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1. Sengiku A, Nishiyama H, Shimizu T, Watabe J, Soda T, Kamba T, Yoshimura K, Kanematsu A, Nakamura E, Kamoto T, Ogawa O: [Post-operative recurrence patterns of urothelial tumors in the upper urinary tract: comparison between renal pelvic and ureteral tumors]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2008 Nov;54(11):703-9
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  • We defined local recurrence as metastasis to the retroperitoneum, pelvis, and abdominal lymph nodes.
  • During follow up, 35 patients had relapse; 25 distant metastasis, 5 local recurrence, and 5 synchronous recurrence at both sites.
  • In pT2/3 disease, the frequency of distant metastasis of a ureteral tumor was significantly higher than that in renal pelvic cases (55% vs. 19%, P = 0.0237).
  • In pT2 < or = disease, ureteral tumors showed more frequent occurrences of distant metastasis, whereas local relapses adjacent to the dissected nodal areas were more prominent in renal pelvic cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Kidney Neoplasms / surgery. Kidney Pelvis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Ureteral Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Incidence. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 19068723.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-1994
  • [Journal-full-title] Hinyokika kiyo. Acta urologica Japonica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hinyokika Kiyo
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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2. Huang HY, Brennan MF, Singer S, Antonescu CR: Distant metastasis in retroperitoneal dedifferentiated liposarcoma is rare and rapidly fatal: a clinicopathological study with emphasis on the low-grade myxofibrosarcoma-like pattern as an early sign of dedifferentiation. Mod Pathol; 2005 Jul;18(7):976-84
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  • [Title] Distant metastasis in retroperitoneal dedifferentiated liposarcoma is rare and rapidly fatal: a clinicopathological study with emphasis on the low-grade myxofibrosarcoma-like pattern as an early sign of dedifferentiation.
  • The metastatic incidence of retroperitoneal dedifferentiated liposarcoma is comparatively lower than other pleomorphic sarcomas, varying widely from 1 to 18%.
  • Low-grade dedifferentiation resembling low-grade fibrosarcoma has been recently accepted as part of the morphologic spectrum of dedifferentiated liposarcoma and was reported to have similar metastatic and survival rates to its high-grade counterpart.
  • We sought to determine the metastatic incidence of retroperitoneal dedifferentiated liposarcoma, the clinicopathological features related to metastasis, and their postmetastatic behavior.
  • Of all 354 retroperitoneal liposarcoma cases diagnosed at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center during 1982-2003, we identified seven patients developing distant metastases, occurring in four females and three males, ranging from 35 to 73 years in age at presentation.
  • They were all de novo dedifferentiated, while none of the well-differentiated liposarcoma or secondary dedifferentiated liposarcoma developed distant metastasis.
  • All seven patients developing metastases contained >or=50% dedifferentiated elements in the primary tumor, with a predominant morphology resembling myxofibrosarcoma in five cases.
  • The metastatic sites included the lung in four patients, somatic soft tissue in two, and liver in one.
  • The median metastasis-free survival was 48 months, with only two patients experiencing local recurrences before developing metastasis.
  • Six patients died of disease at median follow-up of 53 months after diagnosis and only 5 months after their first metastases.
  • In conclusion, retroperitoneal dedifferentiated liposarcoma have a low metastatic rate, which is strongly related to de novo dedifferentiated histology that usually constitutes a prominent component of the primary tumor.
  • Once metastases occur, they tend to follow a rapidly fatal course.
  • [MeSH-major] Liposarcoma / pathology. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Cell Differentiation. Female. Fibrosarcoma / pathology. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 15832195.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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3. Debnath J, Chawla N, Talwar R, Vohra LS, George RA, Singh HP, Vaidya A, Satija L: Pleural and transdiaphragmatic retroperitoneal metastasis developing two and half years after resection of invasive thymoma. Singapore Med J; 2008 Mar;49(3):e64-7
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  • [Title] Pleural and transdiaphragmatic retroperitoneal metastasis developing two and half years after resection of invasive thymoma.
  • We report transdiaphragmatic pleural and retroperitoneal metastasis developing two and half years after resection of invasive thymoma (Masaoka stage III; WHO type B1, lymphocyte-rich) in a 34-year-old man.
  • Follow-up computed tomography (CT) one year post-surgery did not reveal any local recurrence or metastasis.
  • A follow-up CT done two and half years later revealed an enhancing retrocrural-retroperitoneal (posterior pararenal space) soft tissue mass measuring 12 cm x 10 cm x 6 cm.
  • Histopathology confirmed these lesions to be metastases from the lymphocyte-rich thymoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Diaphragm / pathology. Pleural Neoplasms / secondary. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / secondary. Thymoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18362988.001).
  • [ISSN] 0037-5675
  • [Journal-full-title] Singapore medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Singapore Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Singapore
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4. Seeber S, Strumberg D: [Metastases with CUP syndrome]. Urologe A; 2006 May;45(5):614-9
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  • [Title] [Metastases with CUP syndrome].
  • At the time point of first diagnosis of CUP syndrome, usually more than 80% of the patients present a disseminated situation.
  • For patients presenting with metastasis to peripheral lymph nodes, node dissection may be curative.
  • In patients with small cell malignancies, peritoneal carcinomatosis (in women), poorly differentiated carcinomas involving external lymph nodes, mediastinum, or retroperitoneum, but without metastases to viscera or bone, objective long-term responses are possible with combination chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / drug therapy. Palliative Care / methods. Urogenital Neoplasms / drug therapy. Urogenital Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Clinical Trials as Topic. Humans. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Practice Guidelines as Topic. Practice Patterns, Physicians'. Quality of Life. Syndrome. Terminal Care / methods

