, Di Fonzo C, Rossi R, Pistillucci G, Lugini A, D'Aprile M: Long-term survival of metastatic melanoma to the ileum with evidence of primary cutaneous disease after 15 years of follow-up: a case report. Tumori; 2010 Jul-Aug;96(4):640-3
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  • [Title] Long-term survival of metastatic melanoma to the ileum with evidence of primary cutaneous disease after 15 years of follow-up: a case report.
  • The small bowel is the most common site of gastrointestinal metastasis from cutaneous melanoma.
  • Malignant melanoma has a poor prognosis, especially if distant metastases appear.
  • Although rare primary melanoma of the small bowel has been described, more frequently these lesions originate from unknown cutaneous melanoma.
  • Here we report the case of a 58-year-old man with a diagnosis of melanoma of the ileum without evidence of primary cutaneous disease.
  • After 15 years, during the clinical and radiological follow-up, a cutaneous melanoma in the left parietal side of the scalp, probably corresponding to the primary lesion with abdominal node metastasis, was diagnosed.
  • At present, he is still alive 18 years after the diagnosis of intestinal metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Ileal Neoplasms / secondary. Melanoma / secondary. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20968150.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8916
  • [Journal-full-title] Tumori
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tumori
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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16. Rossitto M, Fedele F, Pantè S, Crescenti F, Incardona S, Ciccolo A, Famulari C: [Skin neuroendocrine carcinoma metastasis: a case report]. Ann Ital Chir; 2006 Jan-Feb;77(1):69-73
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  • [Title] [Skin neuroendocrine carcinoma metastasis: a case report].
  • [Transliterated title] Metastasi da carcinoma neuroendocrino della cute. Caso clinico.
  • BACKGROUND: Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare and aggressive skin tumour with a highly malignant nature whose appropriate treatment is still debated.
  • The Authors report a case of cutaneous metastasis from neuroendocrine carcinoma and analyse new diagnostic and therapeutic options of neoplasms that occurs in sun-exposed areas.
  • METHODS: The authors present the clinical, immunocytochemical characteristic of primary and secondary skin localization of a neuroendocrine tumor that affected a woman.
  • RESULTS: Histological and immunocytochemical analysis demonstrated that the secondary cutaneous localization appeared to be compared to the primary tumour.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The case confirm the high incidence of regional metastasis; a wide surgical excision of tumor and regional lymphadenectomy is therefore recommended for primary treatment of MCC; the radiation treatment minimized the local recidives with long time survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Merkel Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Merkel Cell / secondary. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 16910364.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-469X
  • [Journal-full-title] Annali italiani di chirurgia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Ital Chir
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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17. Ben Hadj Hamida F, Fezani M, Ben Amor H, Krifa F, Chaabani L, Khalfallah W, Yacoubi S, Ben Rayana N: [Orbital metastasis from cutaneous melanoma]. J Fr Ophtalmol; 2009 Jun;32(6):425-9
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  • [Title] [Orbital metastasis from cutaneous melanoma].
  • PURPOSE: We report the case of a patient presenting with a one-sided orbital metastasis from a cutaneous melanoma, and analyze clinical features, diagnostic difficulties and prognosis of such metastasis.
  • Otherwise, the patient presented with an associated respiratory failure, and thoracic CT has disclosed diffuse metastases.
  • It was then noted that a cutaneous melanoma of the left foot had been operated ten years before.
  • DISCUSSION: The cutaneous melanoma is a rare cause of orbital metastasis.
  • The diagnosis is often easy, when a primitive tumor is known, but it remains uncertain for a long time.
  • CONCLUSION: Orbital metastases from cutaneous melanoma are rare, generally occurring at the late stage of the disease with a life expectancy not passing one year.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / secondary. Orbital Neoplasms / secondary. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19750592.001).
  • [ISSN] 1773-0597
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal français d'ophtalmologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Fr Ophtalmol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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18. Terada T: Sarcomatoid carcinoma of the lung presenting as a cutaneous metastasis. J Cutan Pathol; 2010 Apr;37(4):482-5
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  • [Title] Sarcomatoid carcinoma of the lung presenting as a cutaneous metastasis.
  • The author reports a very rare case of cutaneous metastasis of sarcomatoid carcinoma of the lung.
  • The skin metastasis was an initial presentation.
  • A 67-year-old man consulted our hospital because of left chest skin mass.
  • An excisional biopsy was performed, and it showed proliferation of malignant sarcomatoid spindle and polygonal cells in the deep dermis and subcutis remote from the epidermis and appendages.
  • Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were positive for pancytokeratins, cytokeratin (CK) 7, CK 18, vimentin, p53, Ki-67 (95%) and PDGFRA.
  • A pathological diagnosis of metastatic sarcomatoid carcinoma probably originating from the lung was made.
  • Then, the patient was admitted to our hospital, and imaging modalities including computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a tumor in the left lung.
  • The present report suggests that sarcomatoid carcinoma of the lung should be considered in cutaneous metastatic lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinosarcoma / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male


19. Yanagi T, Matsumura T, Yoshizaki N: Cholangiocarcinoma with skin metastases. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2007 Feb;56(2 Suppl):S58-60
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  • [Title] Cholangiocarcinoma with skin metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Duct Neoplasms / pathology. Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic. Cholangiocarcinoma / secondary. Scalp. Skin Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 17224392.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6787
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
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20. Moarbess G, El-Hajj H, Kfoury Y, El-Sabban ME, Lepelletier Y, Hermine O, Deleuze-Masquéfa C, Bonnet PA, Bazarbachi A: EAPB0203, a member of the imidazoquinoxaline family, inhibits growth and induces caspase-dependent apoptosis in T-cell lymphomas and HTLV-I-associated adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma. Blood; 2008 Apr 1;111(7):3770-7
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  • Imiquimod is an immune response modifier currently used as a topical treatment of genital warts, basal cell carcinoma, cutaneous metastasis of malignant melanoma, and vascular tumors.
  • Using potentially achievable concentrations of EAPB0203, we demonstrate inhibition of cell proliferation, G2/M cell- cycle arrest, and induction of apoptosis in HTLV-I-transformed and HTLV-I-negative malignant T cells and fresh ATL cells, whereas normal resting or activated T lymphocytes were resistant.
  • These results support a potential therapeutic role for EAPB0203 in ATL and HTLV-I-negative T-cell lymphomas, either as a systemic or topical therapy for skin lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Apoptosis / drug effects. Caspases / metabolism. Cell Division / drug effects. G2 Phase / drug effects. Leukemia-Lymphoma, Adult T-Cell / drug therapy. Lymphoma, T-Cell / drug therapy. Quinoxalines / pharmacology. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aminoquinolines / adverse effects. Aminoquinolines / pharmacology. Aminoquinolines / therapeutic use. Cytochromes c / metabolism. Human T-lymphotropic virus 1 / metabolism. Humans. Inflammation / chemically induced. Inflammation / metabolism. Inflammation / pathology. Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins / antagonists & inhibitors. Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins / metabolism. Jurkat Cells. Lymphocyte Activation / drug effects. Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial / drug effects. NF-kappa B / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism. bcl-X Protein / antagonists & inhibitors. bcl-X Protein / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18218850.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-4971
  • [Journal-full-title] Blood
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Blood
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / BCL2L1 protein, human; 0 / EAPB0203; 0 / Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins; 0 / NF-kappa B; 0 / Quinoxalines; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 0 / bcl-X Protein; 9007-43-6 / Cytochromes c; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspases
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21. Triller Vadnal K, Triller N, Pozek I, Kecelj P, Kosnik M: Skin metastases of lung cancer. Acta Dermatovenerol Alp Pannonica Adriat; 2008 Sep;17(3):125-8
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  • [Title] Skin metastases of lung cancer.
  • Skin metastases of lung cancer are rare.
  • In over a 3-year period we found only 14 cases of skin metastases among 1,614 patients with lung cancer admitted to the University Clinic of Respiratory and Allergic Diseases in Golnik.
  • The metastases are usually manifested on the skin of the chest.
  • Skin metastases are symptoms of progressive disease, and usually a sign of a poor prognosis.
  • The median survival time of lung cancer patients with skin metastases was 85 days from the time of detection of the skin lesion.
  • Because skin metastases can be the first sign of the disease, the entire skin should be carefully inspected whenever malignant disease is suspected.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 18853075.001).
  • [ISSN] 1318-4458
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta dermatovenerologica Alpina, Pannonica, et Adriatica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Dermatovenerol Alp Pannonica Adriat
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Slovenia
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22. Murray K, Patel R, Payne-Blackmon SP: Primary cutaneous mucinous adenocarcinoma of the face: a case report in a 63 year-old. Laryngoscope; 2010;120 Suppl 4:S133
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  • [Title] Primary cutaneous mucinous adenocarcinoma of the face: a case report in a 63 year-old.
  • Primary cutaneous mucinous adenocarcinoma is a rare sweat gland malignancy that most commonly occurs in the head and neck region.
  • The histopathological similarities between primary cutaneous and metastasis from primary visceral tumors allow for both an interesting diagnostic dilemma as well as important management considerations with these patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / diagnosis. Facial Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 21225731.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-4995
  • [Journal-full-title] The Laryngoscope
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Laryngoscope
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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23. Deka D, Gupta N, Bahadur A, Dadhwal V, Mittal S: Umbilical surgical scar and vulval metastasis secondary to advanced cervical squamous cell carcinoma: a report of two cases. Arch Gynecol Obstet; 2010 Apr;281(4):761-4
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  • [Title] Umbilical surgical scar and vulval metastasis secondary to advanced cervical squamous cell carcinoma: a report of two cases.
  • INTRODUCTION: Association of cutaneous metastasis with cervical carcinoma is a rare finding, with only a few case reports in literature.
  • CASE REPORT: Herein, we report a case of cervical squamous cell carcinoma, which later presented as widespread skin metastases on the surgical scar as an initial sign of recurrent disease.
  • CONCLUSION: In conclusion, incisional cutaneous and vulval metastasis is a rarity with cancer cervix and is considered as an ominous prognostic sign with a short survival after diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Cicatrix / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / secondary. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology. Vulvar Neoplasms / secondary


