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1. Michaelson MD, Kaufman DS, Kantoff P, Oh WK, Smith MR: Randomized phase II study of atrasentan alone or in combination with zoledronic acid in men with metastatic prostate cancer. Cancer; 2006 Aug 1;107(3):530-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Randomized phase II study of atrasentan alone or in combination with zoledronic acid in men with metastatic prostate cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Metastatic prostate cancer is characterized by the presence of osteoblastic bone metastases.
  • Bone metastases account for most of the morbidity from this disease.
  • METHODS: The effects of atrasentan alone versus combination therapy with atrasentan and zoledronic acid were investigated on bone turnover markers in men with bone metastases from prostate cancer.
  • There was minimal clinical efficacy, with no objective responses and only 1 prostate-specific antigen (PSA) response.
  • CONCLUSIONS: There is no evidence for additive or synergistic effects of combination therapy with atrasentan and zoledronic acid on bone turnover markers in men with metastatic prostate cancer.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Alkaline Phosphatase / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Bone Density Conservation Agents / administration & dosage. Bone Density Conservation Agents / adverse effects. Bone Neoplasms / metabolism. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Bone and Bones / enzymology. Bone and Bones / metabolism. Disease Progression. Dyspnea / complications. Edema / complications. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2006 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 16804927.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 1K12CA87723
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Bone Density Conservation Agents; 0 / Diphosphonates; 0 / Imidazoles; 0 / Pyrrolidines; 6XC1PAD3KF / zoledronic acid; EC 3.1.3.1 / Alkaline Phosphatase; V6D7VK2215 / atrasentan
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2. Cho KS, Oh HY, Lee EJ, Hong SJ: Identification of enhancer of zeste homolog 2 expression in peripheral circulating tumor cells in metastatic prostate cancer patients: a preliminary study. Yonsei Med J; 2007 Dec 31;48(6):1009-14
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  • [Title] Identification of enhancer of zeste homolog 2 expression in peripheral circulating tumor cells in metastatic prostate cancer patients: a preliminary study.
  • PURPOSE: Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2), a kind of transcriptional repressor, is reportedly over-expressed in metastatic prostate cancer.
  • In this study, we analyzed EZH2 mRNA in circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in peripheral blood as a biomarker in patients with metastatic prostate cancer.
  • The sensitivity of this test for detection of EZH2 mRNA was determined by serial dilutions of a human prostate cancer cell line.
  • Blood samples were collected from 20 patients each with metastatic or localized prostate cancer and 10 healthy volunteers.
  • RESULTS: Sensitivity experiments showed that the test was highly sensitive as it could detect 10 tumor cells per 5 mL.
  • EZH2 mRNA expression density in the metastatic prostate cancer group was significantly higher than in the control (p=0.023) and localized prostate cancer groups (p=0.019).
  • There was no difference between the control and localized prostate cancer groups (p > 0.05).
  • CONCLUSION: EZH2 mRNA expression in circulating epithelial cells represents a promising marker for detecting early metastasis in prostate cancer.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Polycomb Repressive Complex 2. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 18159594.001).
  • [ISSN] 0513-5796
  • [Journal-full-title] Yonsei medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Yonsei Med. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Transcription Factors; EC 2.1.1.43 / EZH2 protein, human; EC 2.1.1.43 / Polycomb Repressive Complex 2
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2628187
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3. Drake CG: Immunotherapy for metastatic prostate cancer. Urol Oncol; 2008 Jul-Aug;26(4):438-44
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  • [Title] Immunotherapy for metastatic prostate cancer.
  • Chemotherapy with docetaxel is the standard treatment for men with metastatic prostate cancer, and results in statistically significant improvements in survival, as well as in quality of life.
  • More significantly, with the onset of early, PSA-based detection of prostate cancer and closer follow-up, many men present with metastatic disease that remains asymptomatic.
  • Immunotherapy represents one such approach; a number of clinical trials have suggested a survival benefit for immunotherapy in metastatic prostate cancer and confirmed that these agents are generally well-tolerated.
  • This review will discuss the mechanisms of action of several immunotherapy approaches for metastatic prostate cancer, focusing on active immunotherapy as opposed to administration of anti-tumor antibodies.
  • [MeSH-minor] Dendritic Cells / immunology. Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor / genetics. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis

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  • (PMID = 18593624.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-1439
  • [Journal-full-title] Urologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA006973
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 83869-56-1 / Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor
  • [Number-of-references] 36
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS787032; NLM/ PMC4886229
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4. Nayyar R, Sharma N, Gupta NP: Prognostic factors affecting progression and survival in metastatic prostate cancer. Urol Int; 2010;84(2):159-63
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  • [Title] Prognostic factors affecting progression and survival in metastatic prostate cancer.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate the role of age, Gleason score, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), PSA doubling time (PSADT), and PSA half-time (PSAT(1/2)) as prognostic factors in metastatic prostate cancer to predict long-term outcome.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: 412 patients with metastatic prostate cancer diagnosed after January 1995, with at least 6 months of follow-up, were enrolled.
  • Serum PSA was determined at diagnosis and every 3-6 months thereafter.
  • Patients aged <or=65 years at diagnosis, high baseline PSA and high nadir PSA were associated with poor overall survival.
  • CONCLUSION: Prostate cancer is a common malignancy in the elderly population.
  • [MeSH-major] Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood. Prostatic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Prostatic Neoplasms / mortality
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Alkaline Phosphatase / metabolism. Disease Progression. Humans. Male. Medical Oncology / methods. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Prognosis. Proportional Hazards Models. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome


5. Tandon PK, Rizvi AA: Hypocalcemia and parathyroid function in metastatic prostate cancer. Endocr Pract; 2005 Jul-Aug;11(4):254-8
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  • [Title] Hypocalcemia and parathyroid function in metastatic prostate cancer.
  • OBJECTIVE: To report the occurrence of hypocalcemia in a patient with metastatic prostate cancer, discuss its pathogenesis, and review the related medical literature.
  • METHODS: An 82-year-old man with a known history of prostate cancer was found to have a serum calcium level of 5.4 mg/dL during an admission to the hospital for small bowel obstruction.
  • A thorough review of his medical history revealed a temporal relationship between the diagnosis of malignant disease and progressive hypocalcemia.
  • RESULTS: The patient had no history of hypocalcemia before the diagnosis of, and initiation of antiandrogen therapy for, advanced prostate cancer.
  • A 24-hour urine collection showed substantially reduced calcium excretion, and a whole-body bone scan revealed widespread metastatic deposits.
  • These findings were compatible with hypocalcemia related to prostate cancer and bone metastatic lesions.
  • CONCLUSION: This case serves as a reminder that hypocalcemia can be a manifestation of prostate cancer metastatic to bone.
  • In contrast to the occurrence of secondary hyperparathyroidism in this setting, however, this patient had normal levels of parathyroid hormone.
  • Review of similar previous reports and the causes and implications of a possible functional hypoparathyroid state are discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Hypocalcemia / complications. Parathyroid Glands / physiopathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / blood. Prostatic Neoplasms / physiopathology

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  • (PMID = 16006299.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone
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6. Chacon G, Alexandraki I, Palacio C: Collet-sicard syndrome: an uncommon manifestation of metastatic prostate cancer. South Med J; 2006 Aug;99(8):898-9
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  • [Title] Collet-sicard syndrome: an uncommon manifestation of metastatic prostate cancer.
  • Metastatic spread of prostate adenocarcinoma to the temporal bone is very rare.
  • A case of metastatic prostate adenocarcinoma involving the temporal bone causing Collet-Sicard syndrome is presented.
  • This case highlights an uncommon manifestation of prostate adenocarcinoma causing symptoms referable to the occipital condyle of the temporal bone.
  • Few cases have been reported in the literature of Collet-Sicard syndrome due to metastatic prostate cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology. Skull Neoplasms / secondary. Temporal Bone
  • [MeSH-minor] Deglutition Disorders / diagnosis. Deglutition Disorders / etiology. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Syndrome. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16929891.001).
  • [ISSN] 0038-4348
  • [Journal-full-title] Southern medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] South. Med. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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7. Apolo AB, Pandit-Taskar N, Morris MJ: Novel tracers and their development for the imaging of metastatic prostate cancer. J Nucl Med; 2008 Dec;49(12):2031-41
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  • [Title] Novel tracers and their development for the imaging of metastatic prostate cancer.
  • There are presently no accurate methods of imaging prostate cancer metastases to bone.
  • We reviewed contemporary molecular imaging modalities that have been tested in humans with metastatic prostate cancer, with consideration of the studies' adherence to current prostate cancer clinical trial designs.
  • Articles from the years 2002 to 2008 on PET using (18)F-FDG, (11)C-choline, (18)F-choline, (18)F-flouride, (11)C-acetate, (11)C-methionine, and (18)F-fluoro-5alpha-dihydrotestosterone in patients with metastatic prostate cancer were reviewed.
  • Although these studies are encouraging, most focus on the rising population with prostate-specific antigen, and many involve small numbers of patients and do not adhere to consensus criteria for clinical trial designs in prostate cancer.

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  • (PMID = 18997047.001).
  • [ISSN] 0161-5505
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of nuclear medicine : official publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Nucl. Med.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32 CA009207; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K23CA102544; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32 CA009207-35; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T-32CA09207; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K23 CA102544; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K23 CA102544-05
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals
  • [Number-of-references] 71
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS324605; NLM/ PMC3310891
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8. Setlur SR, Royce TE, Sboner A, Mosquera JM, Demichelis F, Hofer MD, Mertz KD, Gerstein M, Rubin MA: Integrative microarray analysis of pathways dysregulated in metastatic prostate cancer. Cancer Res; 2007 Nov 1;67(21):10296-303
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  • [Title] Integrative microarray analysis of pathways dysregulated in metastatic prostate cancer.
  • Microarrays have been used to identify genes involved in cancer progression.
  • Integrative microarray analysis of pathways (IMAP) was done using existing expression array data from localized and metastatic prostate cancer.
  • Comparison of metastatic cancer and localized disease in multiple expression array profiling studies using the IMAP approach yielded a list of about 100 pathways that were significantly dysregulated (P < 0.05) in prostate cancer metastasis.
  • Our results indicate that this pathway is especially dysregulated in hormone-refractory prostate cancer.
  • [MeSH-minor] Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Male. NF-kappa B / physiology. NF-kappa B p50 Subunit / physiology. Neoplasm Metastasis. nef Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus / physiology

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  • (PMID = 17974971.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7445
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / NF-kappa B; 0 / NF-kappa B p50 Subunit; 0 / NFKB1 protein, human; 0 / nef Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus; 0 / nef protein, Human immunodeficiency virus 1
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9. Zeliadt SB, Penson DF: Pharmacoeconomics of available treatment options for metastatic prostate cancer. Pharmacoeconomics; 2007;25(4):309-27
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  • [Title] Pharmacoeconomics of available treatment options for metastatic prostate cancer.
  • The resources devoted to managing metastatic prostate cancer are enormous, yet little attention has been given to directly measuring the economic consequences of treatment alternatives.
  • The purpose of this article was to evaluate the pharmacoeconomics of available treatments for metastatic prostate cancer, including hormone-sensitive disease, androgen-independent prostate cancer and locally advanced/progressive disease.
  • We identified 58 articles addressing economic issues related to metastatic prostate cancer.
  • Survival remains poor for metastatic disease, thus QOL is the primary consideration for many therapies.
  • However, QOL for treatment of metastatic disease is poorly measured and, in most analyses, the impact of therapy on QOL was inferred based on speculation by the authors.
  • The economic studies of advanced prostate cancer highlight several aspects of clinical care that are filled with considerable uncertainty and remain guided by forces other than optimal resource allocation.
  • It is essential that we address the weaknesses in our understanding of the economic consequences of therapies for prostate cancer, and find ways to include economic information into the process of determining optimal therapy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Clinical Trials as Topic. Combined Modality Therapy / methods. Economics, Pharmaceutical. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging


10. Wegiel B, Evans S, Hellsten R, Otterbein LE, Bjartell A, Persson JL: Molecular pathways in the progression of hormone-independent and metastatic prostate cancer. Curr Cancer Drug Targets; 2010 Jun;10(4):392-401
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Molecular pathways in the progression of hormone-independent and metastatic prostate cancer.
  • Once prostate cancer becomes castration resistant, cancer cells may rapidly gain the ability to invade and to metastasize to lymph nodes and distant organs.
  • The progression through hormone-dependent to hormone-independent/castration-resistant and metastatic PCa is poorly understood.
  • In this review paper, we provide an overview on the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the process of tumor cell invasion and metastasis in prostate cancer.
  • We specifically present the most recent findings on the role of multiple cellular signaling pathways including androgen receptor (AR), mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), Akt, transforming growth factor b (TGFb interleukin-6 (IL-6) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the development of hormone-independent/castration-resistant prostate cancer.
  • In addition, we also discuss the recent findings on signatures of gene expression during prostate cancer progression.
  • Our overviews on the novel findings will help to gain better understanding of the complexity of molecular mechanisms that may play an essential role in the development of castration-resistant and metastatic prostate cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Androgens / physiology. Neoplasm Metastasis. Prostatic Neoplasms / genetics


11. Shrivastava V, Christensen R, Poggi MM: Prostate cancer metastatic to the external auditory canals. Clin Genitourin Cancer; 2007 Jun;5(5):341-3
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  • [Title] Prostate cancer metastatic to the external auditory canals.
  • A 58-year-old white man with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level of 6 ng/mL, a Gleason score of 6 (3+3), and T2a adenocarcinoma of the prostate underwent prostatectomy.
  • The PSA continued to increase, and the patient developed bone-only metastatic disease.
  • Six months later, he presented with bilateral hearing loss and was found to have pathologic and radiographic evidence of metastatic prostate cancer to the external auditory canals.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Ear Canal / pathology. Ear Neoplasms / secondary. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Fatal Outcome. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood. Prostatectomy