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  • (PMID = 16710679.001).
  • [ISSN] 0340-2592
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Urologe. Ausg. A
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urologe A
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 40
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5. Chen CF, Chuang CH, Liu MK, Hsu WH, Lin HJ, Hsieh JS: Clinical, radiologic and pathologic characteristics of the Carney triad: a case report and literature review. Kaohsiung J Med Sci; 2010 Aug;26(8):428-34
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  • An abdominal computed tomography scan showed an antral submucosal tumor, two secondary lesions over segment II/V of the liver and a retroperitoneal tumor.
  • The gastric GIST with liver metastasis and retroperitoneal paraganglioma were confirmed by pathologic study.
  • The patient was treated with imatinib mesylate for the GIST with liver metastasis, and continued follow-up treatment at our hospital.
  • An abdominal computed tomography scan at 32 months after surgery showed no change in the liver metastatic lesions and no evidence of local recurrence.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Neoplasm Metastasis

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20705254.001).
  • [ISSN] 1607-551X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Kaohsiung journal of medical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] China (Republic : 1949- )
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6. Culp SH, Tannir NM, Abel EJ, Margulis V, Tamboli P, Matin SF, Wood CG: Can we better select patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma for cytoreductive nephrectomy? Cancer; 2010 Jul 15;116(14):3378-88
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  • [Title] Can we better select patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma for cytoreductive nephrectomy?
  • BACKGROUND: The benefits of cytoreductive nephrectomy (CN) in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) should outweigh surgical morbidity.
  • Even when the generally agreed upon selection criteria for CN are met, some patients do poorly after surgery.
  • On multivariate analysis, independent preoperative predictors of inferior OS in surgical patients included a lactate dehydrogenase level greater than the upper limit of normal, an albumin level less than the lower limit of normal, symptoms at presentation caused by a metastatic site, liver metastasis, retroperitoneal adenopathy, supradiaphragmatic adenopathy, and clinical tumor classification>or=T3.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors


7. Luz MA, Kotb AF, Aldousari S, Brimo F, Tanguay S, Kassouf W, Aprikian AG: Retroperitoneal lymph node dissection for residual masses after chemotherapy in nonseminomatous germ cell testicular tumor. World J Surg Oncol; 2010;8:97
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  • [Title] Retroperitoneal lymph node dissection for residual masses after chemotherapy in nonseminomatous germ cell testicular tumor.
  • BACKGROUND: Retroperitoneal lymph node dissection has been advocated for the management of post-chemotherapy (PC-RPLND) residual masses of non-seminomatous germ cell tumors of the testis (NSGCT).
  • Between 1994 and 2008, three surgeons operated 73 patients with residual masses after cisplatin-based chemotherapy for a metastatic testicular cancer.
  • Patients needed to have normal postchemotherapy serum tumor markers, no prior surgical attempts to resect retroperitoneal masses and resectable retroperitoneal tumor mass at surgery to be included in this analysis RESULTS: Mean age was 30.4 years old.
  • The mean size of retroperitoneal metastasis was 6.3 and 4.0 cm, before and post-chemotherapy, respectively.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / secondary. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / surgery. Retroperitoneal Space. Retrospective Studies. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 21062470.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-7819
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Nonseminomatous germ cell tumor
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2991320
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8. Sendler A, Strumberg D, Tannapfel A: [Carcinoma of unknown primary site (CUP syndrome)]. Chirurg; 2008 Jul;79(7):689-95; quiz 696
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  • Despite the growing array of sophisticated diagnostic tools for establishing a diagnosis of human neoplasia, 2-6% of all cancer patients still present metastatic cancer of which detailed investigations fail to identify the primary anatomic site.
  • At the time of first diagnosis with carcinoma of unknown primary site, usually more than 80% of patients present with dissemination.
  • Node dissection may be curative for patients with metastases to peripheral lymph nodes.
  • Objective long-term response is possible in combination with chemotherapy in patients with small-cell malignancies, peritoneal carcinomatosis (in women), or poorly differentiated carcinomas involving external lymph nodes, mediastinum, or retroperitoneum but without metastases to viscera or bone.
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 18584137.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-4722
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Chirurg; Zeitschrift für alle Gebiete der operativen Medizen
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chirurg
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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9. Maizlin ZV, Brown JA, So G, Brown C, Phang TP, Walker ML, Kirby JM, Vora P, Tiwari P: Can CT replace MRI in preoperative assessment of the circumferential resection margin in rectal cancer? Dis Colon Rectum; 2010 Mar;53(3):308-14
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  • Compared with MRI, multidetector-row computed tomography is more widely available, faster, less costly, and provides the ability to simultaneously assess the liver, peritoneum, and retroperitoneum for metastases.
  • PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to compare the accuracy of multidetector-row CT with conventional MRI in diagnosis of rectal cancer invasion of the mesorectal fascial envelope.
  • [MeSH-major] Fascia / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Rectal Neoplasms / pathology. Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy. Contrast Media. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Preoperative Care. Triiodobenzoic Acids