24. Sparsa A, Liozon E, Wechsler J, Soria P, Delage-Core M, Loustaud V, Bedane C, Bonnetblanc JM, Vidal E: Aortic angiosarcoma clinically mimicking polyarteritis nodosa. Scand J Rheumatol; 2006 May-Jun;35(3):237-40
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  • We report two patients in whom angiosarcoma of the aorta (ASA) with distal emboli and skin metastases was initially clinically misdiagnosed as polyarteritis nodosa (PAN).
  • Both presented with features highly suggestive of systemic necrotizing vasculitis, including constitutional symptoms, orchitis (in one), leg pain with sensory neuropathy, livedo, focal areas of skin necrosis, painful cutaneous nodules demonstrating vasculitis or inconspicuous changes on biopsy, raised acute phase reactants, and transient improvement with systemic corticosteroids.
  • Repeated skin biopsies revealed an atypical endovascular cell proliferation with strong reactivity for factor VIII.
  • [MeSH-major] Aortic Diseases / diagnosis. Hemangiosarcoma / diagnosis. Polyarteritis Nodosa / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplastic Cells, Circulating. Skin Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 16766373.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-9742
  • [Journal-full-title] Scandinavian journal of rheumatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Scand. J. Rheumatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Norway
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25. Haouas N, Youssef A, Sahraoui W, Thabet I, Ben Sorba N, Jaidane M, Haddad N, Mosbah AT: [Skin metastasis from invasive bladder tumour]. Prog Urol; 2005 Jun;15(3):535-7
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  • [Title] [Skin metastasis from invasive bladder tumour].
  • [Transliterated title] Métastase cutanée d'une tumeur vésicale infiltrante.
  • Metastatic spread of advanced transitional cell bladder carcinoma rarely involves the skin.
  • However, the presence of a skin metastasis indicates at least microscopic dissemination of cancer cells to the liver or lung, corresponding to a poor prognosis.
  • The authors report a new case of single skin metastasis during the course of a poorly differentiated stage pT3a N0 M0 transitional cell bladder carcinoma.
  • The patient died 5 months after the appearance of the skin metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / secondary. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16097168.001).
  • [ISSN] 1166-7087
  • [Journal-full-title] Progrès en urologie : journal de l'Association française d'urologie et de la Société française d'urologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prog. Urol.
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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26. Hu SC, Chen GS, Lu YW, Wu CS, Lan CC: Cutaneous metastases from different internal malignancies: a clinical and prognostic appraisal. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol; 2008 Jun;22(6):735-40
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  • [Title] Cutaneous metastases from different internal malignancies: a clinical and prognostic appraisal.
  • BACKGROUND: Cutaneous metastases are perceived as a sign of advanced disease and are regarded as a grave prognostic indicator.
  • In addition, few reports have focused on the cutaneous metastasis profiles of Asian patients.
  • OBJECTIVES: We seek to analyse the clinical and prognostic characteristics of cutaneous tumour metastases in a Taiwanese medical centre.
  • METHODS: Clinical records from Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital over the last 20 years (1986-2006) were reviewed, and cases of biopsy-proven cutaneous metastases from internal malignancies identified.
  • RESULTS: A total of 141 cases of cutaneous metastases were identified.
  • The duration of survival was usually short following diagnosis of cutaneous metastases, but prognosis is significantly better in breast cancer patients with metastases.
  • Moreover, the survival was even longer for breast cancer patients when the metastasis was confined to the skin.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The risk of skin metastases depends largely on the characteristics of tumour cells, which is similar among different ethnic groups.
  • In terms of prognosis, a subset of breast cancer patients has superior prognosis, even among breast cancer patients with stage IV disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Skin Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology. Female. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Mouth Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasm Metastasis. Prognosis. Stomach Neoplasms / pathology. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 18312322.001).
  • [ISSN] 1468-3083
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology : JEADV
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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27. Tsuji K, Suzuki D, Naito Y, Sato Y, Yoshino T, Iwatsuki K: Primary cutaneous marginal zone B-cell lymphoma. Eur J Dermatol; 2005 Nov-Dec;15(6):480-3
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  • [Title] Primary cutaneous marginal zone B-cell lymphoma.
  • We report a Japanese case of primary cutaneous marginal zone B-cell lymphoma (PCMZL).
  • Clinically, most of the skin lesions were erythematous nodular lesions.
  • Although two patients developed metastasis on the skin after radiation therapy, none died of lymphoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, B-Cell / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16280304.001).
  • [ISSN] 1167-1122
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of dermatology : EJD
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Number-of-references] 14
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28. Yu KJ, Lee HE, Ho HC, Lee JC, Chang JW, Hong HS, Yang CH: Carcinoma erysipelatoides from squamous cell carcinoma of unknown origin. Int J Clin Pract; 2005 Sep;59(9):1104-6
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  • Carcinoma erysipelatoides, also known as inflammatory metastatic carcinoma, is a rare form of cutaneous metastasis from a malignancy.
  • The characteristic histopathological finding is metastatic tumour cells inside the dermal lymphatic ducts.
  • We present a 66-year-old man diagnosed to have metastatic squamous cell carcinoma by aspiration cytology from an enlarged neck lymph node and a core biopsy of a left axillary mass.
  • He subsequently received radiotherapy; however, due to intolerance to erythema and swelling on local irradiated skin, radiotherapy was deferred.
  • Skin lesions on upper chest and neck area, consisting of erythematous induration with telangiectasia and tenderness, progressed slowly and were treated as cellulitis.
  • Skin biopsy shows poorly differentiated squamous carcinoma cells within dermis and dilated dermal vessels.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Axilla. Erythema / pathology. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Neck

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  • (PMID = 16115190.001).
  • [ISSN] 1368-5031
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Clin. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 13
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29. Masmoudi A, Abdelmaksoud W, Bouassida S, Khabir A, Charfeddine A, Fourati H, Boudawara T, Baklouti S, Krichen M, Turki H, Zahaf A: [Cutaneous metastasis of Crohn's disease]. Presse Med; 2006 Feb;35(2 Pt 1):230-2
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  • [Title] [Cutaneous metastasis of Crohn's disease].
  • [Transliterated title] Localisations cutanées métastatiques d'une maladie de Crohn.
  • INTRODUCTION: Involvement of the skin in Crohn's disease is rare.
  • We report the case of a young woman presenting cutaneous nodules revealing a Crohn's disease.
  • Skin examination showed ulcerated lesions with a non infiltrated inflammatory bader of the left food and the right calf associated with an abscess of the left forearm.
  • Skin biopsy showed an inflammatory infiltrate of the deep dermis with tuberculoid noncaseating granulomas.
  • Meanwhile, the patient underwent a colonostomy and was fed intravenously, the skin lesions resolved.
  • A follow up colonoscopy demonstrated colon polyps, and the biopsy of the colon showed features of colitis and "follicular" duodenitis which was in concordance with the diagnosis of Crohn's disease.
  • COMMENTARIES: Usually, cutaneous lesions in Crohn's disease are consistent with nodules and granulomatous fissures of the grain.
  • We report the case of "metastatic" localisation of nodular abscesses in Corhn disease.
  • Improvement of cutaneous lesions might be explained by the nonuse of the digestive track allowed by the parenteral supplementation.
  • [MeSH-major] Crohn Disease / complications. Skin Diseases / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Arm. Biopsy. Colonic Polyps / diagnosis. Colonoscopy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Leg Dermatoses / diagnosis. Leg Dermatoses / etiology. Leg Dermatoses / pathology. Skin / pathology. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 16493351.001).
  • [ISSN] 0755-4982
  • [Journal-full-title] Presse medicale (Paris, France : 1983)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Presse Med
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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30. Bujons A, Pascual X, Martínez R, Rodríguez O, Palou J, Villavicencio H: Cutaneous metastases in renal cell carcinoma. Urol Int; 2008;80(1):111-2
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  • [Title] Cutaneous metastases in renal cell carcinoma.
  • Cutaneous metastases from a renal cell carcinoma are rarely diagnosed during life.
  • We report a case of renal carcinoma metastatic to the skin that occurred 18 months after kidney removal.
  • The cutaneous metastasis was excised.
  • Cutaneous metastases from urological tumors are uncommon and occur in 1% of the patients, and their clinical appearance may mimic other common dermatological disorders affecting patients with advanced malignancies.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / pathology. Kidney Neoplasms / diagnosis. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / secondary. Urology / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy. Face. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 18204246.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0399
  • [Journal-full-title] Urologia internationalis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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31. Zangrilli A, Saraceno R, Sarmati L, Orlandi A, Bianchi L, Chimenti S: Erysipeloid cutaneous metastasis from bladder carcinoma. Eur J Dermatol; 2007 Nov-Dec;17(6):534-6
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  • [Title] Erysipeloid cutaneous metastasis from bladder carcinoma.
  • Cutaneous metastases from bladder cancer are uncommon, especially in the female population.
  • Histopathology and immunohistochemistry from skin lesions were consistent with metastases from bladder carcinoma.
  • We report this case for the unusual clinical features and because an early recognition of cutaneous metastases from genitourinary malignancies is important in clinical practice.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Skin Neoplasms / secondary. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Erysipelas / diagnosis. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 17951136.001).
  • [ISSN] 1167-1122
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of dermatology : EJD
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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32. Sakurai K, Enomoto K, Tani M, Kitajima A, Amano S, Shiono M: [Recurrence of skin and lymph nodes from asynchronous breast cancer successfully treated with paclitaxel and toremifene therapy--a case report]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2008 Nov;35(12):2222-4
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  • [Title] [Recurrence of skin and lymph nodes from asynchronous breast cancer successfully treated with paclitaxel and toremifene therapy--a case report].
  • We report a case of recurrence of skin and lymph nodes from asynchronous breast cancer achieving a significant improvement of QOL by toremifene and paclitaxel therapy.
  • The patient was a 49-year-old woman who received both sides of muscle-preserving radical mastectomy (Bt+Ax: Auchincloss) had a skin redness of her left breast.
  • Aspiration biopsy cytology for the skin led to a diagnosis of Class V.
  • Skin biopsy for the part of the redness was performed.
  • The pathological diagnosis was an invasive ductal carcinoma, negative for estrogen receptor and positive for progesteron receptor, and negative for HER2/neu protein expression.
  • Ultrasonography showed the subpectral and the inflaclavicular lymph nodes swelling and the skin metastasis.
  • Enhancement CT showed no metastasis of brain, lung, liver, and other organs.
  • The response for the lesion of lymph nodes metastasis after paclitaxel and toremifene therapy was evaluated as a complete response.
  • The subpectoral and the inflaclavicular lymph nodes metastasis disappeared.
  • However, the skin redness of her left breast was still remained.
  • She had received a radiation therapy (30 Gy) for skin metastasis.
  • After radiation therapy, we performed a skin biopsy for the part of the redness.
  • The pathological diagnosis was no carcinoma of skin.
  • Paclitaxel and toremifene therapy was effective for a recurrent breast tumor and could improve patient's QOL and the clinical outcomes.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Paclitaxel / therapeutic use. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy. Toremifene / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Mastectomy, Radical. Middle Aged


33. Cutaneous metastasis to the face from colon adenocarcinoma. Case report. Int Semin Surg Oncol; 2006 Feb 02;3:2
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  • [Title] Cutaneous metastasis to the face from colon adenocarcinoma. Case report.
  • BACKGROUND: Facial skin metastases from colorectal cancer are extremely rare and appear several years after resection of the primary tumour.
  • They are an important finding, often being the first sign of metastasis from a previously treated colon cancer.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: We describe a case of a 69 year old patient with cutaneous metastasis to the chin from a previously treated adenocarcinoma of the colon.
  • A chest x-ray revealed a right upper lobe mass of the lung which on subsequent surgical exploration proved to be metastatic from colorectal adenocarcinoma resected three years ago.
  • During the postoperative course, a nodule was noted on the chin and excision biopsy revealed it was also a metastasis from the initial colorectal cancer.
  • CONCLUSION: High index of suspicion is necessary for the early detection of facial cutaneous metastases from colorectal cancer.
  • The aim is to start treatment as soon as possible before widespread visceral metastases occur.
  • Cutaneous metastases from colorectal cancer carry a better prognosis in comparison to those of other epithelial tumours.

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  • [Cites] Cutis. 1990 Jul;46(1):66-8 [2200651.001]
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  • (PMID = 16457715.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-7800
  • [Journal-full-title] International seminars in surgical oncology : ISSO
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Semin Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1368989
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34. Martínez-Rodríguez R, Rodríguez-Escovar F, Bujons Tur A, Maroto P, Palou J, Villavicencio H: [Skin metastasis during follow-up of a clear cell renal carcinoma]. Arch Esp Urol; 2008 Jan-Feb;61(1):80-2
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  • [Title] [Skin metastasis during follow-up of a clear cell renal carcinoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Metástasis cutánea durante el seguimiento de carcinoma renal de celulas claras.
  • OBJECTIVE: To report a new case of metastatic renal carcinoma with atypical localization.
  • Skin metastatic involvement by urological tumors is a rare clinical entity.
  • We review the most frequent metastatic sites, their prognostic implications and treatment.
  • METHODS: We present the case of a 60-year-old male patient with the diagnosis of inferior maxillary skin metastasis 18 months after radical nephrectomy for clear cell adenocarcinoma.
  • Two years after diagnosis the patient is alive and a disease-free.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The wide variability of localizations and forms of presentation of metastatic renal carcinoma obliges to be alert during followup.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Renal Cell / secondary. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / secondary