12. Williams BJ, Fox BD, Sciubba DM, Suki D, Tu SM, Kuban D, Gokaslan ZL, Rhines LD, Rao G: Surgical management of prostate cancer metastatic to the spine. J Neurosurg Spine; 2009 May;10(5):414-22
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  • [Title] Surgical management of prostate cancer metastatic to the spine.
  • OBJECT: Significant improvements in neurological function and pain relief are the benefits of aggressive surgical management of spinal metastatic disease.
  • In this study, a series of patients undergoing spinal surgery for metastatic prostate cancer were reviewed to identify predictors of survival and functional outcome.
  • METHODS: The authors retrospectively reviewed the records of all patients who were treated with surgery for prostate cancer metastases to the spine between 1993 and 2005 at a single institution.
  • The median age at spinal metastasis was 66 years (range 50-84 years).
  • Gleason score (p = 0.002), total number of metastases (p = 0.001), and the degree of spinal canal compression (p = 0.001) were independent predictors of survival.
  • Age > or = 65 years at the time of surgery was an independent predictor of a postoperative complication (p = 0.005).
  • CONCLUSIONS: In selected patients with prostate cancer metastases to the spine, aggressive surgical decompression and spinal reconstruction is a useful treatment option.
  • Gleason score, metastatic burden, and degree of spinal canal compression may be associated with survival following surgery, and thus should be considered carefully prior to opting for surgical management.
  • [MeSH-major] Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology. Spinal Neoplasms / secondary. Spinal Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19442002.001).
  • [ISSN] 1547-5654
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery. Spine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Neurosurg Spine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Narcotics; 0 / Steroids
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13. Pelger RC, Lycklama A Nijeholt GA, Papapoulos SE, Hamdy NA: Severe hypophosphatemic osteomalacia in hormone-refractory prostate cancer metastatic to the skeleton: natural history and pitfalls in management. Bone; 2005 Jan;36(1):1-5
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  • [Title] Severe hypophosphatemic osteomalacia in hormone-refractory prostate cancer metastatic to the skeleton: natural history and pitfalls in management.
  • We report the case of a severe symptomatic hypophosphatemic osteomalacia in a 66-year-old patient with hormone-refractory prostate cancer metastatic to the skeleton.
  • A follow-up of 2 years from diagnosis to development of hormone refractoriness and death allowed us to study the natural history of this uncommon disturbance of mineral homeostasis in this common malignancy.
  • Relevant to the difficult management of the late stages of prostate cancer is the failure of hypophosphatemia to respond to conventional therapeutic approaches and the favorable outcome of antitumor therapy suggesting that this group of patients, although having a poor prognosis, could still benefit from aggressive second line therapy.
  • In this malignancy in which metastases have a predilection for bone, failure to recognize osteomalacia can only result in significantly increasing the burden of skeletal complications.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Hypophosphatemia / complications. Osteomalacia / complications. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology


14. Cone LA, Koochek K, Henager HA, Fausel R, Gade-Andavolu R, Potts BE, Jennings LM: Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis in a patient with metastatic prostate cancer: case report and literature review. Surg Neurol; 2006 Apr;65(4):372-5, discussion 375-6
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  • [Title] Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis in a patient with metastatic prostate cancer: case report and literature review.
  • BACKGROUND: Leptomeningeal metastasis is discovered at autopsy in approximately 5% of patients with systemic cancer.
  • Until recently with the introduction of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), premorbid diagnosis was extremely difficult.
  • Leptomeningeal metastasis in metastatic prostate cancer has been reported in only 14 patients previously.
  • CASE DESCRIPTION: We recently studied such a patient and were able to establish a correct diagnosis based solely on the MRI and the presence of an elevated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) prostate-specific antigen (PSA).
  • Only 3 previous patients with leptomeningeal prostate metastasis have undergone CSF PSA evaluations.
  • [MeSH-major] Arachnoid / pathology. Carcinoma / secondary. Meningeal Neoplasms / secondary. Pia Mater / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Anti-Inflammatory Agents / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Consciousness Disorders / etiology. Diagnostic Errors / prevention & control. Early Diagnosis. Fatal Outcome. Headache / etiology. Humans. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis / drug therapy. Neoplasm Metastasis / pathology. Neoplasm Metastasis / physiopathology. Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood. Prostate-Specific Antigen / cerebrospinal fluid. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Failure

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  • (PMID = 16531199.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-3019
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Neurol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents; EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen
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15. Basch EM, Sit L, Fruscione M, Burke L, Kane R, George D, Carducci MA, Matthew P, Beer TM, Scher HI: Pain and analgesic use in men with metastatic prostate cancer. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):e20515

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pain and analgesic use in men with metastatic prostate cancer.
  • : e20515 Background: Pain is an important endpoint in metastatic prostate cancer and was the basis for the 1996 FDA approval of mitoxantrone.
  • The prevalence and distribution of pain severity at specific points in the prostate cancer disease continuum are not well defined.
  • METHODS: A questionnaire that includes the Brief Pain Inventory and additional pain/analgesia items was developed as a collaboration between the DOD/PCF-supported Prostate Cancer Clinical Trials Consortium (PCCTC) and FDA Study Endpoints and Labeling Design (SEALD) team.
  • RESULTS: Between August-December 2008, 325 men with prostate cancers representing different disease states being seen in outpatient clinics of participating centers were each queried once.
  • More than half (n=175) self-reported metastatic disease, including 129 with bone metastases.
  • Among those with bone metastases, 76 (59%) reported experiencing any level of pain in the last week; 49 (38%) reported a worst pain score ≥4/10 of which 38 (78%) used analgesics over the past week and 31 (63%) used daily analgesia.
  • Among the 49 patients with pain scores ≥4/10, current or past docetaxel use was reported by 32 (65%), androgen deprivation therapy by 47 (96%), and 28 (57%) had been or were currently enrolled in a clinical trial.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Pain is sufficiently prevalent in men with metastatic prostate cancer to enable prospective assessment of palliation endpoints in clinical trials.

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  • (PMID = 27960916.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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16. Lee RJ, Stott SL, Nagrath S, Ulkus LE, Dahl DM, Smith MR, Toner M, Maheswaran S, Haber DA: Analyses of circulating tumor cell (CTC) dynamics and treatment response in prostate cancer using the CTC-chip microfluidic device. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):5149

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Analyses of circulating tumor cell (CTC) dynamics and treatment response in prostate cancer using the CTC-chip microfluidic device.
  • : 5149 Background: The CTC-Chip reliably detects CTCs in patients with localized and metastatic prostate cancer.
  • In localized disease, CTCs may be indicative of tumor invasiveness.
  • In the metastatic setting, CTCs may be useful in monitoring response to therapy.
  • Molecular analyses of CTCs through this minimally invasive technique may provide insights into disease behavior, whereas sampling of metastatic deposits in bone (the predominant site of prostate metastasis) is not feasible.
  • Subgroups of patients (n) included: localized disease undergoing prostatectomy (25), and metastatic disease undergoing either androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) (12) or docetaxel chemotherapy (5).
  • In patients with metastatic disease undergoing either ADT or chemotherapy, CTC quantities generally corresponded with changes in serum PSA and radiographic assessments.
  • Molecular characterization of CTCs may provide new insights into prostate cancer biology, clinical behavior, and therapeutic targets.

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  • (PMID = 27964441.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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17. Curtis KK, Adam TJ, Chen SC, Pruthi RK, Gornet MK: Anaemia following initiation of androgen deprivation therapy for metastatic prostate cancer: a retrospective chart review. Aging Male; 2008 Dec;11(4):157-61
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anaemia following initiation of androgen deprivation therapy for metastatic prostate cancer: a retrospective chart review.
  • We conducted a chart review of patients receiving ADT for metastatic prostate cancer to assess anaemia-related symptoms.
  • METHODS: 135 stage IV prostate cancer cases were reviewed for treatment type; haemoglobin values before and after treatment; and symptoms of anaemia.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The present study confirms that ADT results in a significant drop in haemoglobin levels into the anaemic range.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Anilides / adverse effects. Anilides / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Goserelin / adverse effects. Goserelin / therapeutic use. Hemoglobins / analysis. Humans. Leuprolide / adverse effects. Leuprolide / therapeutic use. Linear Models. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis. Nitriles / adverse effects. Nitriles / therapeutic use. Retrospective Studies. Tosyl Compounds / adverse effects. Tosyl Compounds / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 18937151.001).
  • [ISSN] 1473-0790
  • [Journal-full-title] The aging male : the official journal of the International Society for the Study of the Aging Male
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Aging Male
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgen Antagonists; 0 / Anilides; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Hemoglobins; 0 / Nitriles; 0 / Tosyl Compounds; 0F65R8P09N / Goserelin; A0Z3NAU9DP / bicalutamide; EFY6W0M8TG / Leuprolide
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18. Ma CG, Ye DW, Yao XD, Zhang SL, Dai B, Zhang HL, Zhu Y, Shen YJ, Zhu YP, Shi GH, Qin XJ, Lin GW, Xiao WJ, Yang LF, Yang BS, Cao DL: [The survival analysis of metastatic prostate cancer]. Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2010 Aug 1;48(15):1166-9
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  • [Title] [The survival analysis of metastatic prostate cancer].
  • OBJECTIVES: To analyze the clinical and pathological informations of metastatic prostate cancer patients to find the predictive factors of the survival.
  • METHODS: To filter 364 cases of metastatic prostate cancer in the 940 cases of prostate cancer that were treated in Cancer Hospital Fudan University in Shanghai from March 1998 to June 2009, the cases had hormonal therapy and full clinical and pathological records.
  • The median survival time of metastatic prostate cancer was 64 months, and the one-year, two-year, three-year, four-year, five-year survival rate was 92%, 78%, 66%, 60%, 54%.
  • The univariate analysis indicated that Gleason score (P = 0.033), clinical stage (P < 0.001), the effectiveness of hormonal therapy (P < 0.001), the prostate specific antigen (PSA) nadir during hormonal therapy (P < 0.001) and the time from the start of hormonal therapy to the PSA nadir (P = 0.002) were predictive factors for the survival time of metastatic prostate cancer.
  • The multivariate analysis indicated that the PSA nadir during hormonal therapy (P < 0.001) and the time from the start of hormonal therapy to the PSA nadir (P < 0.001) were independent factors that predict the survival time of metastatic prostate cancer.
  • CONCLUSION: The PSA nadir during hormonal therapy and the time from the start of hormonal therapy to the PSA nadir are independent factors that predict the survival time of metastatic prostate cancer.


19. Moser L, Schubert T, Hinkelbein W: Hormone-refractory and metastatic prostate cancer - palliative radiotherapy. Front Radiat Ther Oncol; 2008;41:117-25
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  • [Title] Hormone-refractory and metastatic prostate cancer - palliative radiotherapy.
  • Prostate cancer progression is commonly manifested by obstructive uropathy, regional lymphatic metastases and hematogenous metastases to the axial skeleton.
  • Radiotherapy is a mainstay in the palliation of symptomatic metastatic prostate cancer and is most often used for the palliation of painful metastatic bone lesions, resulting in a relief of pain in about 80-90% of patients and a reduction of analgesics.
  • In metastatic disease compromising the integrity of the spinal cord or a nerve root, radiotherapy can be used as an urgent intervention to minimize neurological dysfunction and local progression or as an adjunct to surgical decompression.
  • Symptoms of metastatic lymphadenopathy like leg edema and back discomfort caused by pelvic or paraaortic metastases are related to the immediate anatomic structures affected.
  • Radiotherapy for localized hormone-refractory prostate cancer has an excellent local control rate; nevertheless, the prognosis is poor, the majority of patients failing with distant metastasis within few years.
  • The role of radiotherapy in hormone-refractory and metastatic prostate cancer, considering the patient's individual situation, are presented and discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Neoplasm Metastasis / radiotherapy. Palliative Care / methods. Prostatic Neoplasms / radiotherapy


20. Lebret T, Méjean A: [Role of hormonotherapy in the treatment of metastatic prostate cancer]. Prog Urol; 2008 Nov;18 Suppl 7:S332-7
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  • [Title] [Role of hormonotherapy in the treatment of metastatic prostate cancer].
  • [Transliterated title] Place de l'hormonothérapie dans le traitement du cancer de prostate métastatique.
  • Androgen privation is considered as the referent first line treatment for metastatic prostate cancer.
  • Since metastasis is confirmed, immediate treatment with continue LHRH agonist is the French Association of Urology (AFU) AFU recommendations treatment for metastatic prostate cancer but intermittent treatment can be considered as an option.
  • [MeSH-minor] Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / analogs & derivatives. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 19070812.001).
  • [ISSN] 1166-7087
  • [Journal-full-title] Progrès en urologie : journal de l'Association française d'urologie et de la Société française d'urologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prog. Urol.
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgen Antagonists; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 33515-09-2 / Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone
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21. Akashi T, Koizumi K, Tsuneyama K, Saiki I, Takano Y, Fuse H: Chemokine receptor CXCR4 expression and prognosis in patients with metastatic prostate cancer. Cancer Sci; 2008 Mar;99(3):539-42
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  • [Title] Chemokine receptor CXCR4 expression and prognosis in patients with metastatic prostate cancer.
  • The chemokine receptor CXCR4 has been reported to be aberrantly expressed in human cancers and has also been shown to participate in the development of cancer metastasis.
  • The present study was carried out to assess immunohistochemically the pattern of CXCR4 expression in patients with metastatic prostate cancer.
  • We also evaluated the pathological grade, extent of bony metastasis, clinical response to hormonal therapy, and patient prognosis.
  • Its expression showed no association with pathological grade, extent of bony metastasis, or clinical response to hormonal therapy.
  • Patients with a high expression of CXCR4 in tumors had poorer cancer-specific survival than those with low expression of CXCR4.
  • CXCR4 expression is a useful prognostic factor for patients with metastatic prostate cancer treated with androgen-withdrawal therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology. Receptors, CXCR4 / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Bone Neoplasms / pathology. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Prognosis. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 18201276.001).
  • [ISSN] 1349-7006
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Receptors, CXCR4
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22. Vela I, Gregory L, Gardiner EM, Clements JA, Nicol DL: Bone and prostate cancer cell interactions in metastatic prostate cancer. BJU Int; 2007 Apr;99(4):735-42
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Bone and prostate cancer cell interactions in metastatic prostate cancer.
  • The interplay in prostate cancer bone metastases between the 'seed' (the prostate cancer cells) and the 'soil' (the bone microenvironment) has been increasingly recognized as integral to the remarkable tropism for bone shown by prostate cancer.
  • Recent developments, including the use of bisphosphonates in metastatic disease, highlight the important role of bone cells in the development and progression of metastatic prostate cancer.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aging / physiology. Bone Density / physiology. Bone Remodeling / physiology. Hormones / physiology. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism