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  • (PMID = 20173478.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0358
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; 0 / Triiodobenzoic Acids; 87771-40-2 / ioversol
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10. Mohanty SK, Balani JP, Parwani AV: Primitive neuroectodermal tumor arising in a testicular teratoma with retroperitoneal metastasis: report of an interesting case with review of literature. Urology; 2007 Oct;70(4):812.e7-10
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  • [Title] Primitive neuroectodermal tumor arising in a testicular teratoma with retroperitoneal metastasis: report of an interesting case with review of literature.
  • Teratomas with malignant transformation occur in approximately 3 to 6% of patients with metastatic germ cell tumors treated with platinum-based chemotherapy.
  • The histology of the nongerm cell (somatic) malignant elements most commonly includes carcinoma and various types of sarcomas; however, so far as the primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs) are concerned the experience is quite limited.
  • There are only seven documented case reports and occasional series of PNET in association with testicular teratoma either in the primary site or in the metastatic location.
  • We report a relatively unusual case of PNET arising in a malignant mixed germ cell tumor in a 35-year-old man.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Second Primary. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / pathology. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / secondary. Teratoma / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male

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  • (PMID = 17991577.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-9995
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 15
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11. Dinis da Gama A, Vilhena-Ayres J, Silva E, Passos Coelho P, Oliveira PS: [Germ cell tumor of the testis with invasion of inferior vena cava. Multidisciplinary surgical management]. Rev Port Cir Cardiotorac Vasc; 2008 Jul-Sep;15(3):163-6
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  • The authors report the clinical case of a 34 years old male, with a germ cell tumor of the testis, who developed large retroperitoneal metastasis, with compression and later on invasion of the inferior vena cava.
  • The patient underwent chemotherapy followed by resection of the original tumor and of the retroperitoneal metastasis and the vena cava was replaced by a vascular prosthesis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness

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  • (PMID = 19116682.001).
  • [ISSN] 0873-7215
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista portuguesa de cirurgia cardio-torácica e vascular : órgão oficial da Sociedade Portuguesa de Cirurgia Cardio-Torácica e Vascular
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Port Cir Cardiotorac Vasc
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Portugal
  • [Number-of-references] 8
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12. Pinto F, Cappa E, Brescia A, Sacco E, Volpe A, Totaro A, Gardi M, Pierconti F, Bassi PF: Metastasis to the renal hilum from malignant melanoma of the anterior trunk: an unusual finding. Arch Ital Urol Androl; 2010 Jun;82(2):119-21
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  • [Title] Metastasis to the renal hilum from malignant melanoma of the anterior trunk: an unusual finding.
  • A retroperitoneal metastasis from malignant melanoma is an uncommon event and mostly secondary to a primary lesion of the posterior trunk.
  • We report on a 38-year-old patient with malignant melanoma of the anterior trunk who presented a symptomatic metastatic mass of the left renal hilum not originating from the retroperitoneal lymph nodes of the renal hilum, surrounding and infiltrating the renal pelvis, treated with left nephrectomy, complete mass excision and regional lymph node dissection.
  • The patient later developed also brain metastases and is now undergoing immunotherapy.