35. Martínez-Luna E, Puebla-Miranda M, Vega-Memije ME: [Skin metastasis of gastric adenocarcinoma. Case report]. Rev Gastroenterol Mex; 2009 Oct-Dec;74(4):362-5
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  • [Title] [Skin metastasis of gastric adenocarcinoma. Case report].
  • [Transliterated title] Metástasis cutáneas de adenocarcinoma gástrico; informe de un caso.
  • Incidence of cutaneous metastases of malignant tumors has been estimated between 0.7%-10.8%.
  • These lesions generally occur in late stages of disease, being uncommon their presentation at the time of diagnosis.
  • We inform the case of a male patient who presented a metastatic adenocarcinoma in the skin of the chest.
  • Under the suspect of primary tumor in the gastrointestinal tract, an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was made corroborating diagnosis of a primary gastric cancer.
  • The case instructs the unusual morphology of cutaneous metastasis of gastric adenocarcinoma, as well appearing as the initial clinical data in an extended malignant disease.
  • Key words: cutaneous metastases, metastatic adenocarcinoma, gastric carcinoma, Mexico.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Skin Neoplasms / secondary. Stomach Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20423769.001).
  • [ISSN] 0375-0906
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista de gastroenterología de México
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Gastroenterol Mex
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Mexico
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36. Chen TJ, Chiou CC, Chen CH, Kuo TT, Hong HS: Metastasis of mediastinal epithelioid angiosarcoma to the finger. Am J Clin Dermatol; 2008;9(3):181-3
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  • [Title] Metastasis of mediastinal epithelioid angiosarcoma to the finger.
  • Epithelioid angiosarcoma (EA) is a rare malignant, vascular tumor that is usually observed in middle-aged and elderly males.
  • Cutaneous metastasis of EA is extremely rare.
  • The patient had recently been diagnosed with mediastinal EA with disseminated metastases.
  • The skin biopsy specimen revealed metastatic EA.
  • This is thought to be the first reported metastasis of EA to the finger.
  • Whenever a patient has metastatic disease, acrometastases should be considered in the differential diagnosis of inflammatory lesions of the digits and a skin biopsy should be performed.
  • [MeSH-major] Fingers / pathology. Hemangioendothelioma, Epithelioid / secondary. Mediastinal Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biopsy. Diagnosis, Differential. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 18429648.001).
  • [ISSN] 1175-0561
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Clin Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
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37. Garbe C, Hauschild A, Volkenandt M, Schadendorf D, Stolz W, Reinhold U, Kortmann RD, Kettelhack C, Frerich B, Keilholz U, Dummer R, Sebastian G, Tilgen W, Schuler G, Mackensen A, Kaufmann R: Evidence and interdisciplinary consense-based German guidelines: diagnosis and surveillance of melanoma. Melanoma Res; 2007 Dec;17(6):393-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Evidence and interdisciplinary consense-based German guidelines: diagnosis and surveillance of melanoma.
  • Melanoma is a malignant tumor that arises from melanocytic cells and primarily involves the skin.
  • Diagnosis of melanoma is based primarily on its clinical features, and the A-B-C-D rule is useful in identifying pigmented lesions, which are suspicious for melanoma (Asymmetry, Border irregular, Color inhomogeneous and Diameter more than 5 mm).
  • Dermoscopy is very helpful in clarifying the differential diagnosis of pigmented lesions.
  • About 90% of melanomas are diagnosed as primary tumors without any evidence for metastasis.
  • The tumor-specific 10-year survival for all such tumors is about 75-85%.
  • The most important prognostic factors for primary melanoma without metastases are vertical tumor thickness (Breslow depth) as measured on the histological specimen, presence of histopathologically recognized ulceration, invasion level (Clark level) and identification of micrometastases in the regional lymph nodes via sentinel lymph node biopsy.
  • The current tumor node metastasis classification for the staging of primary melanoma is based on these factors.
  • About two-thirds of metastases are originally confined to the drainage area of regional lymph nodes.
  • A regional metastasis can appear as satellite metastases up to 2 cm from the primary tumor, as intransit metastases in the skin between the site of the primary tumor and the first lymph node and as regional lymph node metastases.
  • In the stage of regional metastasis, the differentiation between micrometastasis and macrometastasis and the number of lymph nodes involved are crucial.
  • As soon as distant metastasis develops, prognosis depends on the site of the metastasis and on the lactate dehydrogenase levels in the blood.
  • The frequency and extent of follow-up examinations is based on the initial tumor parameters.
  • In thin primary melanomas up to 1-mm tumor thickness, clinical examinations at 6-month intervals are sufficient and in thicker primary melanomas, at 3-month intervals.
  • Lymph node sonography as well as determination of the tumor marker protein S100beta are recommended.
  • Additionally, in the stage of regional metastasis, whole body imaging should be performed every 6 months; in the stage of distant metastasis, surveillance has to be scheduled individually.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphatic Metastasis / diagnosis. Melanoma / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Follow-Up Studies. Germany. Humans. Lymph Nodes. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Practice Guidelines as Topic. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy

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  • (PMID = 17992123.001).
  • [ISSN] 0960-8931
  • [Journal-full-title] Melanoma research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Melanoma Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Consensus Development Conference; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 38
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38. Charfi L, Mrad K, Abbes I, Driss M, Sassi S, Hechiche M, Ben Romdhane K: [An unusual cutaneous metastasis]. Ann Pathol; 2005 Apr;25(2):145-6
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  • [Title] [An unusual cutaneous metastasis].
  • [MeSH-major] Ameloblastoma / secondary. Bone Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 16142169.001).
  • [ISSN] 0242-6498
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de pathologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Pathol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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39. Sakurai K, Enomoto K, Kitajima A, Tani M, Amano S: [A case of advanced breast cancer successfully treated with multi-disciplinary therapy and S-1 administration]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2007 Nov;34(12):2065-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [A case of advanced breast cancer successfully treated with multi-disciplinary therapy and S-1 administration].
  • We report a case of advanced breast cancer (T4b, N3c, M1) achieving a significant improvement on QOL by multi-disciplinary therapy and S-1 administration.
  • A core needle biopsy for breast tumor led to a diagnosis of an invasive ductal carcinoma negative for estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and HER2/neu protein expression.
  • The aspiration biopsy cytology was performed from skin lesion, the diagnosis was class V.
  • The effect of the breast tumor was partial response, and the bleeding from the breast lump was improved.
  • But the response from metastatic skin tumor was less satisfactory.
  • We performed a radiation therapy (20 Gy) to metastatic skin tumor, and the lesion disappeared after the radiation therapy.
  • Multi-disciplinary therapy can improve a patient QOL and the clinical outcomes in Stage IV advanced breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Needle. Drug Combinations. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18219900.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Drug Combinations; 150863-82-4 / S 1 (combination); 1548R74NSZ / Tegafur; 5VT6420TIG / Oxonic Acid
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40. Kabumoto T, Fujiwara H, Kariya N, Tsujimoto T, Ito K, Ito M, Kobayashi H: Skin metastasis of dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans with distinct morphological features, confirmed by COL1A1-PDGFB fusion gene analysis. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2009 Jul;61(1):130-2
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  • [Title] Skin metastasis of dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans with distinct morphological features, confirmed by COL1A1-PDGFB fusion gene analysis.
  • We discuss a metastatic dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans on the occiput of a 53-year-old man whose initial tumor appeared on his forehead 23 years previously.
  • The pathology of the tumor that recurred at the initial site was fibrosarcomatous dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, whereas the metastatic tumor was a pigmented dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, the so-called Bednar tumor.
  • Because both tumors possessed the identical chimeric COL1A1-PDGFB fusion gene, the metastatic nature of the occipital tumor was confirmed.
  • [MeSH-major] Collagen Type I / genetics. Dermatofibrosarcoma / pathology. Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Oncogene Proteins, Fusion / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-sis / genetics. Skin Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 19539850.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6787
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Collagen Type I; 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Fusion; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-sis; 0 / collagen type I, alpha 1 chain
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41. Abe Y, Takeuchi M, Matsuzaki K, Uehara H, Furumoto H, Nishitani H: A case of metastatic malignant melanoma of the ovary with a multilocular cystic appearance on MR imaging. Jpn J Radiol; 2009 Dec;27(10):458-61
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  • [Title] A case of metastatic malignant melanoma of the ovary with a multilocular cystic appearance on MR imaging.
  • Ovarian metastasis from malignant melanoma is rare and usually appears as a solid ovarian mass.
  • We report a case of ovarian metastasis from cutaneous malignant melanoma that proved to be a diagnostic dilemma.
  • The ovarian metastasis exhibited a multilocular cystic appearance on magnetic resonance imaging, mimicking a mucinous ovarian tumor with massive ascites.
  • [MeSH-major] Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Melanoma, Amelanotic / diagnosis. Melanoma, Amelanotic / secondary. Ovarian Cysts / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / secondary. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Ascites / etiology. Diagnosis, Differential. Fatal Outcome. Female. Gadolinium. Humans. Melanoma / diagnosis. Melanoma / secondary. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome


42. Chung WK, Yang JH, Chang SE, Lee MW, Choi JH, Moon KC, Koh JK: A case of cutaneous metastasis of small-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the uterine cervix. Am J Dermatopathol; 2008 Dec;30(6):636-8
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  • [Title] A case of cutaneous metastasis of small-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the uterine cervix.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / secondary. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / secondary. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology


43. Bray AP, Wong NA, Narayan S: Cutaneous metastasis from gastric glomus tumour. Clin Exp Dermatol; 2009 Dec;34(8):e719-21
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  • [Title] Cutaneous metastasis from gastric glomus tumour.
  • Owing to diagnostic difficulties with the scalp tumour, a comparison was made with the previous gastric neoplasm.
  • Both had features consistent with glomus tumour, which suggested a revised diagnosis of primary malignant gastric glomus tumour with subsequent cutaneous metastasis to the scalp some years later.
  • This case highlights the features of glomus tumours and is a reminder that although rare, glomus tumours can be malignant and have the potential to metastasize.
  • To our knowledge, this is the only reported case of a primary gastric glomus tumour with secondary metastasis to the skin.
  • [MeSH-major] Glomus Tumor / secondary. Head and Neck Neoplasms / secondary. Scalp / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / secondary. Stomach Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19758389.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2230
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical and experimental dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Exp. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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44. Kohlmeyer J, Cron M, Landsberg J, Bald T, Renn M, Mikus S, Bondong S, Wikasari D, Gaffal E, Hartmann G, Tüting T: Complete regression of advanced primary and metastatic mouse melanomas following combination chemoimmunotherapy. Cancer Res; 2009 Aug 1;69(15):6265-74
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  • [Title] Complete regression of advanced primary and metastatic mouse melanomas following combination chemoimmunotherapy.
  • The development of therapeutic strategies which induce effective cellular antitumor immunity represents an important goal in cancer immunology.
  • These mice develop primary cutaneous melanomas which grow progressively and metastasize in the absence of immunogenic foreign proteins such as oncogenes or antigens.
  • Primary and metastatic tumors evade innate and adaptive immune defenses, although they naturally express melanocytic antigens which can be recognized by antigen-specific T cells.
  • We found that primary melanomas continued to grow despite infiltration with adoptively transferred, in vivo-activated, tumor-specific CD8(+) T cells.
  • To promote tumor immune defense, we developed a treatment protocol consisting of four complementary components: (a) chemotherapeutic preconditioning prior to (b) adoptive lymphocyte transfer and (c) viral vaccination followed by (d) adjuvant peritumoral injections of immunostimulatory nucleic acids.
  • The efficacy of the different treatment approaches converged in the tumor microenvironment and induced a strong cytotoxic inflammatory response enabling preferential recognition and destruction of melanoma cells.
  • This combination chemoimmunotherapy caused complete regression of advanced primary melanomas in the skin and metastases in the lung with minimal autoimmune side effects.
  • [MeSH-major] Adjuvants, Immunologic / pharmacology. Cancer Vaccines / pharmacology. Cyclophosphamide / pharmacology. Immunotherapy / methods. Melanoma, Experimental / therapy. Skin Neoplasms / therapy. T-Lymphocytes / immunology