23. Wörmann B, Wolff JM: [Systemic treatment of metastatic prostate cancer]. Urologe A; 2010 Feb;49(2):221-7
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  • [Title] [Systemic treatment of metastatic prostate cancer].
  • Systemic treatment of advanced prostate cancer is multifaceted.
  • Chemotherapy is effective in hormone refractory (castration resistant) prostate cancer.
  • Use of bisphosphonates is standard in metastatic bone disease.
  • Treatment of patients with metastatic prostate cancer is palliative.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Androgen Antagonists / adverse effects. Androgen Antagonists / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Diphosphonates / therapeutic use. Disease Progression. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / mortality. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Orchiectomy. Palliative Care. Quality of Life. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 20180063.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-0563
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Urologe. Ausg. A
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urologe A
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgen Antagonists; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Diphosphonates
  • [Number-of-references] 36
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24. Carson AP, Howard DL, Carpenter WR, Taylor YJ, Peacock S, Schenck AP, Godley PA: Trends and racial differences in the use of androgen deprivation therapy for metastatic prostate cancer. J Pain Symptom Manage; 2010 May;39(5):872-81
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  • [Title] Trends and racial differences in the use of androgen deprivation therapy for metastatic prostate cancer.
  • CONTEXT: Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is widely used to manage the symptoms of advanced prostate cancer and has been shown to slow the progression of the disease.
  • OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to assess use trends for ADT overall and by type (orchiectomy and luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone [LHRH] agonists) and the factors associated with time to receipt for metastatic prostate cancer.
  • METHODS: Data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) cancer registry and Medicare claims database were obtained for 5,273 men, aged 65 years and older and diagnosed with Stage IV prostate cancer during 1991-1999 from seven SEER regions.
  • RESULTS: African-American men were less likely than white men to receive any ADT after diagnosis (P<0.001).
  • CONCLUSION: African-American men with metastatic prostate cancer were significantly less likely to receive ADT and, when treated, had a slightly longer time to receipt than white men, which has implications for patients and physicians involved in the palliative management of metastatic prostate cancer.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.
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  • (PMID = 20471547.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-6513
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pain and symptom management
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Pain Symptom Manage
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / PHS HHS / / U55/CCR921930-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 1U01CA114629; United States / NCI NIH HHS / PC / N01-PC-35139; United States / NCI NIH HHS / PC / N02 PC015105; United States / NIMHD NIH HHS / MD / P60MD000244; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA114629; United States / NIMHD NIH HHS / MD / P60 MD000239; United States / NIMHD NIH HHS / MD / P60 MD000244; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 2R25CA057726; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / N01PC35136; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / N01PC35139; United States / NCI NIH HHS / PC / N01-PC-35136; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R25 CA057726
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 33515-09-2 / Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS362675; NLM/ PMC3878612
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25. Canby-Hagino ED, Swanson GP, Crawford ED, Basler JW, Hernandez J, Thompson IM: Local and systemic therapy for patients with metastatic prostate cancer: should the primary tumor be treated? Curr Urol Rep; 2005 May;6(3):183-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Local and systemic therapy for patients with metastatic prostate cancer: should the primary tumor be treated?
  • Data from well-designed, prospective clinical trials are lacking to support treatment of primary tumor in men diagnosed with metastatic prostate cancer.
  • However, a growing body of evidence suggests that treatment of the primary tumor may enhance cancer control and survival in some men.
  • This evidence is examined and recommendations are made for identifying patients with metastatic prostate cancer who may benefit from definitive treatment of the prostate tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasm Metastasis / therapy. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 15869722.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-2737
  • [Journal-full-title] Current urology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Urol Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgen Antagonists
  • [Number-of-references] 50
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26. Emmenegger U, Francia G, Shaked Y, Kerbel RS: Metronomic chemotherapy: principles and lessons learned from applications in the treatment of metastatic prostate cancer. Recent Results Cancer Res; 2010;180:165-83
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Metronomic chemotherapy: principles and lessons learned from applications in the treatment of metastatic prostate cancer.
  • By frequent and protracted administration of conventional cytotoxic drugs without prolonged interruptions, the primary treatment target shifts from the tumor cell population to the tumor vasculature.
  • We outline the basic aspects of the metronomic concept, describe the results of clinical applications of such chemotherapy by focusing on studies in metastatic prostate cancer, and discuss certain shortcomings.
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Clinical Trials as Topic. Endothelial Cells / physiology. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis. Stem Cells / physiology

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  • (PMID = 20033383.001).
  • [ISSN] 0080-0015
  • [Journal-full-title] Recent results in cancer research. Fortschritte der Krebsforschung. Progrès dans les recherches sur le cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Recent Results Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] Canada / Canadian Institutes of Health Research / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors
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27. Keating NL, O'Malley AJ, McNaughton-Collins M, Oh WK, Smith MR: Use of androgen deprivation therapy for metastatic prostate cancer in older men. BJU Int; 2008 May;101(9):1077-83
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  • [Title] Use of androgen deprivation therapy for metastatic prostate cancer in older men.
  • OBJECTIVE: To assess factors associated with early or delayed androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) among men diagnosed with metastatic prostate cancer, and to assess the relationship between ADT and overall survival, as there is uncertainty about the ideal timing for initiating ADT in men with metastatic prostate cancer.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: We studied a population-based cohort of American men aged >or=66 years diagnosed with metastatic prostate cancer during 1992-2002 and followed to 2003.
  • We assessed the receipt of ADT early (<or=4 months from diagnosis), delayed (>4 months), or not at all, using multinomial logistic regression to identify factors associated with treatment, and Cox proportional-hazard models to assess whether treatment was associated with survival.
  • CONCLUSIONS: A large minority of men with metastatic prostate cancer, particularly black men, receive delayed or no ADT.
  • After controlling for patient and tumour characteristics, survival did not differ by race, and receipt of ADT did not contribute to racial differences in survival.

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  • (PMID = 18190632.001).
  • [ISSN] 1464-410X
  • [Journal-full-title] BJU international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BJU Int.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA090381; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K24 CA121990; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K24 CA121990-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50CA90381; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA121990-02
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgen Antagonists; 33515-09-2 / Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS204636; NLM/ PMC2900629
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28. Dreicer R: Current status of cytotoxic chemotherapy in patients with metastatic prostate cancer. Urol Oncol; 2008 Jul-Aug;26(4):426-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Current status of cytotoxic chemotherapy in patients with metastatic prostate cancer.
  • Despite efforts at early detection with prostate specific antigen-based screening, more than 25,000 patients in the United States will die this year of metastatic prostate cancer.
  • As a consequence both of screening and increased use of androgen deprivation therapy, patients commonly present with low volume, asymptomatic, metastatic disease.
  • Over the past 2 decades chemotherapy for advanced prostate cancer has evolved from a frightful, toxic experience to one that frequently provides clinically meaningful palliation and a modest, but real survival benefit.
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Male. Mitoxantrone / therapeutic use. Neoplasm Metastasis. Taxoids / therapeutic use


29. Aguero MF, Venero M, Brown DM, Smulson ME, Espinoza LA: Phenoxodiol inhibits growth of metastatic prostate cancer cells. Prostate; 2010 Aug;70(11):1211-21
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  • [Title] Phenoxodiol inhibits growth of metastatic prostate cancer cells.
  • BACKGROUND: Phenoxodiol, a synthetic analog of Genistein, is being assessed in several clinical studies against a range of cancer types and was shown to have a good efficacy and safety profile.
  • In this study we tested the effects of Phenoxodiol against prostate cancer cell lines.
  • METHODS: Cell-cycle analysis, plasmatic membrane damage, clonogenic assay, comet assay, and Western blot methodologies were employed to assess the effects of Phenoxodiol on prostate cancer cell lines.
  • An in vivo model confirmed the potential therapeutic efficacy of Phenoxodiol when administered orally to tumor bearing mice.
  • RESULTS: Phenoxodiol treatment promoted a marked inhibition of proliferation and loss of colony formation in LNCaP cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner.
  • Similar effects were also observed in the metastatic prostate cell lines PC3 and DU145.
  • Oral administration of Phenoxodiol induced a considerable growth inhibition of malignant tumors generated by inoculation of LNCaP cells into Balb/c nu/nu athymic mice.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrated that Phenoxodiol promotes apoptosis, as determined by PARP-1 degradation, via mitochondrial depolarization and G1/S cell-cycle arrest thereby confirming that it is active against androgen-dependent and independent prostate cancer cells.
  • Although a precise target for Phenoxodiol has not been identified, these data contribute to our understanding of the mechanism by which this drug promotes cell death in prostate cancer cells, and warrants the continued clinical development of Phenoxodiol as a therapeutic for the treatment of metastatic prostate cancer.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Apoptosis / drug effects. Cell Cycle / drug effects. Cell Growth Processes / drug effects. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Survival / drug effects. Comet Assay. DNA Damage. Humans. Male. Mice. Mice, Inbred BALB C. Mice, Nude. Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent / genetics. Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent / metabolism. Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent / pathology. Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase Inhibitors. Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases / metabolism. Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays

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  • [Copyright] 2010. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 20564423.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0045
  • [Journal-full-title] The Prostate
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prostate
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Isoflavones; 0 / Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase Inhibitors; 995FT1W541 / phenoxodiol; EC 2.4.2.30 / PARP1 protein, human; EC 2.4.2.30 / Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases
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30. Sissung TM, Thordardottir S, Gardner ER, Figg WD: Current status of thalidomide and CC-5013 in the treatment of metastatic prostate cancer. Anticancer Agents Med Chem; 2009 Dec;9(10):1058-69
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Current status of thalidomide and CC-5013 in the treatment of metastatic prostate cancer.
  • Thalidomide is emerging as a potentially important therapeutic option in the treatment of metastatic prostate cancer.
  • Although the mechanism of action of this agent remains elusive in malignancies of the prostate, recent data has indicated that thalidomide may play a role in inflammation, immunomodulation, and anti-angiogenesis.
  • Lenalidomide (CC-5013), a thalidomide analogue with improved activity and safety profile in certain disease contexts, is in the early stages of development in prostate cancer.
  • This review will provide the current status of the history, mechanism, metabolism, and clinical use of thalidomide in metastatic prostate cancer.
  • It will also describe the mechanism and clinical use of lenalidomide as it pertains to malignancies of the prostate.

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  • (PMID = 19719457.001).
  • [ISSN] 1875-5992
  • [Journal-full-title] Anti-cancer agents in medicinal chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Agents Med Chem
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / PHS HHS / / HHSN261200800001E; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 4Z8R6ORS6L / Thalidomide; F0P408N6V4 / lenalidomide
  • [Number-of-references] 95
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31. Lu-Yao G, Moore DF, Oleynick J, Dipaola RS, Yao SL: Use of hormonal therapy in men with metastatic prostate cancer. J Urol; 2006 Aug;176(2):526-31
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Use of hormonal therapy in men with metastatic prostate cancer.
  • PURPOSE: Bilateral orchiectomy or luteinizing hormone releasing hormone agonists represent the standard of care for metastatic prostate cancer.
  • In this population based study we assessed the use rates of these therapies in men who died of prostate cancer.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 9,110 men 65 years or older who died of prostate cancer in 1991 to 2000 were identified through the population based Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results, and Medicare linked database to determine hormonal therapy use rates.
  • RESULTS: Approximately 38% of black and 25% of white men did not receive hormonal therapy before dying of prostate cancer.
  • After adjusting for cancer status at diagnosis and other potential confounding factors black race and residence in low income areas were associated with lower hormonal therapy use (relative risk 0.73, 95% CI 0.67 to 0.80 and 0.91, 95% CI 0.85 to 0.98, respectively).
  • CONCLUSIONS: A substantial number of men who die as a consequence of prostate cancer never receive hormonal therapy.
  • Further studies are warranted to determine factors that may be associated with the incomplete use of hormonal therapy for metastatic prostate cancer.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis. SEER Program

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  • (PMID = 16813882.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-5347
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal
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32. Saha B, Arase A, Imam SS, Tsao-Wei D, Naritoku WY, Groshen S, Jones LW, Imam SA: Overexpression of E-cadherin and beta-catenin proteins in metastatic prostate cancer cells in bone. Prostate; 2008 Jan 1;68(1):78-84
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Overexpression of E-cadherin and beta-catenin proteins in metastatic prostate cancer cells in bone.
  • BACKGROUND: The expression of E-cadherin in the intercellular adhesion of metastatic prostate cancer cells in bone, which is the most prevalent site of metastatic growth, remains elusive.
  • METHODS: The aim of the study was to compare the concurrent membranous expression of E-cadherin and beta-catenin proteins, the state which is known to be associated with the cellular adhesion function of E-cadherin, in prostate biopsy tissue specimens by immunohistochemical staining method.
  • RESULTS: Benign prostate hyperplasia cells exhibited homogeneous expression of both E-cadherin and beta-catenin in 9 of 11 (82%), whereas the primary prostate cancer cells were homogeneously positive for both proteins only in 4 of 22 (18%) of the cases.
  • However, in contrast to the primary cancer, a significantly increased frequency of the metastatic prostate cancer cells in bone exhibited homogeneous expression of E-cadherin and beta-catenin in 12 of 17 (71%) of the cases.
  • A statistically significant association was observed between the overexpression of both proteins and the metastatic prostate cancer cells in bone (Fisher's exact P < 0.001).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The result of the study demonstrated for the first time that the membranous overexpression of E-cadherin and beta-catenin are significantly associated with the metastatic prostate cancer cells in bone and that the high frequency of expression suggest their involvement in the intercellular adhesion of the metastatic cells in bone.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / metabolism. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Cadherins / metabolism. Prostatic Neoplasms / metabolism. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology. beta Catenin / metabolism