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  • (PMID = 20812538.001).
  • [ISSN] 1124-3562
  • [Journal-full-title] Archivio italiano di urologia, andrologia : organo ufficiale [di] Societa italiana di ecografia urologica e nefrologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Ital Urol Androl
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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13. Teodorovich OV, Ternovoĭ SK, Vlasova IS, Zabrodina NB, Fominykh EV, Kesov IaE: [Comparative analysis of modern combined methods in diagnosis of renal cell carcinoma]. Urologiia; 2006 Sep-Oct;(5):3-6, 11
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  • [Title] [Comparative analysis of modern combined methods in diagnosis of renal cell carcinoma].
  • To ascertain the role of multispiral computed tomography (MSCT) in diagnosis of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and to propose optimal diagnostic policy in RCC patients, we examined 63 patients with suspected renal tumor: 37 (59%) males and 26 (41%) females, age 47-77 ages, mean age 54.2+/-1.5 years, duration of the disease from 1 month to 7 years.
  • By the results of a combined examination and operation on the kidney lesion, the diagnosis of RCC was made in 45 (80.3%) patients including stage I in 21 (46.7%), stage II in 9 (20%), stage III in 13 (28.9%), stage IV in 2 (4.5%) patients.
  • Detected were also renal malformations in 3 cases, a distant retroperitoneal metastasis of RCC in 1 case, adrenal tumors in 6 (9.5%) cases.
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. Nephrectomy

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  • (PMID = 17444144.001).
  • [ISSN] 1728-2985
  • [Journal-full-title] Urologii︠a︡ (Moscow, Russia : 1999)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urologiia
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
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14. Amin MU, Shafique M: Isolated malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor of retroperitoneum. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak; 2007 Apr;17(4):226-7
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  • [Title] Isolated malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor of retroperitoneum.
  • A case of an isolated Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor (MPNST) of the retroperitoneum without neurofibromatosis is presented.
  • The tumor was located deep in the retroperitoneum with metastasis to the ribs.

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  • (PMID = 17462183.001).
  • [ISSN] 1022-386X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons--Pakistan : JCPSP
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Coll Physicians Surg Pak
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Pakistan
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15. Beck SD, Cheng L, Bihrle R, Donohue JP, Foster RS: Does the presence of extranodal extension in pathological stage B1 nonseminomatous germ cell tumor necessitate adjuvant chemotherapy? J Urol; 2007 Mar;177(3):944-6
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  • PURPOSE: The presence of extranodal extension identified at primary retroperitoneal lymph node dissection has been associated with an increased risk of disease recurrence, and as such these patients are sometimes treated with adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review of our testicular cancer database was performed to identify all patients with clinical stage A nonseminomatous germ cell tumor who underwent primary retroperitoneal lymph node dissection and were found to have retroperitoneal metastasis with 5 or fewer involved nodes and no metastatic node larger than 2 cm.
  • A single pathologist (LC), who was blinded to clinical outcome, reviewed the retroperitoneal nodal package to identify the presence or absence of extranodal extension, defined as cancer perforating through the lymph node capsule into perinodal tissue.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We were unable to detect any prognostic significance of extranodal extension in patients found to have retroperitoneal metastasis at primary retroperitoneal lymph node dissection.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymph Node Excision. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / secondary. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cohort Studies. Disease-Free Survival. Humans. Male. Orchiectomy. Predictive Value of Tests. Retroperitoneal Space. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome


16. Cuevas C, Raske M, Bush WH, Takayama T, Maki JH, Kolokythas O, Meshberg E: Imaging primary and secondary tumor thrombus of the inferior vena cava: multi-detector computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Curr Probl Diagn Radiol; 2006 May-Jun;35(3):90-101
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  • [Title] Imaging primary and secondary tumor thrombus of the inferior vena cava: multi-detector computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging.
  • We reviewed 21 cases of tumoral thrombus in the IVC including primary leiomyosarcoma of the IVC (2 cases), renal cell carcinoma (14 cases), adrenocortical carcinoma (2 cases), primary adrenocortical leiomyosarcoma (1 case), hepatocellular carcinoma (1 case), and retroperitoneal metastasis (1 case).
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Kidney Neoplasms / complications. Liver Neoplasms / complications. Thrombosis / diagnosis. Vena Cava, Inferior / radiography