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  • (PMID = 19622767.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7445
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adjuvants, Immunologic; 0 / Cancer Vaccines; 0 / Interferon Type I; 0 / Oligonucleotides; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 24939-03-5 / Poly I-C; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide
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45. Mahieu-Renard L, Richard MA, Dales JP, Buscaylet S, Lagrassa S, Grob JJ: [Treatment of cutaneous metastases of a squamous cell carcinoma of the leg with topical miltefosine]. Ann Dermatol Venereol; 2005 Apr;132(4):346-8
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  • [Title] [Treatment of cutaneous metastases of a squamous cell carcinoma of the leg with topical miltefosine].
  • [Transliterated title] Traitement de métastases cutanées d'un carcinome épidermoïde de la jambe par applications de miltéfosine.
  • INTRODUCTION: Miltefosine (Hexadecylphosphocholine) is a chemotherapy, which when applied locally, has demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of cutaneous metastases of breast cancer.
  • CASE REPORT: A 79 year-old woman developed recurrent in transit cutaneous metastases of a squamous cell carcinoma on her left leg.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Phosphorylcholine / analogs & derivatives. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 15886562.001).
  • [ISSN] 0151-9638
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de dermatologie et de vénéréologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Dermatol Venereol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 107-73-3 / Phosphorylcholine; 53EY29W7EC / miltefosine
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46. Santi R, Massi D, Mazzoni F, Antonuzzo L, Comin CE: Skin metastasis from typical carcinoid tumor of the lung. J Cutan Pathol; 2008 Apr;35(4):418-22
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  • [Title] Skin metastasis from typical carcinoid tumor of the lung.
  • We herein describe a rather infrequent case of a 60-year-old man with a skin metastasis from a typical carcinoid of the lung.
  • We discuss the histopathological and immunohistochemical features in the context of previous literature and comment issues related to difficulties in the differential diagnosis.
  • Dermatopathologists should be familiar with the metastatic carcinoid profile in order to avoid potential misdiagnoses and to properly address the patient management when the skin metastasis represents the first manifestation of an internal disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Sebaceous Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis


47. Yilmaz Z, Bese T, Demirkiran F, Ilvan S, Sanioglu C, Arvas M, Kosebay D: Skin metastasis in ovarian carcinoma. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2006 Jan-Feb;16 Suppl 1:414-8
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  • [Title] Skin metastasis in ovarian carcinoma.
  • We report a case of 69-year-old woman who presented with pleural metastasis of a serous papillary adenocarcinoma of the ovary.
  • After this period of time, she presented with a swollen leg, a cellulitis-like syndrome and erythematous nodules at lower abdominal wall and upper leg skin.
  • The skin biopsy revealed metastasis of adenocarcinoma in the dermis.
  • She died after 4 months of the diagnosis of the skin metastasis.
  • In 20 years experience in our unit, it is the first time that we recognize a cutaneous metastasis in ovarian cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / secondary. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Pleural Neoplasms / secondary. Skin Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 16515636.001).
  • [ISSN] 1048-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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48. Shimizu H, Maegawa J, Ho T, Yamamoto Y, Mikami T, Nagahama K: Cutaneous metastasis of pancreatic carcinoma as an initial symptom in the lower extremity with obstructive lymphedema treated by physiotherapy and lymphaticovenous shunt: a case report, review, and pathophysiological implications. Lymphology; 2010 Mar;43(1):19-24
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  • [Title] Cutaneous metastasis of pancreatic carcinoma as an initial symptom in the lower extremity with obstructive lymphedema treated by physiotherapy and lymphaticovenous shunt: a case report, review, and pathophysiological implications.
  • Cutaneous metastasis from pancreatic cancer is relatively rare as an initial symptom, and it is generally localized on the periumbilical area that is known as Sister Mary Joseph's nodule.
  • We report a rare case of a 49-year-old female who developed cutaneous metastasis of pancreatic cancer as an initial symptom.
  • The patient was referred to our department for treatment of lymphedema due to surgical treatment of cervical cancer and underwent combined physiotherapy and, 2 months later, a lymph venous anastomosis (LVA) for treatment of the lymphedema.
  • These facts suggest a possible relationship between cutaneous metastasis of carcinoma and treatment for lymphedema.
  • Alternatively, the lymphedematous limb may be a privileged site for cancer growth, and metastatic seeding could have taken place from pre-existing hematogenous spread at the time of operation.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphatic Vessels / surgery. Lymphedema / therapy. Pancreatic Neoplasms / pathology. Physical Therapy Modalities. Skin Neoplasms / secondary


49. Gkialas I, Kalantzis A, Lykourinas M: The response of urological tumours to immunotherapy. J BUON; 2005 Jul-Sep;10(3):329-36
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  • The use of immunotherapy to attempt to treat cancer is not new.
  • When used by intralesional injection, BCG induced regressions of melanoma skin metastases in some patients, but without affecting survival.
  • The efficacy of intravesical BCG remains the most successful example of cancer immunotherapy to date.

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  • (PMID = 17357186.001).
  • [ISSN] 1107-0625
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of B.U.ON. : official journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J BUON
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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50. Beachkofsky TM, Wisco OJ, Osswald SS, Osswald MB, Hodson DS: Pulmonary cutaneous metastasis: a case report and review of common cutaneous metastases. Cutis; 2009 Dec;84(6):315-22
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  • [Title] Pulmonary cutaneous metastasis: a case report and review of common cutaneous metastases.
  • The literature on cutaneous metastatic disease can be difficult to interpret because of inconsistent study design and analysis among authors.
  • Diagnosis of cutaneous metastatic disease carries a grave prognosis.
  • We describe a patient with pulmonary cutaneous metastasis and provide a review of the literature on nonmelanomatous solid tumor malignancies that most commonly have cutaneous metastases.
  • The most common cutaneous metastasizing carcinomas--breast, lung, and colorectal cancer--also are discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 20166573.001).
  • [ISSN] 0011-4162
  • [Journal-full-title] Cutis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cutis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 40
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51. de Paula TA, da Silva PS, Berriel LG: Renal cell carcinoma with cutaneous metastasis: case report. J Bras Nefrol; 2010 Apr-Jun;32(2):213-5
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  • [Title] Renal cell carcinoma with cutaneous metastasis: case report.
  • Renal cell carcinoma or hypernephroma is the third most common neoplasia of the genitourinary tract.
  • Metastases are present at the time of diagnosis in approximately 30% of the patients, the major sites being lungs, bones, skin, liver, and brain.
  • We report the case of a male patient with renal cell carcinoma, whose age, clinical findings, and tumor histological type matched with the most common ones for that pathology.
  • Nevertheless, he already had distant metastasis in an uncommon site at the time of diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Renal Cell / secondary. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 21103681.001).
  • [ISSN] 2175-8239
  • [Journal-full-title] Jornal brasileiro de nefrologia : ʹorgão oficial de Sociedades Brasileira e Latino-Americana de Nefrologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Bras Nefrol
  • [Language] eng; por
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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52. Otsu U, Fukui N, Iki M, Moriwaki S, Kiyokane K: Case of cutaneous malignant melanoma surviving 16 years with late recurrence. J Dermatol; 2009 Nov;36(11):598-603
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  • [Title] Case of cutaneous malignant melanoma surviving 16 years with late recurrence.
  • Late recurrence, defined as that occurring 10 or more years after diagnosis, is an unusual event in cutaneous malignant melanoma (MM).
  • She was diagnosed with MM and the tumor was totally excised with 5 cm of the normal surrounding skin.
  • Eleven years after the operation, five in-transit metastases were found in her right limb.
  • They were all excised and beta-interferon (IFN-beta) was injected into the skin around the postoperative scars.
  • However, numerous new in-transit skin metastases have been emerging every year in her right limb.
  • Fifty-four in-transit skin metastases have so far been found.
  • Recently, there have been few in-transit metastases.
  • All in-transit metastatic lesions were excised and local IFN-beta injections were conducted continuously.
  • There is no evidence of metastases to the internal organs or lymph nodes.
  • [MeSH-major] Foot / pathology. Interferons / administration & dosage. Melanoma / pathology. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19878393.001).
  • [ISSN] 1346-8138
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9008-11-1 / Interferons
  • [Number-of-references] 14
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53. Wild PJ, Meyer S, Bataille F, Woenckhaus M, Ameres M, Vogt T, Landthaler M, Pauer A, Klinkhammer-Schalke M, Hofstaedter F, Bosserhoff AK: Tissue microarray analysis of methylthioadenosine phosphorylase protein expression in melanocytic skin tumors. Arch Dermatol; 2006 Apr;142(4):471-6
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  • [Title] Tissue microarray analysis of methylthioadenosine phosphorylase protein expression in melanocytic skin tumors.
  • BACKGROUND: Using tissue microarrays, we investigated whether methylthioadenosine phosphorylase (MTAP) protein expression is associated with clinicopathologic variables in benign and malignant melanocytic skin tumors.
  • Expression was significantly reduced in primary malignant melanomas and in melanoma metastases compared with benign nevi (P<.001 for both).
  • No difference was noted in MTAP expression between primary malignant melanomas and melanoma metastases.
  • In primary malignant melanomas, a Ki67-labeling index less than 5% was associated with MTAP expression (P = .04), suggesting that loss of MTAP expression is associated with proliferation.
  • Lymph node metastases demonstrated significantly higher MTAP expression compared with skin metastases (P = .01).
  • Among 26 patients with MTAP-positive melanomas and tumor recurrence, 18 patients who received interferon therapy had a significant benefit compared with 8 patients who did not receive interferon therapy (P = .009).
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / metabolism. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / metabolism. Purine-Nucleoside Phosphorylase / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Case-Control Studies. Disease-Free Survival. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Female. Germany / epidemiology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Interferons / therapeutic use. Male. Microarray Analysis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Prognosis. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 16618867.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-987X
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 9008-11-1 / Interferons; EC 2.4.2.1 / Purine-Nucleoside Phosphorylase; EC 2.4.2.28 / 5'-methylthioadenosine phosphorylase
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54. Ohtsuka H, Nozawa R, Kushida Y: Synchronous microcystic adnexal carcinoma and gastric cancer with review of the literature. J Dermatol; 2005 Jan;32(1):43-7
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  • [Title] Synchronous microcystic adnexal carcinoma and gastric cancer with review of the literature.
  • A microcystic adnexal carcinoma (MAC) on the left lateral chest was synchronously accompanied by both an adenocarcinoma and a granular cell tumor of the stomach in a 70-year-old Japanese male.
  • After a definitive diagnosis was made by an excisional biopsy, a second operation was performed with wider excision, followed by split thickness skin grafting.
  • Meanwhile, a punch biopsy from an erosive lesion, which was performed three days before the second operation, demonstrated gastric cancer.
  • The patient had since been followed for 2 years and 3 months without any sign of recurrence nor metastasis.
  • Three lymph nodes were excised for diagnostic purposes and found to be reactive hyperplasia without metastasis of skin tumor cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Skin Appendage / diagnosis. Granular Cell Tumor / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Stomach Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Thorax


55. Pushkar A, Khan L, Singh P, Agarwal A: Cutaneous metastasis from visceral malignancy: A rare presentation. J Cytol; 2009 Jul;26(3):109-10
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  • [Title] Cutaneous metastasis from visceral malignancy: A rare presentation.
  • Cutaneous metastasis is an uncommon manifestation of visceral malignancy and a grave prognostic indicator.
  • Here we report two cases of carcinoma gall bladder that presented with skin nodule.
  • Fine needle aspiration cytology of these nodules revealed metastatic deposits of adenocarcinoma and was instrumental in establishing the primaries.