33. Swanson G, Thompson I, Basler J, Crawford ED: Metastatic prostate cancer-does treatment of the primary tumor matter? J Urol; 2006 Oct;176(4 Pt 1):1292-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Metastatic prostate cancer-does treatment of the primary tumor matter?
  • PURPOSE: In recent years there has been increased interest in adjuvant therapy for prostate cancer.
  • This trend has engendered a tendency toward overlooking the issue of therapy to the primary tumor in advanced disease.
  • We reviewed the effect of treating the principal disease bulk on overall treatment outcome in patients with advanced and metastatic cancer.
  • Specifically we evaluated the role of surgical tumor cytoreduction.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a comprehensive literature review to evaluate the role of surgical debulking on the outcome of advanced cancer, including any published evidence supporting a benefit of this therapy for prostate cancer.
  • The beneficial role of maximal surgical cytoreduction has been clearly demonstrated in advanced ovarian cancer and gastrointestinal carcinomatosis.
  • Maximal debulking of brain, liver and lung metastasis has translated into longer survival.
  • Removal of the primary tumor has been proved to increase survival in randomized trials of metastatic renal cell cancer.
  • It appears that patients with node positive and possibly metastatic prostate cancer have a better response to androgen ablation with surgical removal of the gland.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Surgical cytoreduction of cancer results in a more favorable and durable response to systemic therapy.
  • It is reasonable to explore aggressive surgical therapy for advanced prostate cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasm Metastasis / prevention & control. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Survival Rate


34. Feeley BT, Gamradt SC, Hsu WK, Liu N, Krenek L, Robbins P, Huard J, Lieberman JR: Influence of BMPs on the formation of osteoblastic lesions in metastatic prostate cancer. J Bone Miner Res; 2005 Dec;20(12):2189-99
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Influence of BMPs on the formation of osteoblastic lesions in metastatic prostate cancer.
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of BMPs on the formation of metastatic prostate cancer lesions to bone.
  • INTRODUCTION: Prostate adenocarcinoma is the leading cause of cancer in North American men.
  • The formation of skeletal metastases affects approximately 70% of patients with advanced disease, and a majority of these patients have osteoblastic lesions.
  • Although BMPs have been found to be expressed in multiple oncogenic cell lines, their role in the formation of metastatic osteoblastic lesions remains uncharacterized.
  • We hypothesized that BMPs influence the development of metastatic osteoblastic lesions associated with prostate cancer.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Western blot analysis and RT-PCR was used to determine BMP receptor expression on osteoblastic prostate cancer cell lines LAPC-4 and LAPC-9.
  • Tumor size was determined by radiographs and direct measurement.
  • RESULTS: We determined that BMP receptor mRNA and protein was expressed on osteoblastic prostate cancer cell lines LAPC-4 and LAPC-9.
  • In vitro studies showed that BMP-2 and -7 stimulated cellular migration and invasion of prostate cancer cells in a dose-dependent fashion, although BMP-4 had no effect.
  • Formation of osteoblastic lesions was inhibited by overexpression of noggin by prostate cancer cells transduced with a retrovirus containing the cDNA for noggin.
  • CONCLUSIONS: BMPs are critical in the formation of the osteoblastic lesions associated with prostate cancer metastases, and future treatment strategies that inhibit local BMP activity may reduce the formation and progression of osteoblastic lesions.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Blotting, Western. Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2. Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4. Bone Morphogenetic Protein 7. Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptors, Type I / genetics. Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptors, Type I / metabolism. Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptors, Type II / genetics. Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptors, Type II / metabolism. Bone Neoplasms / genetics. Bone Neoplasms / metabolism. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Carrier Proteins / genetics. Carrier Proteins / pharmacology. Cell Line. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Movement / drug effects. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Gene Expression / genetics. Humans. Male. Mice. Mice, SCID. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Neoplasm Transplantation. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Tibia / pathology. Transfection. Transforming Growth Factor beta / metabolism. Transforming Growth Factor beta / pharmacology. Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays / methods

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  • (PMID = 16294272.001).
  • [ISSN] 0884-0431
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of bone and mineral research : the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Bone Miner. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 10303901
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BMP2 protein, human; 0 / BMP4 protein, human; 0 / BMP7 protein, human; 0 / Bmp2 protein, mouse; 0 / Bmp4 protein, mouse; 0 / Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2; 0 / Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4; 0 / Bone Morphogenetic Protein 7; 0 / Bone Morphogenetic Proteins; 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Transforming Growth Factor beta; 148294-77-3 / noggin protein; EC 2.7.11.30 / Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptors, Type I; EC 2.7.11.30 / Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptors, Type II
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35. Silva BM, Neto JA, Lima RL: [Analysis of complications in metastatic prostate cancer patients submitted to bilateral orchiectomy]. Rev Col Bras Cir; 2010 Aug;37(4):269-73
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  • [Title] [Analysis of complications in metastatic prostate cancer patients submitted to bilateral orchiectomy].
  • [Transliterated title] Análise de complicações em pacientes portadores de câncer de próstata metastático submetidos à orquiectomia bilateral.
  • METHODS: That's an analytical transversal study with a sample of 25 patients, between 58 to 82 years, carriers of metastatic prostate cancer, submitted to the bilateral orchiectomy in the Professor Alberto Antunes University Hospital 's (HUPAA-UFAL), in the period of January of 2003 to December of 2008.
  • CONCLUSION: The bilateral orchiectomy constitutes in a good alternative for metastatic prostate cancer patients, in a way that it is observed satisfaction of the majority of the patients in relation to the improvement of the symptoms and the presented complications had not great impact in the daily life of the same ones.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cross-Sectional Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Postoperative Complications / epidemiology. Postoperative Complications / etiology

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  • (PMID = 21085843.001).
  • [ISSN] 1809-4546
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista do Colégio Brasileiro de Cirurgiões
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Col Bras Cir
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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36. Lloyd A, Penson D, Dewilde S, Kleinman L: Eliciting patient preferences for hormonal therapy options in the treatment of metastatic prostate cancer. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis; 2008;11(2):153-9
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  • [Title] Eliciting patient preferences for hormonal therapy options in the treatment of metastatic prostate cancer.
  • Treatment choices for metastatic prostate cancer are complex and can involve men balancing survival versus quality of life.
  • The present study aims to elicit patient preferences with respect to the attributes of treatments for metastatic prostate cancer through a discrete choice experiment (DCE) questionnaire.
  • Men with recently diagnosed localized prostate cancer were asked to envisage that they had metastatic disease when completing a survey.
  • As expected, men with prostate cancer placed considerable importance on gains in survival; however, avoiding side effects of treatment was also clearly important.
  • Survival gains should be considered alongside side effects when discussing treatment options in metastatic disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Androgen Antagonists / therapeutic use. Anilides / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Flutamide / therapeutic use. Nitriles / therapeutic use. Patient Satisfaction. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Tosyl Compounds / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 17637761.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-5608
  • [Journal-full-title] Prostate cancer and prostatic diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgen Antagonists; 0 / Anilides; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Nitriles; 0 / Tosyl Compounds; 76W6J0943E / Flutamide; A0Z3NAU9DP / bicalutamide
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37. Berezovska OP, Glinskii AB, Yang Z, Li XM, Hoffman RM, Glinsky GV: Essential role for activation of the Polycomb group (PcG) protein chromatin silencing pathway in metastatic prostate cancer. Cell Cycle; 2006 Aug;5(16):1886-901
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  • [Title] Essential role for activation of the Polycomb group (PcG) protein chromatin silencing pathway in metastatic prostate cancer.
  • Another PcG protein, Ezh2, was implicated in metastatic prostate and breast cancers, suggesting that PcG pathway activation is relevant for epithelial malignancies.
  • Here we demonstrate that activation of the BMI1 oncogene-associated PcG pathway plays an essential role in metastatic prostate cancer, thus mechanistically linking the pathogenesis of leukemia, self-renewal of stem cells, and prostate cancer metastasis.
  • To characterize the functional status of the PcG pathway in metastatic prostate cancer, we utilized advanced cell- and whole animal-imaging technologies, gene and protein expression profiling, stable siRNA-gene targeting, and tissue microarray (TMA) analysis in relevant experimental and clinical settings.
  • We demonstrate that in multiple experimental models of metastatic prostate cancer both BMI1 and Ezh2 genes are amplified and gene amplification is associated with increased expression of corresponding mRNAs and proteins.
  • For the first time, we provide images of human prostate carcinoma metastasis precursor cells isolated from blood and shown to overexpress both BMI1 and Ezh2 oncoproteins.
  • Consistent with the PcG pathway activation hypothesis, increased BMI1 and Ezh2 expression in metastatic cancer cells is associated with elevated levels of H2AubiK119 and H3metK27 histones.
  • Quantitative immunofluorescence colocalization analysis and expression profiling experiments documented increased BMI1 and Ezh2 expression in clinical prostate carcinoma samples and demonstrated that high levels of BMI1 and Ezh2 expression are associated with markedly increased likelihood of therapy failure and disease relapse after radical prostatectomy.
  • Gene-silencing analysis reveals that activation of the PcG pathway is mechanistically linked with highly malignant behavior of human prostate carcinoma cells and is essential for in vivo growth and metastasis of human prostate cancer.
  • We conclude that the results of experimental and clinical analyses indicate the important biological role of the PcG pathway activation in metastatic prostate cancer.
  • Our work suggests that the PcG pathway activation is a common oncogenic event in pathogenesis of metastatic solid tumors and provides justification for development of small molecule inhibitors of the PcG chromatin silencing pathway as a novel therapeutic modality for treatment of metastatic prostate cancer.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Anoikis. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / genetics. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / metabolism. DNA-Binding Proteins / biosynthesis. DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics. Gene Amplification. Humans. Male. Mice. Mice, Nude. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Transplantation. Nuclear Proteins / biosynthesis. Nuclear Proteins / genetics. Polycomb Repressive Complex 1. Polycomb Repressive Complex 2. Polycomb-Group Proteins. Prognosis. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / biosynthesis. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / genetics. RNA, Messenger / biosynthesis. RNA, Small Interfering / genetics. RNA, Small Interfering / metabolism. Tissue Array Analysis. Transcription Factors / biosynthesis. Transcription Factors / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16963837.001).
  • [ISSN] 1551-4005
  • [Journal-full-title] Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cell Cycle
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 5R01 CA89827
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BMI1 protein, human; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Polycomb-Group Proteins; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA, Small Interfering; 0 / Repressor Proteins; 0 / Transcription Factors; EC 2.1.1.43 / EZH2 protein, human; EC 2.1.1.43 / Polycomb Repressive Complex 2; EC 6.3.2.19 / Polycomb Repressive Complex 1
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38. Wernert N, Kaminski A, Haddouti el-M, Hahne JC: Tumor-stroma interactions of metastatic prostate cancer cell lines: analyses using microarrays. Methods Mol Biol; 2007;382:223-37
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  • [Title] Tumor-stroma interactions of metastatic prostate cancer cell lines: analyses using microarrays.
  • Tumor-stroma interactions are of great importance not only for the development and progression of primary prostate carcinoma but probably also for the establishment of metastasis.
  • Fibroblasts are an important stromal cell type encountered by metastatic tumor cells at different sites.
  • In previous investigations, we had found that media conditioned by three metastatic prostate cancer cell lines (LNCaP, PC-3, and DU-145) induced cultured nonprostatic fibroblasts to proliferate or to express matrix-metalloproteinase-1 considered important for tumor invasion.
  • Both tumor cells and fibroblasts secrete VEGF suggesting that not only metastatic but also stromal cells at metastatic sites contribute to the vascularization of metastasis necessary for continuous growth.
  • In order to better understand the reciprocal tumor-stroma cross-talk in molecular terms we used the mRNA extracted from stimulated and unstimulated neoplastic and fibroblastic stromal cells for cDNA array hybridization using Affymetrix chips.
  • The three prostate cell lines influenced the fibroblasts nearly in the same manner.
  • In contrast, fibroblasts affected every prostate cancer cell line in different ways, which may be because of the different origin of the metastatic prostate cancer cell lines.
  • [MeSH-major] Fibroblasts / pathology. Gene Expression Profiling / methods. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis / methods. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology. Stromal Cells / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Communication. Culture Media, Conditioned / pharmacology. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 18220234.001).
  • [ISSN] 1064-3745
  • [Journal-full-title] Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Methods Mol. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Culture Media, Conditioned; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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39. Min J, Zaslavsky A, Fedele G, McLaughlin SK, Reczek EE, De Raedt T, Guney I, Strochlic DE, Macconaill LE, Beroukhim R, Bronson RT, Ryeom S, Hahn WC, Loda M, Cichowski K: An oncogene-tumor suppressor cascade drives metastatic prostate cancer by coordinately activating Ras and nuclear factor-kappaB. Nat Med; 2010 Mar;16(3):286-94

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] An oncogene-tumor suppressor cascade drives metastatic prostate cancer by coordinately activating Ras and nuclear factor-kappaB.
  • Metastasis is responsible for the majority of prostate cancer-related deaths; however, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that underlie this process.
  • Here we identify an oncogene-tumor suppressor cascade that promotes prostate cancer growth and metastasis by coordinately activating the small GTPase Ras and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB).
  • Specifically, we show that loss of the Ras GTPase-activating protein (RasGAP) gene DAB2IP induces metastatic prostate cancer in an orthotopic mouse tumor model.
  • Notably, DAB2IP functions as a signaling scaffold that coordinately regulates Ras and NF-kappaB through distinct domains to promote tumor growth and metastasis, respectively.
  • DAB2IP is suppressed in human prostate cancer, where its expression inversely correlates with tumor grade and predicts prognosis.
  • Moreover, we report that epigenetic silencing of DAB2IP is a key mechanism by which the polycomb-group protein histone-lysine N-methyltransferase EZH2 activates Ras and NF-kappaB and triggers metastasis.
  • These studies define the mechanism by which two major pathways can be simultaneously activated in metastatic prostate cancer and establish EZH2 as a driver of metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Genes, Tumor Suppressor / physiology. Genes, ras / physiology. NF-kappa B / pharmacology. Oncogenes / physiology. Prostatic Neoplasms / physiopathology. ras GTPase-Activating Proteins / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Line, Tumor. DNA-Binding Proteins / physiology. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Male. Mice. Neoplasm Invasiveness / physiopathology. Neoplasm Metastasis / physiopathology. Neoplasm Transplantation. Polycomb Repressive Complex 2. Signal Transduction / physiology. Transcription Factors / physiology. Transcriptional Activation