17. Beck SD, Foster RS, Bihrle R, Donohue JP: Significance of primary tumor size and preorchiectomy serum tumor marker level in predicting pathologic stage at retroperitoneal lymph node dissection in clinical Stage A nonseminomatous germ cell tumors. Urology; 2007 Mar;69(3):557-9
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  • [Title] Significance of primary tumor size and preorchiectomy serum tumor marker level in predicting pathologic stage at retroperitoneal lymph node dissection in clinical Stage A nonseminomatous germ cell tumors.
  • OBJECTIVES: To determine whether the size of the primary tumor and degree of preorchiectomy serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (beta-hCG) elevation predict for retroperitoneal pathologic findings in patients with clinical Stage A nonseminomatous germ cell tumor undergoing primary retroperitoneal lymph node dissection.
  • METHODS: The testicular cancer database was queried to identify patients with clinical Stage A nonseminomatous germ cell tumor with normalization of serum tumor markers after orchiectomy who had undergone retroperitoneal lymph node dissection.
  • The association between AFP, beta-hCG, and primary tumor size and retroperitoneal pathologic findings was determined.
  • RESULTS: The retroperitoneal pathologic examination revealed metastatic disease in 207 patients (26.6%).
  • The preorchiectomy serum beta-hCG level, as a categorical variable, was not predictive of positive retroperitoneal pathologic findings (P = 0.187).
  • The preorchiectomy serum AFP did predict for positive retroperitoneal pathologic findings, with lower serum AFP levels associated with a greater incidence of retroperitoneal metastasis (P <0.001).
  • The primary tumor size was not predictive of positive retroperitoneal pathologic findings (P = 0.113).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Neither the primary tumor size nor the preorchiectomy beta-hCG level was predictive of retroperitoneal metastases.
  • However, a normal preorchiectomy AFP level was associated with a greater incidence of retroperitoneal metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human / blood. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / blood. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / blood. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology. alpha-Fetoproteins / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Male. Orchiectomy. Predictive Value of Tests. Retroperitoneal Space

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  • (PMID = 17382165.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-9995
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human; 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins
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18. Hofmann U, O'Connor JP, Biyani CS, Harnden P, Selby P, Weston PM: Retroperitoneal metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil (with elevated beta human chorionic gonadotrophin): a misdiagnosis as extra-gonadal germ cell tumour. J Laryngol Otol; 2006 Oct;120(10):885-7
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  • [Title] Retroperitoneal metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil (with elevated beta human chorionic gonadotrophin): a misdiagnosis as extra-gonadal germ cell tumour.
  • Metastasis to distant lymph node groups is a rare event.
  • Furthermore, delayed multiple metastases without local recurrence is relatively uncommon.
  • A case of retroperitoneal metastasis from a squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil, secreting beta human chorionic gonadotrophin (beta-hCG), is reported.
  • A computed tomography scan demonstrated para-aortic retroperitoneal lymphadenopathy.
  • A subsequent review was consistent with a metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil, as immunohistochemical studies showed positive staining for epithelial membrane antigen and cytokeratins 5/6 but a negative reaction to placental alkaline phosphatase.
  • Following this, the chemotherapy regimen was changed; however, a restaging scan demonstrated progression, and the patient died from aspiration pneumonia secondary to alcohol intoxication.
  • To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of retroperitoneal metastasis from a squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil, secreting beta-hCG and causing hydronephrosis.
  • This case highlights the necessity of using clinical, histological, immunohistological and ultrastructural examination to establish precise diagnosis and to avoid inappropriate treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Diagnostic Errors. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / diagnosis. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Tonsillar Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human / blood. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Hydronephrosis / complications. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / blood

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  • (PMID = 16716237.001).
  • [ISSN] 1748-5460
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of laryngology and otology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Laryngol Otol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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19. Okayama S, Matsui M, Somekawa S, Iwano M, Saito Y: Non-contrast MRI for the evaluation of hydronephrotic and dysfunctioning kidney secondary to testicular cancer. Ren Fail; 2009;31(2):153-8
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  • [Title] Non-contrast MRI for the evaluation of hydronephrotic and dysfunctioning kidney secondary to testicular cancer.
  • This report describes the case of a 90-year-old man with a hydronephrotic and dysfunctioning right kidney induced by testicular cancer evaluated by non-contrast MRI.
  • Moreover, a retroperitoneal metastatic tumor was detected adjacent to the right kidney, which appeared to constrict the right urinary duct.
  • These findings clarified that the retroperitoneal metastasis from the right testicular cancer led to hydronephrosis and dysfunctioning of the right kidney.
  • [MeSH-major] Contrast Media / contraindications. Hydronephrosis / diagnosis. Testicular Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19212914.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-6049
  • [Journal-full-title] Renal failure
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ren Fail
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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20. Nishikawa H, Nakanishi R: Metastatic pulmonary leiomyosarcoma presenting with a long disease-free interval: report of a case. Surg Today; 2008;38(7):644-6
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  • [Title] Metastatic pulmonary leiomyosarcoma presenting with a long disease-free interval: report of a case.
  • The prognosis in patients with retroperitoneal leiomyosarcoma and its distant metastasis is poor.
  • We herein present an extremely rare case of an 83-year-old woman with a pulmonary metastasis from retroperitoneal leiomyosarcoma.
  • The disease-free interval between the resection of the primary tumor and the diagnosis of metastasis was longer than 23 years.
  • [MeSH-major] Leiomyosarcoma / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / pathology