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  • [Cites] South Med J. 2003 Feb;96(2):164-7 [12630642.001]
  • [Cites] Am J Surg. 1961 Jul;102:90-3 [13777392.001]
  • [Cites] Int J Dermatol. 1995 May;34(5):360-2 [7607800.001]
  • [Cites] Arch Dermatol. 1972 Jun;105(6):862-8 [5030236.001]
  • [Cites] Ann Surg. 1950 Jul;132(1):121-8 [15426196.001]
  • (PMID = 21938168.001).
  • [ISSN] 0970-9371
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cytology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Cytol
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3168011
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Carcinoma gall bladder / cutaneous metastasis / periodic acid Schiff stain
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56. Ozdemir H, Tunçbilek G: Metastasis of carcinoma of the uterine cervix to the nasal dorsum. J Craniofac Surg; 2009 May;20(3):971-3
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  • [Title] Metastasis of carcinoma of the uterine cervix to the nasal dorsum.
  • The nose is the most common site for cutaneous malignancies, and metastatic lesions in the skin of the nose are very rare, particularly metastasis of carcinoma of the uterine cervix.
  • We present the fourth patient with carcinoma of the uterine cervix who had cutaneous metastasis to the nose, indicating the dissemination of her carcinoma.
  • The patient had a diagnosis of carcinoma of the uterine cervix labeled as International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage IIB 30 months ago.
  • Multiple metastases in both of the lungs were detected by computed tomography of the thorax 1 month ago.
  • With an external nasal incision, the mass was excised with tumor-free borders including a skin island.
  • This patient showed a very poor prognosis after the appearance of a cutaneous metastasis of the cervical carcinoma, which is often perceived as a preterminal event, generally occurring in the later stages of the illness.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / secondary. Nose Neoplasms / secondary. Skin Neoplasms / secondary. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Tomography, X-Ray Computed


57. Schulz V, Kozell K, Biondo PD, Stiles C, Martins L, Tonkin K, Hagen NA: The malignant wound assessment tool: a validation study using a Delphi approach. Palliat Med; 2009 Apr;23(3):266-73
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  • [Title] The malignant wound assessment tool: a validation study using a Delphi approach.
  • Malignant wounds, caused by the direct invasion of cancer into the skin, occur in cancer patients with primary skin tumours and as cutaneous metastasis in approximately 10% of patients with metastatic internal malignancies.
  • Malignant wounds have a profound impact on patients, family members and health care providers.
  • The assessment of the patient with malignant wounds can be complex and there is no widely accepted, consistent approach.
  • Valid, descriptive survey research methods were used to develop the Malignant Wound Assessment Tool (MWAT).
  • An international panel of professionals with clinical or research expertise related to malignant wounds was formed.
  • [MeSH-major] Delphi Technique. Palliative Care. Research Design. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Wounds and Injuries / pathology

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  • [ErratumIn] Palliat Med. 2009 Jul;23(5):476. Martins, L [added]
  • (PMID = 19318462.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-030X
  • [Journal-full-title] Palliative medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Palliat Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] England
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58. Lehman JS, Benacci JC: Cutaneous metastasis of invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast to an infusaport site. Cutis; 2008 Mar;81(3):223-6
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  • [Title] Cutaneous metastasis of invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast to an infusaport site.
  • Cutaneous metastasis of a primary internal malignancy is a relatively common phenomenon, occurring in up to 10% of patients with noncutaneous cancer.
  • Cutaneous metastasis can occur via direct extension, hematologic or lymphatic dissemination, or surgical implantation.
  • The most common internal malignancy associated with the development of cutaneous metastases in females is breast cancer.
  • We present a patient with widely metastatic invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast, status postpalliative mastectomy and chest wall coverage with a vertical rectus abdominus myocutaneous flap, who acquired cellulitis and, subsequently, noncontiguous cutaneous metastasis of her breast cancer to the site of her central venous access device (ie, infusaport).
  • We hypothesize that the local inflammation associated with her recent bout of cellulitis and operations, in conjunction with the presence of a foreign body, may have predisposed the infusaport site to seeding by metastatic tumor cells.
  • This case highlights the importance of considering cutaneous metastasis in the differential diagnosis of new skin eruptions in patients with cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / secondary. Catheters, Indwelling. Skin Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Subclavian Vein


59. Rothhammer T, Wild PJ, Meyer S, Bataille F, Pauer A, Klinkhammer-Schalke M, Hein R, Hofstaedter F, Bosserhoff AK: Bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP7) expression is a potential novel prognostic marker for recurrence in patients with primary melanoma. Cancer Biomark; 2007;3(2):111-7
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  • The purpose of this study was to investigate whether protein expression of bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP7) is associated with clinico-pathologic characteristics in benign and malignant melanocytic skin tumors.
  • In general, BMP7 expression was significantly induced in malignant melanomas (P< 0.001) and melanoma metastases (P< 0.001), compared to benign nevi.
  • Interestingly, lymph node metastases demonstrated a significantly higher BMP7 expression compared to skin metastases (P<0.01).
  • Strong BMP7 expression (score 2+) was significantly associated with shorter tumor recurrence (P< 0.05).
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Bone Morphogenetic Proteins / biosynthesis. Melanoma / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Transforming Growth Factor beta / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Bone Morphogenetic Protein 7. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Prognosis. Tissue Array Analysis

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  • (PMID = 17522432.001).
  • [ISSN] 1574-0153
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer biomarkers : section A of Disease markers
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Biomark
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BMP7 protein, human; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Bone Morphogenetic Protein 7; 0 / Bone Morphogenetic Proteins; 0 / Transforming Growth Factor beta
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60. Saito J, Miyagawa Y, Kamoto A, Yokoyama S, Kakuta Y, Mori N, Ichimaru N, Hara T, Nonomura N, Yamaguchi S, Okuyama A: [Testicular cancer metastatic to multiple organs including the stomach, kidneys, and skin: a case report]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2006 Apr;52(4):297-301
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  • [Title] [Testicular cancer metastatic to multiple organs including the stomach, kidneys, and skin: a case report].
  • A 39-year-old man whose chief complaints were general fatigue and bloody phlegm was diagnosed with testicular cancer and underwent left high orchiectomy at an affiliated hospital.
  • The histopathologic diagnosis was chorio carcinoma.
  • Several imaging examinations revealed the metastases in the lung, liver, brain, stomach, kidneys and skin.
  • Skin metastasis of testicular cancer is very rare and this is the twelfth case reported in the world, to our knowledge.
  • The significance of skin metastasis in testicular cancer is discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Choriocarcinoma / secondary. Kidney Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Skin Neoplasms / secondary. Stomach Neoplasms / secondary. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Brain Neoplasms / radiography. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Male. Orchiectomy. Prognosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed


61. Ghfir I, Ccedil Aoui M, Ben Raïs N: [Follicular thyroid carcinoma: metastasis to unusual skin locations]. Presse Med; 2005 Sep 24;34(16 Pt 1):1145-6
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  • [Title] [Follicular thyroid carcinoma: metastasis to unusual skin locations].
  • [Transliterated title] Carcinome vésiculaire de la thyroïde avec métastases cutanées de localisations inhabituelles.
  • INTRODUCTION: Cutaneous metastasis of thyroid cancer is rare.
  • We report here a case where follicular thyroid carcinoma metastasized to unusual skin locations.
  • Assessment after 2 years showed the presence of a small cervical residue, pulmonary metastases, and a high thyroglobulin level.
  • Response to treatment was poor, and cutaneous and subcutaneous nodules appeared on the abdomen, back, and front left thigh.
  • Biopsy of these lesions showed that they were malignant, and testing with anti-thyroglobulin antibodies confirmed the diagnosis of cutaneous metastasis of follicular thyroid carcinoma.
  • DISCUSSION: Although the rare cutaneous metastases of follicular thyroid carcinoma usually occur on the scalp, firm nodular cutaneous lesions that are painless and resist standard treatment in patients with a history of thyroid cancer should suggest the possibility of metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / secondary. Skin Neoplasms / secondary. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16208262.001).
  • [ISSN] 0755-4982
  • [Journal-full-title] Presse medicale (Paris, France : 1983)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Presse Med
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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62. Savoia P, Fava P, Osella-Abate S, Nardò T, Comessatti A, Quaglino P, Bernengo MG: Melanoma of unknown primary site: a 33-year experience at the Turin Melanoma Centre. Melanoma Res; 2010 Jun;20(3):227-32
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  • Unknown melanoma occurs as metastasis to skin, nodes or viscera, without a detectable cutaneous primary tumour.
  • We identified 93 cases of metastatic melanoma without evidence of primary; however, five of these patients had a history of a previous excision of a presumed benign lesion without histological examination and were excluded from analyses.
  • At diagnosis, metastases were cutaneous in 35.3% of cases, nodal in 43.2% and visceral in 17% of cases; in 4.5% of patients, both skin and nodes were involved.
  • In all cases, clinical inspection and staging procedures performed at diagnosis of metastatic disease failed to identify a primary melanoma.
  • Survival was longer in females and showed significant differences among patients with skin, lymph node or visceral involvement at diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / diagnosis. Melanoma / therapy. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 20449885.001).
  • [ISSN] 1473-5636
  • [Journal-full-title] Melanoma research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Melanoma Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 1.14.18.1 / Monophenol Monooxygenase
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63. Hanson RP, Kneafsey B, Royston D: Cutaneous lesions, not just skin deep! Ir J Med Sci; 2006 Jan-Mar;175(1):66-8
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  • [Title] Cutaneous lesions, not just skin deep!
  • BACKGROUND: Cutaneous metastatic disease is not unusual but it may mimic inflammatory lesions.
  • The growth pattern of skin metastases is unpredictable and may differ from that of the primary tumour.
  • Skin metastases may present as rapidly growing, solitary sessile or polypoid vascular nodules that ulcerate or bleed.
  • AIM: To investigate the presenting complaints, surgical treatment and outcome of patients with cutaneous metastatic disease.
  • METHODS: We present three cases of metastatic skin cancer recently seen in our Department and review the clinical and pathological findings.
  • RESULTS: The finding of metastatic skin cancer is associated with a very poor prognosis and suggests widespread disease dissemination.
  • CONCLUSION: The paper emphasizes the importance of excisional biopsy and accurate tissue diagnosis of skin nodules.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasm Metastasis / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Aged. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma / secondary. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / pathology. Female. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16615234.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-1265
  • [Journal-full-title] Irish journal of medical science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ir J Med Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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64. Xavier MH, Vergueiro Tde R, Vilar EG, Pinto JM, Issa MC, Pereira GB, Carocha AP: Cutaneous metastasis of gastric adenocarcinoma: an exuberant and unusual clinical presentation. Dermatol Online J; 2008;14(11):8
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  • [Title] Cutaneous metastasis of gastric adenocarcinoma: an exuberant and unusual clinical presentation.
  • There are different types of skin changes associated with internal malignancy.
  • One type is the skin involvement as a result of cutaneous metastasis from an internal tumor.
  • The skin is an uncommon site for distant metastasis; when it is present the most common sources are breast, lung, and colon.
  • Metastasis generally occurs after an internal malignancy had been discovered and signifies disseminated disease with a poor prognosis.
  • We report an exuberant and rare case of cutaneous metastasis from gastric adenocarcinoma as the first sign of this serious visceral cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Signet Ring Cell / secondary. Skin Neoplasms / secondary. Stomach Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cachexia / etiology. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Humans. Leucovorin / administration & dosage. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Middle Aged. Spinal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Spinal Neoplasms / secondary. Treatment Failure

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  • (PMID = 19094846.001).
  • [ISSN] 1087-2108
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatology online journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol. Online J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q573I9DVLP / Leucovorin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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65. Nomura S, Inui A, Sawai Y: [A case of primary gastric choriocarcinoma]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2009 Nov;36(12):2345-7
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  • Abdominal CT showed tumor measured 9x7 cm in size between residual stomach and pancreas.
  • Forty five days after the operation, skin metastasis appeared, and he died of this disease 60 days after the operation.

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  • (PMID = 20037417.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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66. Miyoshi I, Saito T, Bandobashi K, Kodama H, Ohtsuki Y, Taguchi H: Papuloerythematous rash due to intralymphatic cutaneous metastasis of cancer. Intern Med; 2006;45(2):115-6
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  • [Title] Papuloerythematous rash due to intralymphatic cutaneous metastasis of cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / pathology. Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Human T-lymphotropic virus 1 / immunology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Biopsy. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. HTLV-I Infections / immunology. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Lymphedema / etiology. Male. Middle Aged. Paclitaxel / administration & dosage. Prednisolone / administration & dosage. Respiratory Insufficiency / etiology. Skin / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16484753.001).
  • [ISSN] 1349-7235
  • [Journal-full-title] Internal medicine (Tokyo, Japan)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Intern. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9PHQ9Y1OLM / Prednisolone; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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67. Díaz R, Moral P, Fonfría M, de Juan M, Mancheño N, Tormo A: Multimodality management of a locally advanced primary oesophageal melanoma with radical surgery and adjuvant chemoimmunoradiotherapy. Clin Transl Oncol; 2010 Apr;12(4):306-9
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  • The main differential diagnosis is with metastases of skin or ocular malignant melanomas.