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  • (PMID = 20154697.001).
  • [ISSN] 1546-170X
  • [Journal-full-title] Nature medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nat. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K08 CA122833; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K08 CA122833-05
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DAB2IP protein, human; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / NF-kappa B; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / ras GTPase-Activating Proteins; EC 2.1.1.43 / EZH2 protein, human; EC 2.1.1.43 / Polycomb Repressive Complex 2
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS211415; NLM/ PMC2903662
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40. Tsuchiya N, Wang L, Suzuki H, Segawa T, Fukuda H, Narita S, Shimbo M, Kamoto T, Mitsumori K, Ichikawa T, Ogawa O, Nakamura A, Habuchi T: Impact of IGF-I and CYP19 gene polymorphisms on the survival of patients with metastatic prostate cancer. J Clin Oncol; 2006 May 1;24(13):1982-9
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  • [Title] Impact of IGF-I and CYP19 gene polymorphisms on the survival of patients with metastatic prostate cancer.
  • PURPOSE: The prognosis of metastatic prostate cancer significantly differs among individuals.
  • In this study, we evaluated genetic polymorphisms as prognostic predictors of metastatic prostate cancer.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: One hundred eleven prostate cancer patients with bone metastasis at the diagnosis were enrolled in this study.
  • RESULTS: Among the polymorphisms, the long allele (over 18 [CA] repeats) of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and the long allele (over seven [TTTA] repeats) of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 19 were significantly associated with a worse cancer-specific survival (P = .016 and .025 by logrank test, respectively).
  • CONCLUSION: The prognosis of metastatic prostate cancer patients is suggested to be influenced by intrinsic genetic factors.
  • The IGF-I (CA) repeat and CYP19 (TTTA) repeat polymorphisms may be novel predictors in prostate cancer patients with bone metastasis at the diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Prognosis. Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid

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  • [CommentIn] J Clin Oncol. 2006 May 1;24(13):1972-4 [16648495.001]
  • (PMID = 16648498.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I; EC 1.14.14.1 / Aromatase
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41. Kyselova Z, Mechref Y, Al Bataineh MM, Dobrolecki LE, Hickey RJ, Vinson J, Sweeney CJ, Novotny MV: Alterations in the serum glycome due to metastatic prostate cancer. J Proteome Res; 2007 May;6(5):1822-32
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  • [Title] Alterations in the serum glycome due to metastatic prostate cancer.
  • Glycomic profiles derived from human blood sera of 10 healthy males were compared to those from 24 prostate cancer patients.
  • The first principal component distinguished the 24 prostate cancer patients from the healthy individuals.
  • It was determined that fucosylation of glycan structures is generally higher in cancer samples (ANOVA test p-value of 0.0006).
  • Ten of these structures had significantly higher relative intensities in the case of the cancer samples, while the other two were less abundant in the cancer samples.
  • Accordingly, these structures can be considered as cancer-specific glycans and potential prostate cancer biomarkers.
  • Therefore, serum glycomic profiling appears worthy of further investigation to define its role in cancer early detection and prognostication.

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  • (PMID = 17432893.001).
  • [ISSN] 1535-3893
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of proteome research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Proteome Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P41 RR018942; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / R01 GM024349; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / GM24349; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / RR018942
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Blood Proteins; 0 / Glycoproteins; 0 / Polysaccharides
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS62933; NLM/ PMC3685170
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42. Lu-Yao G, Moore DF, Oleynick JU, DiPaola RS, Yao SL: Population based study of hormonal therapy and survival in men with metastatic prostate cancer. J Urol; 2007 Feb;177(2):535-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Population based study of hormonal therapy and survival in men with metastatic prostate cancer.
  • PURPOSE: Although the palliative benefits of hormonal therapy for metastatic prostate cancer are widely recognized, little information is available regarding the effect of hormonal therapy on cancer specific and overall survival, and the types of patients who might benefit the most or least from hormonal therapy.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Prostate cancer specific and overall survival according to hormonal therapy use was determined by the Kaplan-Meier method in 6,098 men 65 years or older diagnosed with metastatic prostate cancer in 1991 to 1999 who were identified through the population based Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results, and Medicare linked database.
  • Effects were most evident in patients with poorly differentiated cancer (cancer specific mortality in favor of treatment HR 0.60, 95% CI 0.53-0.69, p <0.001).
  • Benefit was not found in patients with well differentiated cancer (cancer specific mortality in favor of no treatment HR 1.92, 95% CI 0.90-4.10, p = 0.09).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Hormonal therapy is associated with improved prostate cancer specific and overall survival in men with poorly differentiated cancer.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 17222628.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-5347
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 33515-09-2 / Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone; 731DCA35BT / Diethylstilbestrol
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43. Kaminski A, Hahne JC, Haddouti el-M, Florin A, Wellmann A, Wernert N: Tumour-stroma interactions between metastatic prostate cancer cells and fibroblasts. Int J Mol Med; 2006 Nov;18(5):941-50
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  • [Title] Tumour-stroma interactions between metastatic prostate cancer cells and fibroblasts.
  • Previous work has shown the importance of tumour-stroma interactions for prostate cancer development at the primary site.
  • The aim of the present study was to find out whether evidence can be found for a tumour-stroma cross- talk also between metastatic prostate cancer cell lines and non-prostatic stromal fibroblasts which are encountered by metastatic cells at most sites.
  • We addressed this issue in cell culture systems using 3 metastatic human prostate cancer cell lines (LnCaP, PC-3 and DU-145) on the one hand, and a human fibroblast line (HFF, human foreskin fibroblasts) on the other.
  • We incubated fibroblasts with tumour cell- and tumour cells with fibroblast-conditioned media and evaluated several parameters important for the establishment of metastases such as cell proliferation, migration and expression of matrix degrading proteases.
  • We found that media conditioned by all 3 metastatic prostate cancer cell lines stimulated fibroblast proliferation which corresponds to fibrous stroma induction in vivo.
  • DU-145 cell conditioned media induced in fibroblasts expression of mmp-1 mRNA known to be important for tumour invasion.
  • ELISA assays revealed that tumour cells secrete bFGF, PDGF and TNFalpha known to stimulate fibroblast proliferation and/or MMP-1 expression.
  • KGF (able to stimulate proliferation of normal and neoplastic prostate epithelial cells) was secreted by fibroblasts at higher concentrations than by all 3 tumour cell lines.
  • In addition, fibroblasts secreted TNFalpha, bFGF, PDGF, HGF and also VEGF, the most important factor for tumour vascularization.
  • Our results provide evidence that tumour-stroma interactions do not only exist at the primary site but also between metastatic prostate cancer cell lines and their fibroblastic microenvironment.
  • These interactions, which are mediated through secreted factors, affect several steps of the metastatic cascade including proliferation, anchorage-independent growth, migration and the secretion of matrix-degrading proteases.
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Movement. Culture Media, Conditioned / pharmacology. Cytokines / metabolism. Growth Substances / metabolism. Humans. Male. Matrix Metalloproteinase 1 / metabolism. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Peptide Hydrolases / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17016625.001).
  • [ISSN] 1107-3756
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of molecular medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Mol. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Culture Media, Conditioned; 0 / Cytokines; 0 / Growth Substances; EC 3.4.- / Peptide Hydrolases; EC 3.4.24.7 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 1
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44. Tan WW: Novel agents and targets in managing patients with metastatic prostate cancer. Cancer Control; 2006 Jul;13(3):194-8
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  • [Title] Novel agents and targets in managing patients with metastatic prostate cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Docetaxel has recently been found to improve survival in patients with metastatic androgen-independent prostate cancer (AIPC).
  • METHODS: Clinically relevant articles focusing on chemotherapy drugs for metastatic prostate cancer and their mechanism of action and efficacy were reviewed from January 2004 through April 2006.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Docetaxel should be considered for first-line treatment of metastatic AIPC.


45. Moreno JG, Miller MC, Gross S, Allard WJ, Gomella LG, Terstappen LW: Circulating tumor cells predict survival in patients with metastatic prostate cancer. Urology; 2005 Apr;65(4):713-8
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  • [Title] Circulating tumor cells predict survival in patients with metastatic prostate cancer.
  • OBJECTIVES: To determine whether circulating tumor cells (CTCs) predict for survival in patients with metastatic prostate cancer (PCa) and to compare its prognostic abilities with other clinical factors.
  • METHODS: Blood samples from 37 patients with metastatic PCa were analyzed for CTCs.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In this pilot study, the presence of 5 or more CTCs in 7.5 mL blood was associated with poor overall survival in patients with metastatic PCa.


46. Mikkola A, Aro J, Rannikko S, Ruutu M, Finnprostate Group: Prognostic grouping of metastatic prostate cancer using conventional pretreatment prognostic factors. Scand J Urol Nephrol; 2009;43(4):265-70
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  • [Title] Prognostic grouping of metastatic prostate cancer using conventional pretreatment prognostic factors.
  • OBJECTIVE: To develop three prognostic groups for disease specific mortality based on the binary classified pretreatment variables age, haemoglobin concentration (Hb), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), prostate-specific antigen (PSA), plasma testosterone and estradiol level in hormonally treated patients with metastatic prostate cancer (PCa).
  • CONCLUSION: Patients with metastatic PCa can be divided into three statistically significantly different prognostic risk groups for PCa-specific mortality by using the binary classified pretreatment variables ALP, PSA, ESR and age.
  • [MeSH-major] Prostatic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Prostatic Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Factors. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Alkaline Phosphatase / blood. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Blood Sedimentation. Bone Neoplasms / pathology. Bone Neoplasms / radiography. Estradiol / blood. Hemoglobins / metabolism. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Prospective Studies. Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Testosterone / blood

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  • (PMID = 19382005.001).
  • [ISSN] 1651-2065
  • [Journal-full-title] Scandinavian journal of urology and nephrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Scand. J. Urol. Nephrol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Hemoglobins; 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone; 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol; EC 3.1.3.1 / Alkaline Phosphatase; EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen
  • [Investigator] Ala-Opas M; Hansson E; Juusela H; Nurmi M; Permi J; Puolakka VM; Rintala E; Saarialho M; Talja M; Viitanen J; Wuokko E
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47. Duran I, Tannock IF: Disseminated intravascular coagulation as the presenting sign of metastatic prostate cancer. J Gen Intern Med; 2006 Nov;21(11):C6-8
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  • [Title] Disseminated intravascular coagulation as the presenting sign of metastatic prostate cancer.
  • Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is an acquired coagulation disorder that may occur in a wide variety of clinical conditions.
  • Suspicion of DIC should lead to a differential diagnosis that includes primary fibrinolysis and other bleeding diatheses such as thrombocytopenias of diverse etiology.
  • Confirmation of the diagnosis of DIC should always prompt a search for an underlying medical disorder, including sepsis, severe trauma, solid and hematological malignancies, obstetrical complications, and vascular disorders.
  • Here, we describe an unusual case of acute bleeding and DIC as the presenting manifestation of metastatic prostate cancer in a 60-year-old man.
  • Treatment with a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) agonist and a short course of an antiandrogen, together with supportive measures (i.e., clotting factors, heparin, and platelets), led to normalization of all coagulation parameters within 1 week, and to clinical improvement and decline in the serum level of prostate-specific antigen (PSA).
  • We discuss the pathogenesis, differential diagnosis, and association of DIC with prostate cancer along with the management of this condition.
  • [MeSH-major] Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation / diagnosis. Prostatic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Hormone Antagonists / therapeutic use. Humans. Male. Middle Aged


48. Curtis KK, Pruthi RK, Fonseca R, Gornet MK: Transfusion-dependent anemia after initiation of androgen deprivation therapy for metastatic prostate cancer. Urology; 2007 Oct;70(4):811.e5-8
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  • [Title] Transfusion-dependent anemia after initiation of androgen deprivation therapy for metastatic prostate cancer.
  • Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is a commonly used treatment for metastatic prostate cancer.
  • A 78-year-old patient with metastatic prostate cancer had transfusion-dependent anemia develop while on ADT.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Androgen Antagonists / adverse effects. Anemia / chemically induced. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / adverse effects. Blood Transfusion. Leuprolide / adverse effects. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology


49. Yu J, Yu J, Rhodes DR, Tomlins SA, Cao X, Chen G, Mehra R, Wang X, Ghosh D, Shah RB, Varambally S, Pienta KJ, Chinnaiyan AM: A polycomb repression signature in metastatic prostate cancer predicts cancer outcome. Cancer Res; 2007 Nov 15;67(22):10657-63
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  • [Title] A polycomb repression signature in metastatic prostate cancer predicts cancer outcome.
  • The Polycomb Group (PcG) protein EZH2 is a critical component of a multiprotein complex that methylates Lys(27) of histone 3 (H3K27), which consequently leads to the repression of target gene expression.
  • We have previously reported that EZH2 is overexpressed in metastatic prostate cancer and is a marker of aggressive diseases in clinically localized solid tumors.
  • However, the global set of genes directly regulated by PcG in tumors is largely unknown, and thus how PcG mediates tumor progression remains unclear.
  • Herein we mapped genome-wide H3K27 methylation in aggressive, disseminated human prostate cancer tissues.
  • By stepwise cross-validation, we developed a "Polycomb repression signature" composed of 14 direct targets of PcG in metastatic tumors.
  • Notably, solid tumor subtypes in which this gene signature is repressed show poor clinical outcome in multiple microarray data sets of tumors including breast and prostate cancer.
  • Taken together, our results show a fingerprint of PcG-mediated transcriptional repression in metastatic prostate cancer that is reminiscent of stem cells and associated with cancer progression.
  • Therefore, PcG proteins play a central role in the epigenetic silencing of target genes and functionally link stem cells, metastasis, and cancer survival.
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cell Line, Tumor. DNA Methylation. Disease Progression. Disease-Free Survival. Epigenesis, Genetic. Gene Silencing. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis. Polycomb-Group Proteins. Stem Cells / metabolism. Treatment Outcome