21. Wang XY, Pan ZM, Chen XD, Lü WG, Xie X: Accuracy of tumor grade by preoperative curettage and associated clinicopathologic factors in clinical stage I endometriod adenocarcinoma. Chin Med J (Engl); 2009 Aug 20;122(16):1843-6
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  • Compared with final hysterectomy specimens, the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of tumor grade by preoperative curettage were calculated and their associations with clinicopathologic parameters, including age, status of menopause, position of uterus, location and size of lesion, histological grade, depth of myometrial invasion, cervical invasion, extrauterine spread, peritoneal cytology, metastasis to retroperitoneal lymph node, serum CA125 level, and hormone receptor status, were analyzed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Curettage / methods. Endometrial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neoplasm Staging / methods

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  • (PMID = 19781357.001).
  • [ISSN] 0366-6999
  • [Journal-full-title] Chinese medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chin. Med. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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22. Ichiki Y, Sugio K, Baba T, Mizukami M, Oga T, Takenoyama M, Hanagiri T, Okamoto K, Yamaguchi K, Katagiri S, Yamamoto M, Yasumoto K: Mediastinal metastasis from a fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma: Report of a case. Surg Today; 2010 Apr;40(4):360-4
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  • [Title] Mediastinal metastasis from a fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma: Report of a case.
  • This report presents a case of a rare mediastinal metastasis from FL-HCC in a patient who had undergone a previous resection for retroperitoneal metastasis after the initial hepatic operation.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / pathology. Mediastinal Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Humans. Male. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 20339991.001).
  • [ISSN] 1436-2813
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery today
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Today
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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23. Houlgatte A: [Surgical management of retroperitoneal metastases from germ cell cancers]. Prog Urol; 2008 Nov;18 Suppl 7:S382-7
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  • [Title] [Surgical management of retroperitoneal metastases from germ cell cancers].
  • The surgery of residual retroperitoneal tumors is a compulsory prolongation of chemotherapy in non seminomatous germ cell tumors.
  • The extent of surgery can be limited to a template area in specific circumstances.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / secondary. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / surgery. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / secondary. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / surgery. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19070819.001).
  • [ISSN] 1166-7087
  • [Journal-full-title] Progrès en urologie : journal de l'Association française d'urologie et de la Société française d'urologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prog. Urol.
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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24. Tanaka T, Kitamura H, Kunishima Y, Takahashi S, Takahashi A, Masumori N, Itoh N, Tsukamoto T: Modified and bilateral retroperitoneal lymph node dissection for testicular cancer: peri- and postoperative complications and therapeutic outcome. Jpn J Clin Oncol; 2006 Jun;36(6):381-6
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  • [Title] Modified and bilateral retroperitoneal lymph node dissection for testicular cancer: peri- and postoperative complications and therapeutic outcome.
  • OBJECTIVE: To characterize surgical invasiveness and morbidity and to verify therapeutic efficacy, we reviewed perioperative and postoperative courses and therapeutic outcomes of patients who underwent retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND) for testicular germ cell cancers.
  • METHODS: The study included 31 patients who underwent retroperitoneal lymph node dissection.
  • A modified template was used if retroperitoneal metastasis was limited to the areas below the level of the renal hilus and above the level of the inferior mesenteric artery (IMA).
  • One patient (3.2%) developed a postoperative recurrent disease in the retroperitoneum, which was outside the dissection field, as well as in the mediastinum.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Chylothorax / etiology. Humans. Hypotension, Orthostatic / etiology. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Morbidity. Paralysis / etiology. Peripheral Nervous System Diseases / etiology. Phrenic Nerve. Retroperitoneal Space. Treatment Outcome


25. Murakami M, Miyamoto T, Iida T, Tsukada H, Watanabe M, Shida M, Maeda H, Nasu S, Yasuda S, Yasuda M, Ide M: Whole-body positron emission tomography and tumor marker CA125 for detection of recurrence in epithelial ovarian cancer. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2006 Jan-Feb;16 Suppl 1:99-107
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  • PET had high sensitivity for detecting both intraperitoneal and retroperitoneal metastases (93.9 and 92.9%, respectively).
  • PET imaging was able to detect normal-sized metastases in the lymph nodes in 14 (50%) of the 28 patients with retroperitoneal metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. CA-125 Antigen / blood. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Positron-Emission Tomography
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 16515575.001).
  • [ISSN] 1048-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CA-125 Antigen
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26. Lee SH, Lee KB, Shin JW, Chung DH, Park CY: Ovarian malignant melanoma without evidence of teratoma. J Obstet Gynaecol Res; 2010 Aug;36(4):898-901
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  • [Title] Ovarian malignant melanoma without evidence of teratoma.
  • A 46-year-old woman with ovarian malignant melanoma had advanced intraperitoneal metastasis, retroperitoneal and inguinal lymph node metastases.
  • Despite the surgery and chemotherapy, the patient died within 2 months of diagnosis.
  • Considering this case, it is assumed that the combination of surgical debulking and chemotherapy are not always beneficial in ovarian malignant melanoma and the prognosis of ovarian malignant melanoma is very poor.