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  • (PMID = 20462842.001).
  • [ISSN] 1699-3055
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical & translational oncology : official publication of the Federation of Spanish Oncology Societies and of the National Cancer Institute of Mexico
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Transl Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 9008-11-1 / Interferons; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin
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68. Bauerschmitz GJ, Karan D, Zwiefel K, Bender HG, Mohrmann S: An unusual case of advanced bilateral male breast cancer. Onkologie; 2008 Oct;31(10):542-4
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  • [Title] An unusual case of advanced bilateral male breast cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Breast cancer in men is an uncommon disease.
  • Retrospective data indicate that stage- and age-matched male and female breast cancer is similar in presentation.
  • The aim is to find an adequate treatment for male breast cancer, which is not just extrapolated from its female counterpart.
  • CASE REPORT: We present the history of a 41-year-old man who was diagnosed with pT2 (3 cm) breast cancer in 2001.
  • In 2003, 2004, 2005, and 2006, there were relapses with skin metastases, treated with several courses of chemotherapy.
  • In May 2007, the patient passed away from extensive tumor progression despite numerous attempts of local and systemic chemotherapeutic treatment.
  • CONCLUSION: Here, an unusual case of male breast cancer is reported.
  • It was first diagnosed at the age of 41 years, which is relatively young for male breast cancer.
  • Although the treatment was started at an early stage, several relapses and contralateral breast cancer occurred within 5 years and could no be controlled.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms, Male / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms, Male / therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Humans. Male. Rare Diseases / diagnosis. Rare Diseases / therapy


69. Bhatia K, Vaid AK, Rawal S, Patole KD: Pure choriocarcinoma of testis with rare gingival and skin metastases. Singapore Med J; 2007 Mar;48(3):e77-80
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  • [Title] Pure choriocarcinoma of testis with rare gingival and skin metastases.
  • A 22-year-old man presented with complaints of gingival and skin lesions.
  • Fine-needle aspiration cytology from skin and gingival lesions was suggestive of metastatic deposits.
  • Patient underwent left high orchidectomy, and histopathological examination was consistent with the diagnosis of pure choriocarcinoma.
  • Although rare, cases of testicular neoplasms and especially choriocarcinoma of the testis leading to skin metastases have been reported, but case reports of choriocarcinoma of testis metastatic to gingiva have been reported exceptionally in the English literature.
  • We report this unique case of a young man with pure choricarcinoma of testis with unusual gingival and skin metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Choriocarcinoma / secondary. Gingival Neoplasms / secondary. Skin Neoplasms / secondary. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17342276.001).
  • [ISSN] 0037-5675
  • [Journal-full-title] Singapore medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Singapore Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Singapore
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70. Reddy S, Bang RH, Contreras ME: Telangiectatic cutaneous metastasis from carcinoma of the prostate. Br J Dermatol; 2007 Mar;156(3):598-600
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  • [Title] Telangiectatic cutaneous metastasis from carcinoma of the prostate.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Prostatic Neoplasms. Skin Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 17300266.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0963
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 29
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71. Lee WJ, Kim CH, Chang SE, Lee MW, Choi JH, Moon KC, Koh JK: Cutaneous metastasis from large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the urinary bladder expressing CK20 and TTF-1. Am J Dermatopathol; 2009 Apr;31(2):166-9
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  • [Title] Cutaneous metastasis from large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the urinary bladder expressing CK20 and TTF-1.
  • We describe the first case of cutaneous metastasis from LCNEC of the urinary bladder.
  • The patient had been treated with partial cystectomy and chemotherapy for LCNEC of the urinary bladder, but a year later, he visited our clinic with a reddish mass on his scalp that was diagnosed as a cutaneous metastasis from LCNEC.
  • The tumor cells were positive for the neuroendocrine markers, cytokeratin (CK) 20 and thyroid transcription factor-1.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / metabolism. Carcinoma, Large Cell / secondary. DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Neuroendocrine Tumors / secondary. Skin Neoplasms / secondary. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived. Biomarkers / metabolism. Biopsy. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Rituximab. Scalp. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19318803.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / TTF1 protein, human; 4F4X42SYQ6 / Rituximab
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72. Marco LS, García BV, Argente GV, Sanz BM, Donoso VC, Cruz JJ: [Cutaneous metastasis of a transitional-cell bladder carcinoma]. Actas Urol Esp; 2008 Mar;32(3):369
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  • [Title] [Cutaneous metastasis of a transitional-cell bladder carcinoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Metástasis cutánea en carcinoma vesical de células transicionales.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / secondary. Skin Neoplasms / secondary. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / pathology


73. Lim KH, Lee KW, Kim JH, Park SY, Choi SH, Lee JS: Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma initially presented with abdominal cutaneous mass and hyperthyroidism. Korean J Intern Med; 2010 Dec;25(4):450-3
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  • [Title] Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma initially presented with abdominal cutaneous mass and hyperthyroidism.
  • Pathological examination of the thyroid mass was compatible with anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) and the abdominal cutaneous mass was shown to be metastatic ATC.
  • This case demonstrates that abdominal cutaneous metastasis and hyperthyroidism can occur as initial manifestations of ATC.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperthyroidism / etiology. Skin Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 21179285.001).
  • [ISSN] 1226-3303
  • [Journal-full-title] The Korean journal of internal medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Korean J. Intern. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2997976
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Anaplastic carcinoma / Cutaneous metastasis / Hyperthyroidism / Thyroid neoplasms
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74. Behtash N, Mehrdad N, Shamshirsaz A, Hashemi R, Amouzegar Hashemi F: Umblical metastasis in cervical cancer. Arch Gynecol Obstet; 2008 Nov;278(5):489-91
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  • [Title] Umblical metastasis in cervical cancer.
  • INTRODUCTION: Objective cutaneous metastasis from carcinoma of the uterine cervix is an uncommon occurrence.
  • The outcome of patients with skin metastasis is usually poor as they are often associated with locoregional recurrence.
  • This metastasis impairs the quality of life and shortens survival.
  • Consequently, physicians should be aware of the possible existence of skin metastasis in cervical cancer.
  • Clinical suspicion should lead to a careful additional evaluation whenever a cutaneous nodule presents in the course of the disease.
  • CASE REPORT: We report a rare case of metastasis from squamous cell carcinoma of cervix to the umbilicus.
  • Biopsy performed and metastatic squamous cell carcinoma was diagnosed.
  • CONCLUSION: To the best of our knowledge, this is a rare reported occurrence of umbilical metastasis in cervical cancer without prior laparotomy or laparoscopy.
  • This metastatic lesion has a grave prognosis and the mean survival is about 3 months like our case.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Umbilicus. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology


75. Blick C, Abdelhadi S, Bailey D, Kelleher J, Muneer A: A unique case of a malignant Sertoli cell tumour with cutaneous metastasis. ScientificWorldJournal; 2008;8:95-7
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  • [Title] A unique case of a malignant Sertoli cell tumour with cutaneous metastasis.
  • Pure Sertoli cell tumours (SCTs) represent less than 1% of testicular neoplasms and malignant forms are rare.
  • We present a unique case of a 69-year-old man who initially underwent inguinal orchidectomy for a malignant SCT.
  • He then subsequently developed a paraumbilical cutaneous lesion which was histologically identical to the primary tumour.
  • This is the first case of SCT with cutaneous metastasis described in the literature.
  • [MeSH-major] Sertoli Cell Tumor / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / secondary. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18264627.001).
  • [ISSN] 1537-744X
  • [Journal-full-title] TheScientificWorldJournal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] ScientificWorldJournal
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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76. Requena L: [Specific cutaneous involvement in patients with multiple myeloma. A clinicopathological, immunohistochemical and cytogenetic study of 40 cases]. Actas Dermosifiliogr; 2005 Sep;96(7):424-40
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  • [Title] [Specific cutaneous involvement in patients with multiple myeloma. A clinicopathological, immunohistochemical and cytogenetic study of 40 cases].
  • [Transliterated title] Afectación cutánea específica en pacientes con mieloma múltiple. Estudio clínico-patológico, inmunohistoquímico y citogenético de 40 casos.
  • INTRODUCTION: Specific cutaneous involvement in patients with multiple myeloma is very rare.
  • In this study, we analyzed 40 patients with specific cutaneous involvement from multiple myeloma, with no bony lesions underlying the skin lesions, and we reviewed the related literature.
  • OBJECTIVES: We were particularly interested in the clinical course of these patients, including survival once skin metastases had developed and the possible influence of the different treatments administered.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was completed by determining the histopathological pattern, the immunohistochemical profile, the type of immunoglobulin and immunoglobulin light chain produced by the neoplastic plasma cells that infiltrated the skin, as well as the cytogenetic characteristics of these cells.
  • RESULTS: From a clinical standpoint, the skin lesions consisted of multiple nodules or plaques with erythematous or violaceous coloration, and variable location.
  • In 39 of the 40 patients, the type of monoclonal immunoglobulin produced by the neoplastic plasma cells in the skin lesions was determined: 18 patients had IgA myeloma (5 IgAkappa and 13 IgAlambda), 19 patients had IgG myeloma (15 IgGkappa and 4 IgGlambda) and 2 patients had IgDlambda myeloma.
  • Despite aggressive chemotherapy, all of the patients died a few months after the skin lesions developed.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In our series, a perfect correlation was seen between the findings of serum electrophoresis and the immunohistochemistry of the skin lesions with regard to the type of immunoglobulin and the immunoglobulin light chain restriction produced by the neoplastic plasma cells.
  • Patients with multiple myeloma have a very short survival period once specific skin lesions appear, regardless of the therapy administered.
  • [MeSH-major] Multiple Myeloma / genetics. Multiple Myeloma / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / genetics. Skin Neoplasms / pathology


77. Belágyi T, Zsoldos P, Makay R, Issekutz A, Oláh A: Multiorgan resection (including the pancreas) for metastasis of cutaneous malignant melanoma. JOP; 2006;7(2):234-40
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  • [Title] Multiorgan resection (including the pancreas) for metastasis of cutaneous malignant melanoma.
  • CONTEXT: Several studies have demonstrated improved survival after complete resection of hollow viscus gastrointestinal metastases of malignant melanoma.
  • Patients with metastatic disease of intra-abdominal solid organs might also benefit from complete surgical resection.
  • CASE REPORT: The authors report the case of a 22-year-old female patient with multiorgan abdominal metastases of cutaneous malignant melanoma, including the ovarium, jejunum, stomach and pancreas.
  • All metastases were resected successfully.
  • CONCLUSION: In highly selected patients with melanoma metastatic to intra-abdominal solid organs and hollow viscus gastrointestinal organs, aggressive attempts and complete surgical resection may improve survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / pathology. Melanoma / surgery. Pancreatic Neoplasms / secondary. Pancreatic Neoplasms / surgery. Stomach Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Hemangioma / surgery. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / surgery. Neoplasm Metastasis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16525211.001).
  • [ISSN] 1590-8577
  • [Journal-full-title] JOP : Journal of the pancreas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] JOP
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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78. Lee CC, Faries MB, Ye X, Morton DL: Solitary dermal melanoma: beginning or end of the metastatic process? Ann Surg Oncol; 2009 Mar;16(3):578-84
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  • [Title] Solitary dermal melanoma: beginning or end of the metastatic process?
  • BACKGROUND: Solitary dermal melanoma (SDM) is confined to the dermal and/or subcutaneous tissue without an epidermal component.
  • It is unclear whether this lesion is a subtype of primary melanoma or distant cutaneous metastasis from an unknown primary.
  • Of 92 patients free of distant metastasis on initial presentation, 55 (60%) were observed and 37 (40%) underwent surgical nodal staging: regional metastases were identified in 7 (19%).
  • Thus, 21 of 92 patients (23%) had nodal metastasis identified during surgical nodal staging or postoperative nodal observation.
  • CONCLUSIONS: SDM resembles intermediate-thickness primary cutaneous melanoma with respect to prognostic characteristics and clinical evolution, but its rate of distant metastasis justifies radiographic staging and its high rate of regional node metastasis justifies wide excision and sentinel node biopsy.