50. Fontana A, Falcone A, Derosa L, Di Desidero T, Danesi R, Bocci G: Metronomic chemotherapy for metastatic prostate cancer: a 'young' concept for old patients? Drugs Aging; 2010 Sep 1;27(9):689-96
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  • [Title] Metronomic chemotherapy for metastatic prostate cancer: a 'young' concept for old patients?
  • Prostate cancer is a common disease in the elderly, and the number of older prostate cancer patients will probably increase with both the aging of the population and the increased rate of screening.
  • In elderly patients with several co-morbidities, cancer management can be complex, and the risk of administering toxic therapy in this setting should be carefully evaluated.
  • Metronomic chemotherapy, i.e. low-dose, long-term, frequently administered chemotherapy, has been shown to have a significant stabilizing effect on cancer and a positive impact on the quality of life of patients, including those with prostate cancer.
  • Moreover, the possibility of patients being able to spend more time at home is an important component of a palliative treatment such as metronomic chemotherapy.
  • However, retrospective analyses conducted in a small cohort of patients have been published and, notwithstanding their limitations, indicate that novel metronomic schedules are well tolerated, safe and show potentially interesting activity in elderly, 'unfit' (poor performance status) patients with metastatic prostate cancer.
  • Therefore, evaluation of metronomic chemotherapy strategies in prospective, randomized, phase II/III clinical studies of elderly patients with metastatic prostate cancer appears to be warranted.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Drug Administration Schedule. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis

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  • (PMID = 20809660.001).
  • [ISSN] 1179-1969
  • [Journal-full-title] Drugs & aging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Drugs Aging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
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51. Parwani AV, Marlow C, Demarzo AM, Mikolajczyk SD, Rittenhouse HG, Veltri RW, Chan TY: Immunohistochemical staining of precursor forms of prostate-specific antigen (proPSA) in metastatic prostate cancer. Am J Surg Pathol; 2006 Oct;30(10):1231-6
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical staining of precursor forms of prostate-specific antigen (proPSA) in metastatic prostate cancer.
  • Precursors of prostate-specific antigen (proPSA) have been previously shown to be more concentrated in prostate cancer tissue.
  • This study characterizes the immunohistochemical staining (IHS) of proPSA forms in metastatic prostate cancer compared with prostate specific antigen (PSA) and prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP).
  • A tissue microarray, consisting of 74 cases of metastatic prostate carcinoma and control tissues, was used.
  • The monoclonal antibodies were specific for both benign and malignant prostatic glandular tissue.
  • [-5/-7]pPSA (native proPSA) may be a better marker than PSA and PAP in characterizing metastatic prostate adenocarcinoma, with most of the cases showing positivity for the marker.
  • Such enhanced detection is particularly important in poorly differentiated carcinomas involving metastatic sites where prostate carcinoma is a consideration.
  • A panel of markers, including proPSA, should be performed when metastatic prostate carcinoma is in the differential diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / chemistry. Immunoenzyme Techniques / methods. Prostate-Specific Antigen / analysis. Prostatic Neoplasms / chemistry. Protein Precursors / analysis. Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Acid Phosphatase. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Humans. Male. Tissue Array Analysis

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  • (PMID = 17001152.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Protein Precursors; EC 3.1.3.2 / Acid Phosphatase; EC 3.1.3.2 / prostatic acid phosphatase; EC 3.1.3.48 / Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases; EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen
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52. Kopec JA, Goel V, Bunting PS, Neuman J, Sayre EC, Warde P, Levers P, Fleshner N: Screening with prostate specific antigen and metastatic prostate cancer risk: a population based case-control study. J Urol; 2005 Aug;174(2):495-9; discussion 499
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  • [Title] Screening with prostate specific antigen and metastatic prostate cancer risk: a population based case-control study.
  • PURPOSE: Screening of asymptomatic men with prostate specific antigen (PSA) remains a controversial issue.
  • There is limited evidence that screening is effective in reducing mortality from prostate cancer.
  • In the current study we determined if screening with PSA reduces the risk of metastatic prostate cancer.
  • Data were obtained from 236 cases of metastatic prostate cancer and 462 controls randomly sampled from the source population and frequency matched to cases for age and area of residence.
  • The association between PSA screening and metastatic prostate cancer was measured by the Mantel-Haenszel odds ratio stratified by exposure observation time and other potential confounding factors.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In this case-control study screening of asymptomatic men with PSA was associated with a significantly reduced risk of metastatic prostate cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology


53. McArdle PA, Mir K, Almushatat AS, Wallace AM, Underwood MA, McMillan DC: Systemic inflammatory response, prostate-specific antigen and survival in patients with metastatic prostate cancer. Urol Int; 2006;77(2):127-9
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  • [Title] Systemic inflammatory response, prostate-specific antigen and survival in patients with metastatic prostate cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: It is increasingly recognised that, in cancer patients, disease progression is dependent on a complex interaction of the tumour and the host inflammatory response and that the systemic inflammatory response, as evidenced by an elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration, may be a useful prognostic factor.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: The prognostic value of CRP compared with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) was examined in 62 patients with metastatic prostate cancer receiving androgen-deprivation therapy.
  • On univariate survival analysis, PSA (p < 0.05) and CRP (p < 0.05) were significant predictors of cancer-specific survival.
  • On multivariate analysis, both PSA (HR 1.96, 95% CI 1.00-3.83, p = 0.049) and CR (HR 1.97, 95% CI 0.99-3.92, p = 0.052) were independent predictors of cancer-specific survival.
  • CONCLUSION: The results of the present study suggest that, in patients with metastatic prostate cancer, the presence of an elevated CRP concentration predicts poor outcome, independent of PSA.
  • [MeSH-major] Inflammation / etiology. Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood. Prostatic Neoplasms / blood. Prostatic Neoplasms / mortality
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis. Survival Rate


54. Leav I, Plescia J, Goel HL, Li J, Jiang Z, Cohen RJ, Languino LR, Altieri DC: Cytoprotective mitochondrial chaperone TRAP-1 as a novel molecular target in localized and metastatic prostate cancer. Am J Pathol; 2010 Jan;176(1):393-401
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  • [Title] Cytoprotective mitochondrial chaperone TRAP-1 as a novel molecular target in localized and metastatic prostate cancer.
  • Molecular chaperones of the heat shock protein-90 (Hsp90) family promote cell survival, but the molecular requirements of this pathway in tumor progression are not understood.
  • Here, we show that a mitochondria-localized Hsp90 chaperone, tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated protein-1 (TRAP-1), is abundantly and ubiquitously expressed in human high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, Gleason grades 3 through 5 prostatic adenocarcinomas, and metastatic prostate cancer, but largely undetectable in normal prostate or benign prostatic hyperplasia in vivo.
  • Prostate lesions formed in genetic models of the disease, including the transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate and mice carrying prostate-specific deletion of the phosphatase tensin homolog tumor suppressor (Pten(pc-/-)), also exhibit high levels of TRAP-1.
  • Expression of TRAP-1 in nontransformed prostatic epithelial BPH-1 cells inhibited cell death, whereas silencing of TRAP-1 in androgen-independent PC3 or DU145 prostate cancer cells by small interfering RNA enhanced apoptosis.
  • Targeting TRAP-1 with a novel class of mitochondria-directed Hsp90 inhibitors, ie, Gamitrinibs, caused rapid and complete killing of androgen-dependent or -independent prostate cancer, but not BPH-1 cells, whereas reintroduction of TRAP-1 in BPH-1 cells conferred sensitivity to Gamitrinib-induced cell death.
  • These data identify TRAP-1 as a novel mitochondrial survival factor differentially expressed in localized and metastatic prostate cancer compared with normal prostate.
  • Targeting this pathway with Gamitrinibs could be explored as novel molecular therapy in patients with advanced prostate cancer.

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  • (PMID = 19948822.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-2191
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Pathol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA078810; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA089720; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA118005; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA109874-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA78810; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA109874-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA109874; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA089720-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA90917; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA089720-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA109874; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA89720; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R56 CA089720; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA118005; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA090917
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / HSP90 Heat-Shock Proteins; 0 / Molecular Chaperones; 0 / TRAP-1 protein, mouse; 0 / TRAP1 protein, human
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2797899
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55. Morote J, Esquena S, Abascal JM, Trilla E, Cecchini L, Raventós CX, Orsola A, Planas J, Catalán R, Reventós J: Usefulness of prostate-specific antigen nadir as predictor of androgen-independent progression of metastatic prostate cancer. Int J Biol Markers; 2005 Oct-Dec;20(4):209-16
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  • [Title] Usefulness of prostate-specific antigen nadir as predictor of androgen-independent progression of metastatic prostate cancer.
  • The objective of this study was to analyze the value of the nadir level of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) to predict androgen-independent progression (AIP) in metastatic prostate cancer patients after androgen deprivation therapy.
  • In a group of 185 metastatic prostate cancer patients who received androgen deprivation therapy serum PSA was determined every three months until AIP occurred.
  • We conclude that the PSA nadir seems to be a good predictor of AIP in patients with metastatic prostate cancer after androgen deprivation therapy.
  • The combination of these prognostic factors allows to stratify metastatic prostate cancer patients for the prediction of AIP.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Neoplasm Metastasis / pathology. Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood. Prostatic Neoplasms / blood. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology


56. Astigueta JC, Abad MA, Morante C, Pow-Sang MR, Destefano V, Montes J: [Characteristics of metastatic prostate cancer occurring in patients under 50 years of age]. Actas Urol Esp; 2010 Apr;34(4):327-32
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  • [Title] [Characteristics of metastatic prostate cancer occurring in patients under 50 years of age].
  • [Transliterated title] Patrón de presentación del cáncer de próstata avanzado en pacientes menores de cincuenta años.
  • OBJECTIVE: To identify the clinical features, diagnostic approach, and treatment of metastatic prostate cancer in young adult patients.
  • METHODS: A retrospective review was made of the clinical histories of patients under 50 years of age diagnosed with prostate cancer at the urology department of the National Institute for Neoplastic Diseases from 1952 to 2005.
  • RESULTS: There were 69 patients aged less than 50 years who had been diagnosed with prostate cancer, 60% of whom had metastatic tumors.
  • All patients reported bone pain, associated to other signs and symptoms such as spinal cord compression (19.5%), lower limb edema (17%), peripheral adenopathies (36.5%), and abdominal tumor (2.4%).
  • All patients had bone metastases, of which 14.6% were in solid organs (lung and liver), 48.7% in retroperitoneum, and 7.3% in mediastinum.
  • Initially, three patients were diagnosed a lymphoproliferative syndrome, one patient a retroperitoneal tumor of unknown etiology, and four patients a metastasis from an unknown primary tumor.
  • Mean prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level was 795 ng/mL (3-6500).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Advanced prostate cancer is an uncommon condition in young adults.
  • Its clinical presentation is atypical, as metastases may mimic other diseases.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Retrospective Studies


57. DeNardo SJ, Richman CM, Albrecht H, Burke PA, Natarajan A, Yuan A, Gregg JP, O'Donnell RT, DeNardo GL: Enhancement of the therapeutic index: from nonmyeloablative and myeloablative toward pretargeted radioimmunotherapy for metastatic prostate cancer. Clin Cancer Res; 2005 Oct 1;11(19 Pt 2):7187s-7194s
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  • [Title] Enhancement of the therapeutic index: from nonmyeloablative and myeloablative toward pretargeted radioimmunotherapy for metastatic prostate cancer.
  • PURPOSE: New strategies that target selected molecular characteristics and result in an effective therapeutic index are needed for metastatic, hormone-refractory prostate cancer.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: A series of preclinical and clinical studies were designed to increase the therapeutic index of targeted radiation therapy for prostate cancer. (111)In/90Y-monoclonal antibody (mAb), m170, which targets aberrant sugars on abnormal MUC1, was evaluated in androgen-independent prostate cancer patients to determine the maximum tolerated dose and efficacy of nonmyeloablative radioimmunotherapy and myeloablative combined modality radioimmunotherapy with paclitaxel.
  • To enhance the tumor to liver therapeutic index, a cathepsin degradable mAb linkage ((111)In/90Y-peptide-m170) was used in the myeloablative combined modality radioimmunotherapy protocol.
  • For tumor to marrow therapeutic index improvement in future studies, anti-MUC1 scFvs modules were developed for pretargeted radioimmunotherapy.
  • Anti-MUC1 and anti-DOTA scFvs were conjugated to polyethylene glycol scaffolds tested on DU145 prostate cancer cells and prostate tissue arrays, along with mAbs against MUC1 epitopes.
  • Metastatic prostate cancer was targeted in all 17 patients; mean radiation dose was 10.5 Gy/GBq and pain response occurred in 7 of 13 patients reporting pain.
  • Hypoglycosylated MUC1 epitopes were shown to be abundant in prostate cancer and to increase with disease grade.
  • Anti-MUC1 scFvs binding to prostate cancer tissue and live cells were developed into di-scFv binding modules.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The therapeutic index enhancement for prostate radioimmunotherapy was achieved in clinical studies by the addition of cathepsin cleavable linkers to 90Y-conjugated mAbs and the use of paclitaxel.
  • Therefore, modular pretargeted radioimmunotherapy, aiming at improving the tumor to marrow therapeutic index, is being developed.
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies, Monoclonal. Antigens / chemistry. Antigens, Neoplasm. Bone Marrow / metabolism. Cathepsins / chemistry. Combined Modality Therapy. Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel. Epitopes / chemistry. Glycoproteins / chemistry. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Maleimides / chemistry. Maximum Tolerated Dose. Models, Chemical. Mucin-1. Mucins / chemistry. Neoplasm Metastasis. Paclitaxel / chemistry. Peptide Library. Peptides / chemistry. Polyethylene Glycols / chemistry. Protein Binding. Radiometry. Yttrium Radioisotopes / chemistry

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  • (PMID = 16203820.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA47829
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antigens; 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Epitopes; 0 / Glycoproteins; 0 / MUC1 protein, human; 0 / Maleimides; 0 / Mucin-1; 0 / Mucins; 0 / Peptide Library; 0 / Peptides; 0 / Yttrium Radioisotopes; 30IQX730WE / Polyethylene Glycols; 541-59-3 / maleimide; EC 3.4.- / Cathepsins; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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58. Beach S, Tang H, Park S, Dhillon AS, Keller ET, Kolch W, Yeung KC: Snail is a repressor of RKIP transcription in metastatic prostate cancer cells. Oncogene; 2008 Apr 3;27(15):2243-8
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  • [Title] Snail is a repressor of RKIP transcription in metastatic prostate cancer cells.
  • Diminished expression of the metastasis suppressor protein RKIP was previously reported in a number of cancers.
  • With a combination of loss-of-function and gain-of-function approaches, we showed that Snail repressed the expression of RKIP in metastatic prostate cancer cell lines.
  • Our results therefore suggest that RKIP is a novel component of the Snail transcriptional regulatory network important for the progression and metastasis of cancer.