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  • (PMID = 20666966.001).
  • [ISSN] 1447-0756
  • [Journal-full-title] The journal of obstetrics and gynaecology research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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27. Stephenson AJ, Klein EA: Surgical management of low-stage nonseminomatous germ cell testicular cancer. BJU Int; 2009 Nov;104(9 Pt B):1362-8
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  • For clinical stage (CS) I NSGCT, retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND), two cycles of chemotherapy and surveillance are all accepted treatment options.
  • The risk of retroperitoneal metastasis varies by clinical stage (25-35% for CS I, 65-85% for CS IIA-B), and the presence of lymphovascular invasion and percentage of embryonal carcinoma in the primary tumour.
  • Compared with chemotherapy, RPLND is associated with a considerably more favourable long-term morbidity profile and is the most effective method for controlling the retroperitoneum.
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Humans. Laparoscopy / methods. Lymph Node Excision / methods. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Orchiectomy / methods. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / surgery. Risk Assessment. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 19840014.001).
  • [ISSN] 1464-410X
  • [Journal-full-title] BJU international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BJU Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 66
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28. Benedetti G, Rastelli F, Fedele M, Castellucci P, Damiani S, Crinò L: Presentation of nonseminomatous germ cell tumor of the testis with symptomatic solitary bone metastasis. A case report with review of the literature. Tumori; 2006 Sep-Oct;92(5):433-6
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  • [Title] Presentation of nonseminomatous germ cell tumor of the testis with symptomatic solitary bone metastasis. A case report with review of the literature.
  • Metastatic bone lesions are exceptional at diagnosis in germ cell tumors (GCTs).
  • Bone involvement is usually a late event combined with synchronous metastasis in the retroperitoneal lymph nodes, lung and liver.
  • Bone examination is not considered a standard procedure in the staging of GCTs, and this may contribute to underestimation of the real proportion of bone metastases.
  • Here we report a case of nonseminomatous GCT of the testis with a synchronous, symptomatic, solitary pubic bone metastasis that was completely controlled by systemic chemotherapy and locoregional radiation therapy.
  • Solitary bone metastases from GCTs seem to be chemosensitive and radiosensitive, but we do not know their prognostic value.
  • We propose individualized management for symptomatic GCT patients including bone scintigraphy and/or PET examination at diagnosis and a combined cytotoxic approach with chemotherapy and radiation therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / secondary. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology


29. Nanpo Y, Yamauchi T: [Testicular tumor following orchiopexy: a case report]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2006 Aug;52(8):655-9
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  • On histopathological examination, the tumor was a seminoma and the left inguinal tumor was a lymph node metastasis (3 x 4 x 5 cm).
  • After operation, the tumor markers became normal and radiographic examination showed no evidence of metastasis to the retroperitoneal lymph nodes and to other organs.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Postoperative Complications. Scrotum / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16972632.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-1994
  • [Journal-full-title] Hinyokika kiyo. Acta urologica Japonica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hinyokika Kiyo
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 17
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30. Zhang XQ, Liu ZW, Zhou FJ, Han H, Qin ZK, Ye YL, Li YH, Hou GL, Zhang ZL: [Experience of the treatment for clinical Stage-1 seminoma over a period of 10 years]. Chin J Cancer; 2010 Jan;29(1):98-101
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  • No relapse or metastasis was seen in the chemotherapy group.
  • Four patients had metastasis of retroperitoneal lymph node in the surveillance group.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Bleomycin / therapeutic use. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Etoposide / therapeutic use. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20038319.001).
  • [ISSN] 1000-467X
  • [Journal-full-title] Chinese journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chin J Cancer
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; BEP protocol; VP-P protocol
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31. Boghossian V, Owen ID, Nuli B, Xiao PQ: Neuroendocrine (Merkel cell) carcinoma of the retroperitoneum with no identifiable primary site. World J Surg Oncol; 2007;5:117
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  • [Title] Neuroendocrine (Merkel cell) carcinoma of the retroperitoneum with no identifiable primary site.
  • BACKGROUND: Neuroendocrine carcinoma is an aggressive neoplasm that mainly affects elderly Caucasians and typically arises in sun-exposed areas of the skin.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of an 81-year-old Caucasian male with neuroendocrine carcinoma, which initially presented as a large retroperitoneal mass.
  • First, the retroperitoneal mass could be a massively enlarged lymph node where precursor cells became neoplastic.
  • This would be consistent with a presumptive diagnosis of primary nodal disease.
  • Alternatively, an initial skin lesion could have spontaneously regressed and the retroperitoneal mass represents a single site of metastasis.
  • Moreover, metastasis to the retroperitoneal lymph nodes has been reported as relatively common when compared to other sites such as liver, bone, brain and skin.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Merkel Cell / secondary. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / secondary. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / pathology. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy, Needle. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Laparotomy / methods. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Risk Assessment. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17949500.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-7819
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2117014
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32. Iqbal MA, Lawatsch EJ, Coyle DJ, Rowe JJ, Li R, Dua KS, Kochar MS: Signet-ring cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder mimicking retroperitoneal fibrosis. WMJ; 2006 May;105(3):55-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Signet-ring cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder mimicking retroperitoneal fibrosis.
  • We present the case of a 77-year-old white woman with a past medical history of transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder that presented with symptoms of acute renal failure and duodenal obstruction and posed a diagnostic dilemma.
  • Later, the patient developed intractable nausea and vomiting secondary to a duodenal stricture.
  • The finding of a "stranding appearance" on computed tomography imaging of the retroperitoneal space raised the suspicion of retroperitoneal fibrosis.
  • The autopsy results revealed full wall thickness signet-ring cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder with extensive metastasis to the retroperitoneum.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Signet Ring Cell / diagnosis. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biopsy. Diagnosis, Differential. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Retroperitoneal Fibrosis / diagnosis. Retroperitoneal Fibrosis / pathology. Stents. Tomography, X-Ray Computed