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  • (PMID = 19130137.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA029605-27; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA029605-278051; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA029605-278051; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA029605-27; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA29605; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA029605
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS103877; NLM/ PMC2673232
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79. Tokugawa T, Kobayashi A, Okubo K, Matsuyama T, Imai S, Koyama H: [A patient with multiple skin metastases from breast cancer responding to S-1 effectively under treatment with trastuzumab]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2009 Apr;36(4):679-82
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  • [Title] [A patient with multiple skin metastases from breast cancer responding to S-1 effectively under treatment with trastuzumab].
  • We report a case of a 52-year-old female with multiple skin metastases from breast cancer who responded to S-1.
  • Multiple skin metastases were later detected.
  • Thoracic CT at the end of the three courses revealed the disappearance of the multiple skin metastases.
  • It was concluded from these findings that S-1 could be safely and effectively administered to advanced breast cancer patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Oxonic Acid / therapeutic use. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / secondary. Tegafur / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Disease Progression. Drug Combinations. Female. Humans. Immunotherapy. Middle Aged. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Trastuzumab

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  • (PMID = 19381048.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Drug Combinations; 150863-82-4 / S 1 (combination); 1548R74NSZ / Tegafur; 5VT6420TIG / Oxonic Acid; P188ANX8CK / Trastuzumab
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80. Denaro L, Pallini R, Di Muro L, Ciampini A, Vellone V, Lauretti L, Fernandez E, Maira G: Primary hemorrhagic intramedullary melanoma. Case report with emphasis on the difficult preoperative diagnosis. J Neurosurg Sci; 2007 Dec;51(4):181-3
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  • [Title] Primary hemorrhagic intramedullary melanoma. Case report with emphasis on the difficult preoperative diagnosis.
  • Preoperative diagnosis of melanocytic lesion as a PSM is difficult, because of the heterogeneous magnetic resonance (MR) signal intensity, due to hemorrhagic foci and melanin deposits.
  • We describe the case of a 68 year-old male with a MR showing at Th8-Th9 level a well-defined intramedullary lesion; for the characteristics of hemorrhagic signal on MR and its association with a presumptive brain cavernoma, a preoperative diagnosis of intramedullary cavernous angioma was suspected.
  • Pathological examination revealed a melanoma, and for the absence of other localizations outside the spinal cord, a diagnosis of primary spinal melanoma was established.
  • The growth of PSM is slower and survival is longer than in the most common spinal metastasis from skin melanoma.
  • We report this case to underline the importance and difficulties concerning the preoperative diagnosis of a hemorrhagic intramedullary lesion.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Disease Progression. Frontal Lobe / pathology. Hemangioma, Cavernous, Central Nervous System / pathology. Hemorrhage / etiology. Hemorrhage / pathology. Hemorrhage / surgery. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Neurosurgical Procedures. Paraparesis / etiology. Paraparesis / pathology. Paraparesis / physiopathology. Preoperative Care. Thoracic Vertebrae. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17987003.001).
  • [ISSN] 0390-5616
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Neurosurg Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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81. Takahashi K, Akasaka T: [Skin metastasis]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2010 Feb;37(2):217-20
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  • [Title] [Skin metastasis].
  • Clinical and histopathological findings of skin metastasis show much variation.
  • When skin metastatic carcinoma is diagnosed by histopathologic evaluation of the involved skin, the treatment must be started as soon as possible after immediate identification of the primary internal organ and the stage of the disease.
  • Furthermore, one must investigate and infer the type of primary tumor from the previous history of internal malignancy, immunohistochemical findings and/or the results of some imaging.
  • When the primary origin is unidentified, detailed discussion is required about the diagnosis and therapeutic examination among the specialized departments including dermatology.
  • [MeSH-major] Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 20154476.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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82. Cannon DM, Lee NY: Recurrence in region of spared parotid gland after definitive intensity-modulated radiotherapy for head and neck cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2008 Mar 1;70(3):660-5
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  • [Title] Recurrence in region of spared parotid gland after definitive intensity-modulated radiotherapy for head and neck cancer.
  • PURPOSE: To discuss the implications of three examples of periparotid recurrence after definitive intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for head and neck cancer (HNC).
  • The patients were treated using dose-painting IMRT with a dose of 70 Gy to the gross tumor volume and 59.4 Gy or 54 Gy to the high-risk or low-risk clinical tumor volume, respectively.
  • The third patient developed a dermal metastasis near the tail of a spared parotid gland.
  • CONCLUSION: For HNC patients receiving definitive IMRT, nonspecific positron emission tomography-negative periparotid nodules on pretreatment imaging should raise the index of suspicion for subclinical disease in the presence of multilevel or Level II nodal metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / radiotherapy. Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated / methods. Tonsillar Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radionuclide imaging. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Head and Neck Neoplasms / drug therapy. Head and Neck Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Head and Neck Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Parotid Gland / radiation effects. Parotid Gland / surgery. Radiation Injuries / prevention & control. Radiotherapy Dosage. Skin Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Skin Neoplasms / secondary. Treatment Failure

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  • [CommentIn] Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2008 Mar 1;70(3):657-9 [18262084.001]
  • (PMID = 18037580.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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83. Wenzel J, Uerlich M, Haller O, Bieber T, Tueting T: Enhanced type I interferon signaling and recruitment of chemokine receptor CXCR3-expressing lymphocytes into the skin following treatment with the TLR7-agonist imiquimod. J Cutan Pathol; 2005 Apr;32(4):257-62
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  • [Title] Enhanced type I interferon signaling and recruitment of chemokine receptor CXCR3-expressing lymphocytes into the skin following treatment with the TLR7-agonist imiquimod.
  • INTRODUCTION: Imiquimod (Aldara) is an immune response modifier approved for the topical treatment of external genital and perianal warts which can mediate regression of several cutaneous malignancies [basal cell carcinoma (BCC), Bowen's disease, actinic keratosis, and metastasis of malignant melanoma].
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: In the present study we analyzed the expression of MxA, a protein specifically induced by type I IFNs during topical imiquimod treatment in several patients suffering from different cutaneous malignancies (BCC, cutaneous metastasis of melanoma, and breast cancer), and characterized the inflammatory infiltrate, along with the expression of chemokine receptor CXCR3, by immunohistochemistry.
  • DISCUSSION: Our in vivo results suggest an important role for TLR7-induced production of type I IFN, which links innate and adaptive immunity and promotes specific Th1-biased cellular immune response capable of eliminating cutaneous malignancies.
  • [MeSH-major] Adjuvants, Immunologic / therapeutic use. Aminoquinolines / therapeutic use. Interferon Type I / immunology. Lymphocytes / immunology. Membrane Glycoproteins / agonists. Receptors, Cell Surface / agonists. Receptors, Chemokine / immunology. Skin / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Breast Neoplasms / immunology. Breast Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / immunology. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / secondary. Chemotaxis, Leukocyte / drug effects. Chemotaxis, Leukocyte / immunology. Female. Humans. Melanoma / immunology. Melanoma / secondary. Receptors, CXCR3. Signal Transduction. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / secondary. Toll-Like Receptor 7. Toll-Like Receptors

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  • (PMID = 15769273.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adjuvants, Immunologic; 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / CXCR3 protein, human; 0 / Interferon Type I; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / Receptors, CXCR3; 0 / Receptors, Cell Surface; 0 / Receptors, Chemokine; 0 / TLR7 protein, human; 0 / Toll-Like Receptor 7; 0 / Toll-Like Receptors; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod
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84. Yanagi T, Akiyama M, Kasai M, Yamakura M, Nishio M, Shimizu H: Multiple skin metastases of amelanotic melanoma originating from the sinonasal mucosa. Acta Derm Venereol; 2005;85(6):554-5
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  • [Title] Multiple skin metastases of amelanotic melanoma originating from the sinonasal mucosa.
  • [MeSH-major] Maxillary Sinus Neoplasms / pathology. Melanoma, Amelanotic / secondary. Skin Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 16396817.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5555
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta dermato-venereologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Derm. Venereol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Norway
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85. Morelli U, Cirocchi R, Mecarelli V, Farinella E, La Mura F, Ronca P, Giustozzi G, Sciannameo F: Gastric adenocarcinoma cutaneous metastasis arising at a previous surgical drain site: a case report. J Med Case Rep; 2009;3:65
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  • [Title] Gastric adenocarcinoma cutaneous metastasis arising at a previous surgical drain site: a case report.
  • INTRODUCTION: Skin metastasis from internal carcinoma rarely occurs.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: A 90-year-old female patient was admitted to our surgical division with a diagnosis of anemia from a bleeding gastric adenocarcinoma.
  • Biopsies characterized it as a cutaneous metastasis from the gastric adenocarcinoma.
  • CONCLUSION: Skin metastasis from carcinomas of the upper gastrointestinal tract is very rare.
  • Persisting erythematous nodules must be biopsied in order to diagnose cutaneous metastases and to recognize them early and start prompt therapy with anti-tumour agents before the occurrence of massive visceral metastases.

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  • (PMID = 19220898.001).
  • [ISSN] 1752-1947
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medical case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2652470
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86. Lurquin C, Lethé B, De Plaen E, Corbière V, Théate I, van Baren N, Coulie PG, Boon T: Contrasting frequencies of antitumor and anti-vaccine T cells in metastases of a melanoma patient vaccinated with a MAGE tumor antigen. J Exp Med; 2005 Jan 17;201(2):249-57
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  • [Title] Contrasting frequencies of antitumor and anti-vaccine T cells in metastases of a melanoma patient vaccinated with a MAGE tumor antigen.
  • Melanoma patients have high frequencies of T cells directed against antigens of their tumor.
  • The frequency of these antitumor T cells in the blood is usually well above that of the anti-vaccine T cells observed after vaccination with tumor antigens.
  • In a patient vaccinated with a MAGE-3 antigen presented by HLA-A1, we measured the frequencies of anti-vaccine and antitumor T cells in several metastases to evaluate their respective potential contribution to tumor rejection.
  • Similar findings were made on a regressing cutaneous metastasis.
  • Thus, antitumor T cells were approximately 10,000 times more frequent than anti-vaccine T cells inside metastases, representing the majority of T cells present there.
  • This suggests that the anti-vaccine CTLs are not the effectors that kill the bulk of the tumor cells, but that their interaction with the tumor generates conditions enabling the stimulation of large numbers of antitumor CTLs that proceed to destroy the tumor cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Neoplasm / immunology. Cancer Vaccines / immunology. Melanoma / immunology. Neoplasm Metastasis / immunology. Neoplasm Proteins / immunology. T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic / immunology


87. Notohamiprodjo M, Segerer S, Huss R, Hildebrandt B, Soler D, Djafarzadeh R, Buck W, Nelson PJ, von Luettichau I: CCR10 is expressed in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Int J Cancer; 2005 Jul 1;115(4):641-7
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  • [Title] CCR10 is expressed in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma.
  • Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) is characterized by recruitment of malignant T-cell clones into the skin.
  • The mechanisms involved in tumor homing are still not fully elucidated, though chemokines and chemokine receptors have been suggested to play a role in the pathogenesis.
  • Here, we demonstrate extensive expression of CCR10 in skin biopsies of patients with Sezary syndrome (SS, n = 3), mycosis fungoides (MF, n = 2) and unspecified CTCL (n = 3).
  • Expression of CCR5 was detected in 2 of the examined skin biopsies.
  • Our data support a potential role of CXCR3 in CTCL and strongly suggest that CCR10 and its ligand CCL27 may contribute to the skin infiltration of malignant T-cells in this group of lymphoproliferative disorders.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, T-Cell, Cutaneous / genetics. Receptors, Chemokine / genetics. Skin Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Movement. DNA Primers. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Jurkat Cells. Male. Middle Aged. RNA, Messenger / genetics. Receptors, CCR10. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 15700309.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-7136
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CCR10 protein, human; 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, CCR10; 0 / Receptors, Chemokine
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88. Yoneyama K, Hata K, Kanamoto A, Tsurita G, Ito A, Shinozaki M, Tahara H: [Weekly injection of paclitaxel plus weekly oral administration of cyclophosphamide were very effective for a case of advanced accessory breast cancer]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2010 Aug;37(8):1561-3
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  • [Title] [Weekly injection of paclitaxel plus weekly oral administration of cyclophosphamide were very effective for a case of advanced accessory breast cancer].
  • Reported is a case of advanced accessory breast cancer to which weekly injection of paclitaxel plus weekly oral administration of cyclophosphamide proved very effective.
  • The patient was a 49-year-old woman who noticed a tumor in the right axilla around October 2007 but then left it alone.
  • In October 2008, the patient visited a nearby physician who made a diagnosis of locally advanced accessory breast cancer.
  • Because the tumor enlarged despite endocrinotherapy, the patient was referred to our hospital in July 2009.
  • CT scan showed a tumor with a size of infant's head, multiple lymph node metastases and metastases to the skin, liver and bones.
  • Following weekly injection of paclitaxel plus weekly oral administration of cyclophosphamide for 4 months, the tumor in the right axilla and metastases to the lymph nodes, skin and liver disappeared.
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Biopsy, Needle. Female. Humans. Infusions, Intravenous. Middle Aged. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 20716887.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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89. Smyth LG, Casey RG, Quinlan DM: Renal cell carcinoma presenting as an ominous metachronous scalp metastasis. Can Urol Assoc J; 2010 Jun;4(3):E64-6
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  • [Title] Renal cell carcinoma presenting as an ominous metachronous scalp metastasis.
  • Skin metastases occur in 3% to 6% of RCCs.
  • There are only approximately 30 cases of scalp metastases secondary to RCC in the literature.
  • They usually occur late in metastatic disease and are a bad prognostic marker.
  • A 67-year-old Caucasian male presented with a metastatic scalp lesion, 10 years post-radical treatment for RCC.
  • His initial diagnosis was a T3bN0M0 RCC.
  • He presented with a raised erythematous lesion on his parietal scalp, the histology of which demonstrated late metastatic recurrence.
  • Shortly after this, he developed diffuse metastatic disease.
  • Metastatic RCC can occur many years after initial diagnosis and present in many forms.
  • Cutaneous metastatic lesions of RCC can mimic many other dermatologic conditions and carries an ominous prognosis.
  • It is therefore important not only for the urologist, but also general practitioners and patients to be vigilant of any new skin lesion as a portent of impending metastatic disease.