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  • (PMID = 17952120.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-5594
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncogene
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncogene
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / / ; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / R01 GM64767; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / R01 GM064767; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA098513; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA098513-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA098513-05
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / PEBP1 protein, human; 0 / Phosphatidylethanolamine Binding Protein; 0 / Repressor Proteins; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / snail family transcription factors
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS232249; NLM/ PMC2933472
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59. Tambo M, Higashihara E, Terado Y, Nutahara K, Okegawa T: Comparison of serum HER2/neu with immunohistochemical HER2/neu expression for the prediction of biochemical progression in metastatic prostate cancer. Int J Urol; 2009 Apr;16(4):369-74
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  • [Title] Comparison of serum HER2/neu with immunohistochemical HER2/neu expression for the prediction of biochemical progression in metastatic prostate cancer.
  • OBJECTIVES: To examine whether pretreatment serum human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2/neu) and immunohistochemical HER2/neu expression predict biochemical recurrence-free survival in advanced prostate cancer.
  • METHODS: We studied 75 untreated patients with metastatic prostate cancer and compared them to a control group of 97 patients without histologically diagnosed prostate cancer.
  • HER2/neu expression in the prostate tissue was evaluated using immunohistochemical analysis.
  • RESULTS: Serum concentration of HER2/neu in patients with prostate cancer was significantly higher than in those without cancer (P = 0.005).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Pretreatment serum HER2/neu may represent a more valuable tool than immunohistochemical HER2/neu expression for the prediction of biochemical recurrence in metastatic prostate cancer patients.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Disease Progression. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Predictive Value of Tests. Retrospective Studies


60. Zavala MW, Maliski SL, Kwan L, Fink A, Litwin MS: Spirituality and quality of life in low-income men with metastatic prostate cancer. Psychooncology; 2009 Jul;18(7):753-61
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Spirituality and quality of life in low-income men with metastatic prostate cancer.
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine how spirituality is associated with health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in an ethnically diverse cohort of low-income men with metastatic prostate cancer.
  • METHODS: Eighty-six participants in a state-funded program that provides free prostate cancer treatment to uninsured, low-income men completed written surveys and telephone interviews containing validated measures of spirituality, and general and disease-specific HRQOL.
  • Assessments were made following diagnosis of metastatic disease.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adaptation, Psychological. Cohort Studies. Educational Status. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis / pathology. Neoplasm Staging / psychology. Pain / psychology. Personality Inventory


61. Wu K, Zeng J, Li L, Fan J, Zhang D, Xue Y, Zhu G, Yang L, Wang X, He D: Silibinin reverses epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in metastatic prostate cancer cells by targeting transcription factors. Oncol Rep; 2010 Jun;23(6):1545-52
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  • [Title] Silibinin reverses epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in metastatic prostate cancer cells by targeting transcription factors.
  • Silibinin, a naturally occurring flavanone isolated from milk thistle extract, has been shown to possess strong anticancer efficacy against both androgen-dependent and androgen-independent prostate cancer, wherein it inhibits not only cell growth, but also cell invasion and metastasis.
  • Inhibitory effects of silibinin on prostate cancer invasion, motility and migration were previously observed in the highly bone metastatic ARCaP M cell line; however, mechanisms of such efficacy are not completely elucidated.
  • The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a crucial step in the progression of prostate cancer, reversal or inhibition of EMT by drugs thus provides a new approach to prostate cancer therapy.
  • Overall these findings demonstrate silibinin was able to reverse EMT to suppress the invasive property of metastatic prostate cancer cells at the transcriptional level.
  • [MeSH-minor] Blotting, Western. Cell Adhesion. Cell Line. Cell Movement. Cell Proliferation. Down-Regulation. Fluorescent Antibody Technique. Humans. Keratin-18 / genetics. Keratin-18 / metabolism. Male. Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 / genetics. Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 / metabolism. NF-kappa B / genetics. NF-kappa B / metabolism. Neoplasm Metastasis. RNA, Messenger / genetics. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Up-Regulation. Vimentin / genetics. Vimentin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20428808.001).
  • [ISSN] 1791-2431
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antioxidants; 0 / Keratin-18; 0 / NF-kappa B; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Silymarin; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Vimentin; 4RKY41TBTF / silybin; EC 3.4.24.24 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 2
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62. Kerkhof M, Roobol MJ, Cuzick J, Sasieni P, Roemeling S, Schröder FH, Steyerberg EW: Effect of the correction for noncompliance and contamination on the estimated reduction of metastatic prostate cancer within a randomized screening trial (ERSPC section Rotterdam). Int J Cancer; 2010 Dec 01;127(11):2639-44
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  • [Title] Effect of the correction for noncompliance and contamination on the estimated reduction of metastatic prostate cancer within a randomized screening trial (ERSPC section Rotterdam).
  • The European Randomized study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC) has recently reported a 20% reduction in death from prostate cancer in a population-based prostate cancer screening (core age group: 55-69 years of age).
  • The purpose is to analyze the effect of prostate cancer screening on the incidence of metastatic prostate cancer, both with and without adjustment for noncompliance and contamination.
  • We analyzed the occurrence of metastases in 42,376 men aged 55-75 years who were randomized in the Rotterdam section of the ERSPC between 1993 and 1999.
  • Contamination adjustment was based on follow-up findings and questionnaire data from all men in the control group who developed prostate cancer and from a random sample of 291 men without cancer who had a PSA test.
  • Prostate cancer screening significantly reduced the occurrence of metastatic prostate cancer in the intention-to-screen analysis [RR 0.75, 95% CI 0.59-0.95, p = 0.02] and more so in adjusted analyses; contamination adjusted RR 0.73, 95% CI 0.56-0.96; noncompliance adjusted RR 0.72, 95% CI 0.55-0.95 and fully adjusted analysis RR 0.68, 95% CI 0.49-0.94, p = 0.02.
  • In the population of ERSPC Rotterdam (N = 42,376 men), screening reduces the risk to be diagnosed with metastatic prostate cancer considerably on population level, an effect which is even more pronounced in men who are in fact screened.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Humans. Incidence. Male. Mass Screening / methods. Middle Aged. Models, Statistical. Neoplasm Metastasis. Netherlands / epidemiology. Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood

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  • (PMID = 20196067.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0215
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / MRC/ G0802851
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen
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63. Kiper A, Yigitbasý O, Imamoglu A, Tuygun C, Turan C: The prognostic importance of prostate-specific antigen in monitoring patients undergoing maximum androgen blockage for metastatic prostate cancer. ScientificWorldJournal; 2005 Jan 28;5:118-24
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  • [Title] The prognostic importance of prostate-specific antigen in monitoring patients undergoing maximum androgen blockage for metastatic prostate cancer.
  • The changes in serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) concentrations can be used as a prognostic factor in patients undergoing maximum androgen blockage for metastatic prostate cancer.
  • The gleason scores and the number of bone metastases were also compared between the groups.
  • [MeSH-major] Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood. Prostatic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Prostatic Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Androgen Antagonists / therapeutic use. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Disease Progression. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Orchiectomy. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome


64. Perachino M, Cavalli V, Bravi F: Testosterone levels in patients with metastatic prostate cancer treated with luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone therapy: prognostic significance? BJU Int; 2010 Mar;105(5):648-51
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  • [Title] Testosterone levels in patients with metastatic prostate cancer treated with luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone therapy: prognostic significance?
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine if the testosterone level achieved with androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) is directly related to survival and risk of death in men with metastatic prostate cancer, as agonistic analogues of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormones (LHRH) are indicated for palliative treatment of these patients, but there is no consensus about the utility of serum testosterone measurements during the follow-up, and their possible prognostic value.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 129 consecutive patients with a histological diagnosis of metastatic bony-only prostate cancer and previously untreated with ADT.
  • Testosterone and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels were measured in all patients every 3 months for the duration of the follow-up.
  • Data were analysed using Cox's proportional hazards models, with the primary endpoint being cancer-specific survival.
  • Based on the present results, lowering the testosterone level as much as possible should be the goal of ADT in patients with metastatic prostate cancer, as this might affect patient survival.


65. Nyirády P, Sárdi E, Beko G, Szucs M, Horváth A, Székely E, Szentmihályi K, Romics I, Blázovics A: [Effects of bioactive molecules of Beta vulgaris L. ssp. esculenta var. rubra on metastatic prostate cancer]. Orv Hetil; 2010 Sep 12;151(37):1495-503
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  • [Title] [Effects of bioactive molecules of Beta vulgaris L. ssp. esculenta var. rubra on metastatic prostate cancer].
  • Several reports are known about the effects of nutrition supplements in the improvement of quality of life of patients with tumor, however, the physiological background remains largely unknown.
  • METHODS: Natural table beet product come from commercial service was given twice 10 g daily for 1 month for 24 patients (mean age 68+/-8 years) with hormone-resistant and metastatic prostate cancer treated with taxan chemotherapy, who report themselves first, mean 3,6+/-2,8 years ago with their complains.
  • CONCLUSIONS: According to results, it seems that moderate and permanent consumption of table beet product affects the life expectancy of patients favorably; however, due to the increasing values of EGF, medical control is necessary for patients with prostate cancer treated by chemotherapy.


66. Azuma T, Sakai I, Matsumoto T, Ozawa A, Tanji N, Watanabe A, Uchida N, Narumi H, Yakushijin Y, Hato T, Yasukawa M, Fujita S: Leukemoid reaction in association with bone marrow necrosis due to metastatic prostate cancer. Intern Med; 2005 Oct;44(10):1093-6
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  • [Title] Leukemoid reaction in association with bone marrow necrosis due to metastatic prostate cancer.
  • Although a chronic myelogenous leukemia was initially suspected, he was diagnosed as metastatic bone marrow tumor with bone marrow necrosis from primary prostate cancer on the basis of the clinical and pathological findings.
  • It is probable that these humoral factors were partially responsible for the leukemoid reaction although other factors induced by the bone marrow necrosis with bone marrow metastasis of prostate cancer are also likely involved.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Marrow / pathology. Bone Marrow Neoplasms / complications. Bone Marrow Neoplasms / secondary. Leukemoid Reaction / etiology. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology


67. Rocco B, Ferrari M, Scardino E, Matei DV, Verweij F, Varela R, De Cobelli O: Gn-RH antagonist possible response, after Gn-RH agonist failure in a man with metastatic prostate cancer. Anticancer Res; 2005 Jan-Feb;25(1B):577-8
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  • [Title] Gn-RH antagonist possible response, after Gn-RH agonist failure in a man with metastatic prostate cancer.
  • Gn-RH agonists or surgical castration are considered standard treatment for patients affected by metastatic prostate cancer.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Humans. Leuprolide / therapeutic use. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis. Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood. Testosterone / blood. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 15816630.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 33515-09-2 / Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone; 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone; EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen; EFY6W0M8TG / Leuprolide
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68. Yagihashi Y, Okinami T, Fukuzawa S, Kuriki K: [Pericardial effusion due to metastatic prostate cancer: a case report]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2008 May;54(5):369-72
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  • [Title] [Pericardial effusion due to metastatic prostate cancer: a case report].
  • Cytologic study suggested metastatic adenocarcinoma or malignant mesothelioma.
  • At autopsy, the major finding was poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma of the prostate with metastases to the mediastinum.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Mediastinal Neoplasms / secondary. Pericardial Effusion / etiology. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology


69. Everley PA, Bakalarski CE, Elias JE, Waghorne CG, Beausoleil SA, Gerber SA, Faherty BK, Zetter BR, Gygi SP: Enhanced analysis of metastatic prostate cancer using stable isotopes and high mass accuracy instrumentation. J Proteome Res; 2006 May;5(5):1224-31
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. (L)-ARGININE .