33. Berek JS: Lymph node-positive stage IIIC ovarian cancer: a separate entity? Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2009 Dec;19 Suppl 2:S18-20
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • INTRODUCTION: Ovarian cancer spreads via the retroperitoneal lymphatics, and these lymph nodes frequently contain metastasis.
  • A subset of patients whose disease was classified as stage IIIC has retroperitoneal lymph node metastases in the pelvic and/or para-aortic lymph nodes without intraperitoneal carcinomatosis and was upstaged from stage I to IIIB diseases based on these findings.
  • Patients undergoing cytoreductive surgery for advanced-stage ovarian cancer undergo concomitant retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy in an effort to improve their survival.
  • METHODS: Stratification of patients with stage IIIC ovarian cancer by lymph node status and presence and extent of metastatic disease in the peritoneal cavity has been performed.
  • Studies have determined the impact on disease-free and overall survivals of the resection of retroperitoneal lymph nodes as part of primary and secondary cytoreductive operations.
  • RESULTS: The overall survival of patients with stage IIIC ovarian cancer based on retroperitoneal lymph node metastasis without peritoneal carcinomatosis is 58% to 84% compared with 18% to 36% for those with macroscopic peritoneal carcinomatosis.
  • Although the performance of a pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy in patients with stage IIIC to IV diseases has been reported to prolong survival, an international randomized study did not confirm this finding.
  • Patients who undergo secondary resection of isolated recurrent lymph node metastasis have a better survival than those with more extensive recurrent disease.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These data support the stratification of patients with stage IIIC ovarian cancer based on the finding of metastasis to the retroperitoneal lymph nodes without peritoneal carcinomatosis versus those who have peritoneal carcinomatosis.
  • Although systematic lymphadenectomy during primary cytoreductive surgery does not appear to improve overall survival, resection of isolated lymph node metastasis and recurrences in lymph nodes may be associated with a survival benefit.
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Gynecologic Surgical Procedures / methods. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. Recurrence

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  • (PMID = 19955908.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-1438
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 15
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34. Sharmin F, Bhuiyan ZI, Chowdhury AA: Sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma with huge retroperitoneal metastasis. Mymensingh Med J; 2005 Jul;14(2):203-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma with huge retroperitoneal metastasis.
  • Sarcomatoid Renal Cell Carcinoma (SRC) is a very rare form of renal neoplasm with very poor prognosis.
  • A huge, fleshy and highly vascular retroperitoneal mass was found peroperatively.
  • Tumor affected the lower pole of right kidney invading the renal capsule, perinephric fat and continued to grow as a large tumor mass in the right retroperitoneal space Histologically, it revealed the features of sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma.

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  • (PMID = 16056213.001).
  • [ISSN] 1022-4742
  • [Journal-full-title] Mymensingh medical journal : MMJ
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mymensingh Med J
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Bangladesh
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35. Chen CJ, Hsu HT, Yen HH: An unusual cause of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Gastric yolk sac tumor with a large retroperitoneal metastasis. Gastroenterology; 2010 Oct;139(4):1098, 1427
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] An unusual cause of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Gastric yolk sac tumor with a large retroperitoneal metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Endodermal Sinus Tumor / pathology. Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage / etiology. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / secondary. Stomach Neoplasms / pathology






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