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  • [Cites] Hong Kong Med J. 1999 Mar;5(1):72-75 [11821572.001]
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  • (PMID = 23293689.001).
  • [ISSN] 1920-1214
  • [Journal-full-title] Canadian Urological Association journal = Journal de l'Association des urologues du Canada
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Can Urol Assoc J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3499921
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90. Khan OA, Roses DF, Peck V: Papillary thyroid carcinoma metastatic to skin may herald aggressive disease. Endocr Pract; 2010 May-Jun;16(3):446-8
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  • [Title] Papillary thyroid carcinoma metastatic to skin may herald aggressive disease.
  • OBJECTIVE: To describe an unusual case of papillary thyroid carcinoma presenting as a skin lesion on the nose.
  • RESULTS: An asymptomatic 73-year-old man noted a skin lesion on his nose, which when biopsied, revealed histopathologic characteristics consistent with papillary thyroid cancer and was immunohistochemistry positive for thyroid transcription factor-1 and thyroglobulin, also consistent with a neoplasm of thyroid origin.
  • In addition, metastases to the sternum, spine, lungs, and liver were noted.
  • Although there was evidence of systemic metastases, total thyroidectomy was suggested to the patient to allow optimal treatment by radioactive iodine.
  • At operation, the cancer demonstrated fixation to the trachea and musculature, as well as infiltration of the surrounding soft tissues.
  • Cutaneous metastases of thyroid carcinoma are infrequent, and, as the presenting feature of thyroid carcinoma, are even more rare.
  • This case is noteworthy because a skin lesion was the presenting feature of thyroid carcinoma and histopathologic findings together with immunophenotyping provided the initial diagnosis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In this patient, as in most published cases, the cutaneous metastasis was shown to occur in the setting of extensive metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / complications. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / secondary. Thyroid Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 20061298.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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91. Park SG, Chang JY, Kim SH, Bang D: Cutaneous metastasis of choriocarcinoma: a case report. J Korean Med Sci; 2005 Aug;20(4):683-6
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  • [Title] Cutaneous metastasis of choriocarcinoma: a case report.
  • Choriocarcinoma is one of the malignant tumors of trophoblastic cells characterized by the secretion of human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) (1-3).
  • Cutaneous metastasis is a rare presentation of choriocarcinoma but a poor prognostic sign because it is associated only with widespread disease (3-5).
  • After 17 cycles of combination chemotherapy, the serum hCG level has fallen from 700,000 to under 2.0 mIU/mL and the skin lesions have almost disappeared.
  • [MeSH-major] Choriocarcinoma / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / secondary. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Cites] Cutis. 1987 Feb;39(2):119-21 [3829718.001]
  • [Cites] J Am Acad Dermatol. 1990 Jan;22(1):19-26 [2298962.001]
  • [Cites] J Am Acad Dermatol. 1993 Aug;29(2 Pt 1):228-36 [8335743.001]
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  • (PMID = 16100467.001).
  • [ISSN] 1011-8934
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of Korean medical science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Korean Med. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2782171
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92. Riley S, Wah T: Cutaneous metastasis of esophageal adenocarcinoma with an unusual presentation. J Clin Ultrasound; 2007 Jun;35(5):289-92
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  • [Title] Cutaneous metastasis of esophageal adenocarcinoma with an unusual presentation.
  • We describe an unusual presentation of a cutaneous metastasis of esophageal adenocarcinoma in the left tempero-parietal skull and the sonographic features that helped establish the diagnosis.
  • The patient had a primary tumor surgically resected 4 years earlier and was in clinical remission at the time of presentation.
  • This was confirmed on CT, and a definitive diagnosis was obtained on histologic analysis following sonographically guided biopsy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Esophageal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Mediastinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Scalp. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Skull Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color

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  • (PMID = 17366561.001).
  • [ISSN] 0091-2751
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical ultrasound : JCU
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Ultrasound
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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93. L P, L LR, N E, B KS: Malignant melanoma - cutaneous metastases. Indian J Dermatol; 2008;53(4):212-4
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  • [Title] Malignant melanoma - cutaneous metastases.
  • Melanoma composed of melanocytes may arise in the skin or other tissues harboring melanocytes, such muco-cutaneous junctions, mucosa including the conjunctiva, iris, choroids and substantia nigra.1 Metastases to the skin and subcutaneous tissues from a malignant melanoma are less common.
  • A case of multiple painless nodules on the body that revealed metastatic deposits of melanoma on histopathological examination is being reported.

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  • [Cites] Cancer. 1964 Oct;17:1323-39 [14236766.001]
  • (PMID = 19882041.001).
  • [ISSN] 1998-3611
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2763751
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Cutaneous metastases / maignant / melanoma
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94. Gleizal A, Torossian JM, Wan DC, Béziat JL: Testicular carcinoma presenting as cutaneous nasal metastasis: case report and review of the literature. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg; 2008 Jul;46(5):416-8
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  • [Title] Testicular carcinoma presenting as cutaneous nasal metastasis: case report and review of the literature.
  • Testicular choriocarcinoma is a highly malignant germ cell neoplasm, which metastasises to lungs, and brain.
  • Spread to the skin, however, is rare, with only 11 cases reported to our knowledge.
  • This is the second reported case of a skin metastasis of choriocarcinoma to the head and neck, and the third in which a cutaneous metastasis was the first finding at initial presentation.
  • [MeSH-major] Choriocarcinoma / secondary. Nose Neoplasms / secondary. Skin Neoplasms / secondary. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human / analysis. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / surgery. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 18155815.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-1940
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of oral & maxillofacial surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human
  • [Number-of-references] 13
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95. Marcoval J, Gallego MI, Moreno A: [Inflammatory cutaneous metastasis as a first sign of recurrence of squamous cell carcinoma of the lung]. Actas Dermosifiliogr; 2008 Mar;99(2):157-9
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  • [Title] [Inflammatory cutaneous metastasis as a first sign of recurrence of squamous cell carcinoma of the lung].
  • [Transliterated title] Metástasis cutánea inflamatoria como primer signo de recidiva de carcinoma escamoso de pulmón.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / secondary


96. López-Tarruella Cobo S, Moreno Antón F, Sastre J, López García-Asenjo JA, Torres A, Díaz-Rubio E: Cuirasse skin metastases secondary to gastric adenocarcinoma. Clin Transl Oncol; 2005 Jun;7(5):213-5
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  • [Title] Cuirasse skin metastases secondary to gastric adenocarcinoma.
  • Skin metastases are infrequent manifestations of solid tumours.
  • However, it is important to recognize them since they may be the first evidence of a neoplasia, or a sign of tumour progression or recurrence.
  • Skin metastases from gastric adenocarcinomas are particularly rare, and represent 6% of the total in males and 1% in females.
  • We report, here, the case of a patient diagnosed with gastric adenocarcinoma with extensive subcutaneous infiltration of the abdominal wall, resulting in an abdominal cuirass.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Skin Neoplasms / secondary. Stomach Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Skin / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15960933.001).
  • [ISSN] 1699-048X
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical & translational oncology : official publication of the Federation of Spanish Oncology Societies and of the National Cancer Institute of Mexico
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Transl Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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97. van der Merwe A, Zarrabi A, Basson J, Stander J, Heyns CF: Distant cutaneous metastases secondary to squamous carcinoma of the penis. Can J Urol; 2009 Feb;16(1):4498-501; discussion 4501
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  • [Title] Distant cutaneous metastases secondary to squamous carcinoma of the penis.
  • Penile cancer normally spreads in a predictable manner to the regional lymph nodes: first inguinal and then the pelvic nodes.
  • We report a case where the patient presented synchronously with secondary skin metastases and primary high grade penile squamous carcinoma.
  • In addition the patient also had pulmonary metastases, loco regional spread to the groin nodes, liver metastases and tumour erosion of a right sided rib.
  • The skin metastases appeared nodular, were firm in consistency and appeared intradermal.
  • Skin metastases have been described for a number of solid malignancies - the clinician must have an index of suspicion to relate a less obvious primary lesion with secondary skin lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Penile Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 19222890.001).
  • [ISSN] 1195-9479
  • [Journal-full-title] The Canadian journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Can J Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
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98. Chakraborty J, Bandyopadhyay A, Choudhuri MK, Mitra K, Guha D, Mallik MG: Cutaneous metastasis from follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma: a case diagnosed on cytology. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2008 Jan-Mar;51(1):91-3
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  • [Title] Cutaneous metastasis from follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma: a case diagnosed on cytology.
  • Fine needle aspiration from both sites disclosed a microfollicular architectural pattern on Giemsa stain and pale nuclei with nuclear grooves on Papanicolaou stain, indicating the possibility of follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma with metastasis to the scalp.
  • Histologic tissue evaluation confirmed the diagnosis.
  • Thus, a diligent search for nuclear features should be performed to enable a diagnosis of follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma on cytology.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasm Metastasis / pathology. Scalp / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / secondary. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18417873.001).
  • [ISSN] 0377-4929
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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99. Barbetakis N, Samanidis G, Paliouras D, Samanidou E, Tzimorota Z, Asteriou C, Xirou P, Tsilikas C: Facial skin metastasis due to small-cell lung cancer: a case report. J Med Case Rep; 2009;3:32
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  • [Title] Facial skin metastasis due to small-cell lung cancer: a case report.
  • INTRODUCTION: Cutaneous metastases in the facial region occur in less than 0.5% of patients with metastatic cancer.
  • They are an important finding and are not often the first sign leading to diagnosis.
  • CONCLUSION: A high index of suspicion is necessary for the early detection of facial cutaneous metastases.

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  • [Cites] Arch Dermatol. 2007 May;143(5):613-20 [17515511.001]
  • [Cites] Int Semin Surg Oncol. 2006;3:2 [16457715.001]
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  • (PMID = 19178730.001).
  • [ISSN] 1752-1947
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medical case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2640407
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100. Chen CH, Chao KC, Wang PH: Advanced cervical squamous cell carcinoma with skin metastasis. Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol; 2007 Sep;46(3):264-6
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  • [Title] Advanced cervical squamous cell carcinoma with skin metastasis.
  • OBJECTIVE: Although cervical cancer is a very common gynecologic malignancy, skin metastasis presenting as an initial sign of recurrent or persistent disease is extremely rare.
  • Some of skin lesions grew rapidly.
  • Excision biopsy was performed and showed metastatic carcinoma, favoring a squamous cell type.
  • Palliative chemotherapy was prescribed, and the skin lesions responded relatively well, but disease involving the vital organs still progressed during treatment.
  • The patient died of the disease 6 months after the appearance of the skin lesion.
  • CONCLUSION: This report supports the concept that skin metastasis is a late manifestation and an ominous sign for cervical cancer patients, and also indicates the uncontrolled or widespread metastasis of the disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Skin Neoplasms / secondary. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology






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