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  • [Title] Enhanced analysis of metastatic prostate cancer using stable isotopes and high mass accuracy instrumentation.
  • While we have recently shown the application of this technology to a model of metastatic prostate cancer, we now report a substantial improvement in quantitative analysis using a linear ion-trap Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (LTQ FT) and novel quantification software.
  • This dramatic increase in proteome coverage can be attributed to (1) use of a double-labeling strategy, (2) greater sensitivity, speed and mass accuracy provided by the LTQ FT mass spectrometer, and (3) more robust quantification software.
  • [MeSH-minor] Arginine / chemistry. Carbon Isotopes / chemistry. Fourier Analysis. Humans. Isotope Labeling / methods. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis. Reproducibility of Results. Software. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 16674112.001).
  • [ISSN] 1535-3893
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of proteome research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Proteome Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA037393; United States / NHGRI NIH HHS / HG / HG003456
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carbon Isotopes; 0 / Proteins; 94ZLA3W45F / Arginine
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70. Russo AL, Jedlicka K, Wernick M, McNally D, Kirk M, Sproull M, Smith S, Shankavaram U, Kaushal A, Figg WD, Dahut W, Citrin D, Bottaro DP, Albert PS, Tofilon PJ, Camphausen K: Urine analysis and protein networking identify met as a marker of metastatic prostate cancer. Clin Cancer Res; 2009 Jul 1;15(13):4292-8
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  • [Title] Urine analysis and protein networking identify met as a marker of metastatic prostate cancer.
  • PURPOSE: Metastatic prostate cancer is a major cause of death of men in the United States.
  • Expression of met, a receptor tyrosine kinase, has been associated with progression of prostate cancer.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: To investigate met as a biomarker of disease progression, urinary met was evaluated via ELISA in men with localized (n = 75) and metastatic (n = 81) prostate cancer.
  • Boxplot analysis was used to compare the distribution of met values between each group.
  • We estimated a receiver operating characteristic curve and the associated area under the curve to summarize the diagnostic accuracy of met for distinguishing between localized and metastatic disease.
  • Protein-protein interaction networking via yeast two-hybrid technology supplemented by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis and Human Interactome was used to elucidate proteins and pathways related to met that may contribute to progression of disease.
  • RESULTS: Met distribution was significantly different between the metastatic group and the group with localized prostate cancer and people with no evidence of cancer (P < 0.0001).
  • The area under the curve for localized and metastatic disease was 0.90, with a 95% confidence interval of 0.84 to 0.95.
  • Yeast two-hybrid technology, Ingenuity Pathway Analysis, and Human Interactome identified 89 proteins that interact with met, of which 40 have previously been associated with metastatic prostate cancer.
  • CONCLUSION: Urinary met may provide a noninvasive biomarker indicative of metastatic prostate cancer and may be a central regulator of multiple pathways involved in prostate cancer progression.
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / physiology. Biomarkers, Tumor / urine. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Prognosis. Proteins / analysis. Proteins / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-met. ROC Curve. Receptors, Growth Factor / analysis. Receptors, Growth Factor / physiology. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 19549766.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Howard Hughes Medical Institute / / ; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Proteins; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; 0 / Receptors, Growth Factor; EC 2.7.10.1 / MET protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-met
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71. Li NC, Song Y, Jiang HW, Ding Q, Gan WD, Guo HQ, Sun ZY, Hu ZQ, Ye ZQ, Wei Q, Na YQ: [Efficacy and safety of long-acting gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue in the treatment for metastatic prostate cancer]. Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2008 Nov 1;46(21):1653-7
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  • [Title] [Efficacy and safety of long-acting gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue in the treatment for metastatic prostate cancer].
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue (GnRHa) triptorelin 11.25 mg 3-month sustained release formulations in the treatment of metastatic prostate cancer.
  • One hundred and twenty-seven patients with documented metastatic prostate cancer were randomized to receive one injection of the 11.25 mg formulation triptorelin (n = 65) or three injections at 28-day intervals of the 3.75 mg formulation (n = 62).
  • Changes from baseline of TPSA, prostate volume, testosterone, LH, FSH, PRL and estradiol were assessed over 3 months.
  • Changes of the metastatic lesions were also observed and evaluated.
  • Prostate volume were also decreased significantly in both groups, median volume declined from 48.0 mm(3) into 21.5 mm(3) in 11.25 mg group and from 45.0 mm(3) into 21.0 mm(3) in 3.75 mg group.
  • No significant differences were found between the two groups in changes of TPSA (P = 0.601) and prostate volume (P > 0.05).
  • CONCLUSION: As a new long-acting sustained release formulation, triptorelin 11.25 mg is comparable to triptorelin 3.75 mg formulation in the aspect of efficacy and safety for the treatments of metastatic prostate cancer.

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  • (PMID = 19094763.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5815
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua wai ke za zhi [Chinese journal of surgery]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 33515-09-2 / Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone; 57773-63-4 / Triptorelin Pamoate
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72. DePuy V, Anstrom KJ, Castel LD, Schulman KA, Weinfurt KP, Saad F: Effects of skeletal morbidities on longitudinal patient-reported outcomes and survival in patients with metastatic prostate cancer. Support Care Cancer; 2007 Jul;15(7):869-76
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  • [Title] Effects of skeletal morbidities on longitudinal patient-reported outcomes and survival in patients with metastatic prostate cancer.
  • GOALS OF WORK: Patients with prostate cancer metastasized to bone frequently experience skeletal morbidities as a result of their disease.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data are from a clinical trial for the treatment of SREs associated with advanced prostate cancer metastatic to bone.
  • Outcome measures included the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General (FACT-G) and the Brief Pain Inventory.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Musculoskeletal System / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology. Quality of Life. Treatment Outcome
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diphosphonates / therapeutic use. Humans. Imidazoles. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis. Prognosis. Risk Factors. Survival

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  • (PMID = 17262196.001).
  • [ISSN] 0941-4355
  • [Journal-full-title] Supportive care in cancer : official journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Support Care Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Diphosphonates; 0 / Imidazoles; 6XC1PAD3KF / zoledronic acid
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73. Stott SL, Lee RJ, Nagrath S, Yu M, Miyamoto DT, Ulkus L, Inserra EJ, Ulman M, Springer S, Nakamura Z, Moore AL, Tsukrov DI, Kempner ME, Dahl DM, Wu CL, Iafrate AJ, Smith MR, Tompkins RG, Sequist LV, Toner M, Haber DA, Maheswaran S: Isolation and characterization of circulating tumor cells from patients with localized and metastatic prostate cancer. Sci Transl Med; 2010 Mar 31;2(25):25ra23
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  • [Title] Isolation and characterization of circulating tumor cells from patients with localized and metastatic prostate cancer.
  • Rare circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are present in the blood of patients with metastatic epithelial cancers but have been difficult to measure routinely.
  • We report a quantitative automated imaging system for analysis of prostate CTCs, taking advantage of prostate-specific antigen (PSA), a unique prostate tumor-associated marker.
  • The specificity of PSA staining enabled optimization of criteria for baseline image intensity, morphometric measurements, and integration of multiple signals in a three-dimensional microfluidic device.
  • In a pilot analysis, we detected CTCs in prostate cancer patients with localized disease, before surgical tumor removal in 8 of 19 (42%) patients (range, 38 to 222 CTCs per milliliter).
  • Other patients had persistent CTCs for up to 3 months after prostate removal, suggesting early but transient disseminated tumor deposits.
  • In patients with metastatic prostate cancer, CTCs were detected in 23 of 36 (64%) cases (range, 14 to 5000 CTCs per milliliter).
  • The prostate cancer-specific TMPRSS2-ERG fusion was detectable in RNA extracted from CTCs from 9 of 20 (45%) patients with metastatic disease, and dual staining of captured CTCs for PSA and the cell division marker Ki67 indicated a broad range for the proportion of proliferating cells among CTCs.
  • This method for analysis of CTCs will facilitate the application of noninvasive tumor sampling to direct targeted therapies in advanced prostate cancer and warrants the initiation of long-term clinical studies to test the importance of CTCs in invasive localized disease.

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  • (PMID = 20424012.001).
  • [ISSN] 1946-6242
  • [Journal-full-title] Science translational medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Sci Transl Med
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA089138-08; United States / NIBIB NIH HHS / EB / EB008047-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA089138; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA121990-04; United States / NIBIB NIH HHS / EB / R01 EB008047; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K24 CA121990; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA089138-08; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA89138; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K24 CA121990-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K24 CA121990-04; United States / Howard Hughes Medical Institute / / ; United States / NIBIB NIH HHS / EB / R01 EB008047-03; United States / NIBIB NIH HHS / EB / EB002503-07; United States / NIBIB NIH HHS / EB / P41 EB002503-07; United States / NIBIB NIH HHS / EB / P41 EB002503
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS309604; NLM/ PMC3141292
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74. Brand TC, Tolcher AW: Management of high risk metastatic prostate cancer: the case for novel therapies. J Urol; 2006 Dec;176(6 Pt 2):S76-80; discussion S81-2
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  • [Title] Management of high risk metastatic prostate cancer: the case for novel therapies.
  • PURPOSE: We reviewed the results of preliminary studies of select novel agents for metastatic prostate cancer and discuss the potential benefit of these agents for earlier stage disease, eg biochemically recurrent prostate cancer with high risk features.
  • Several immunotherapies are currently in phase II/III trials, namely the GM-CSF transduced tumor cell vaccine GVAX, the prostatic acid phosphatase loaded dendritic cell vaccine Provenge and the prostate specific antigen expressing poxvirus vaccine PROSTVAC-VF.
  • Another immunotherapy, the prostate specific membrane antigen immunoconjugate MLN2704 (Millennium Pharmaceuticals, Cambridge, Massachusetts), is in phase I/II study.
  • We advocate the early referral and enrollment of men with high risk prostate cancer in clinical trials.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Cancer Vaccines / therapeutic use. Immunotherapy / methods. Prostatic Neoplasms / therapy


75. Kiper A, Yiğitbasi O, Imamoglu A, Tuygun C, Turan C: The prognostic importance of prostate specific antigen in the monitorisation of patients undergoing maximum androgen blockade for metastatic prostate cancer. Int Urol Nephrol; 2006;38(3-4):571-6
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  • [Title] The prognostic importance of prostate specific antigen in the monitorisation of patients undergoing maximum androgen blockade for metastatic prostate cancer.
  • INTRODUCTION: The changes in serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) concentrations can be used as a prognostic factor in patients undergoing maximum androgen blockade for metastatic prostate cancer.
  • The gleason scores and the number of bone metastases were also compared between the groups.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Goserelin / therapeutic use. Leuprolide / therapeutic use. Orchiectomy. Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood. Prostatic Neoplasms / blood. Prostatic Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Monitoring, Physiologic. Neoplasm Metastasis. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies


76. Park YH, Hwang IS, Jeong CW, Kim HH, Lee SE, Kwak C: Prostate specific antigen half-time and prostate specific antigen doubling time as predictors of response to androgen deprivation therapy for metastatic prostate cancer. J Urol; 2009 Jun;181(6):2520-4; discussion 2525
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  • [Title] Prostate specific antigen half-time and prostate specific antigen doubling time as predictors of response to androgen deprivation therapy for metastatic prostate cancer.
  • PURPOSE: We determined the clinical significance of prostate specific antigen half-time and prostate specific antigen doubling time after the prostate specific antigen nadir as predictors of the response to androgen deprivation therapy for metastatic prostate cancer.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 131 patients with metastatic prostate cancer treated with androgen deprivation were included in this analysis.
  • Clinicopathological features and cancer specific survival were compared among the patients who were divided according to prostate specific antigen half-time and prostate specific antigen doubling time after the prostate specific antigen nadir.
  • Baseline and nadir prostate specific antigen did not differ between the patients with a short prostate specific antigen half-time (1 month or less) and those with a long prostate specific antigen half-time (longer than 1 month).
  • Patients with a short prostate specific antigen half-time had a higher Gleason score, shorter nadir duration and shorter cancer specific survival.
  • No differences were found between the patients with a short (6 months or less) and those with a long (longer than 6 months) prostate specific antigen doubling time after the prostate specific antigen nadir in terms of baseline prostate specific antigen, nadir prostate specific antigen, biopsy Gleason score and prostate specific antigen half-time.
  • A short prostate specific antigen doubling time after the prostate specific antigen nadir was associated with shorter nadir duration and poorer median cancer specific survival.
  • On multivariate analysis Gleason score, nadir prostate specific antigen and prostate specific antigen half-time remained independent predictors of an increase in prostate specific antigen after androgen deprivation therapy.
  • Nadir prostate specific antigen, prostate specific antigen half-time and prostate specific antigen doubling time after the prostate specific antigen nadir were prognostic factors for cancer specific survival.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The results of our study suggest that prostate specific antigen half-time and prostate specific antigen doubling time after the prostate specific antigen nadir are independent prognostic indicators for an increase in prostate specific antigen after androgen deprivation therapy and cancer related death in patients with metastatic prostate cancer treated with androgen deprivation.
  • [MeSH-major] Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood. Prostatic Neoplasms / blood. Prostatic Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Androgen Antagonists / therapeutic use. Castration. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / agonists. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis. Predictive Value of Tests. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 19371894.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-3792
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgen Antagonists; 33515-09-2 / Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone; EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen
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77. Lein M, Wirth M, Miller K, Eickenberg HU, Weissbach L, Schmidt K, Haus U, Stephan C, Meissner S, Loening SA, Jung K: Serial markers of bone turnover in men with metastatic prostate cancer treated with zoledronic Acid for detection of bone metastases progression. Eur Urol; 2007 Nov;52(5):1381-7
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  • [Title] Serial markers of bone turnover in men with metastatic prostate cancer treated with zoledronic Acid for detection of bone metastases progression.
  • OBJECTIVES: This study assessed the usefulness of serial measurements of bone turnover markers in men with metastatic prostate cancer treated with zoledronic acid to detect disease progression.
  • METHODS: Serum measurements of total alkaline phosphatase (tALP), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (bALP), cross-linked N-terminal (NTx) and cross-linked C-terminal (CTx) telopeptides of type I collagen, amino-terminal procollagen propeptides of type I collagen (PINP), C-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen (ICTP), and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) were performed in 77 prostate cancer patients suffering from bone metastases and treated with zoledronic acid up to 15 mo.
  • Fifty patients were with and 27 patients without objective evidence of metastatic bone progression during the administration of zoledronic acid.
  • In patients with metastatic bone progression PINP, tALP, bALP, and ICTP were significantly higher at weeks 24, 36, 48, and 60 after starting treatment with zoledronic acid compared with patients without progression.
  • In addition to the information of prostate-specific antigen as a monitoring parameter, the bone formation marker showed a better distinction between patients with and without disease progression.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Selected bone turnover markers provide valuable information regarding progression of bone metastasis in men with metastatic prostate cancer under bisphosphonate therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Bone Density Conservation Agents / therapeutic use. Bone Neoplasms / blood. Diphosphonates / therapeutic use. Imidazoles / therapeutic use. Prostatic Neoplasms / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Alkaline Phosphatase / blood. Collagen Type I / blood. Disease Progression. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Peptide Fragments / blood. Peptides / blood. Procollagen / blood. Prognosis. Prospective Studies. Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood

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  • (PMID = 17321667.001).
  • [ISSN] 0302-2838
  • [Journal-full-title] European urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Bone Density Conservation Agents; 0 / Collagen Type I; 0 / Diphosphonates; 0 / Imidazoles; 0 / Peptide Fragments; 0 / Peptides; 0 / Procollagen; 0 / collagen type I trimeric cross-linked peptide; 6XC1PAD3KF / zoledronic acid; EC 3.1.3.1 / Alkaline Phosphatase; EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen
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78. Shimbo M, Suzuki H, Kamiya N, Imamoto T, Komiya A, Ueda T, Watanabe M, Shiraishi T, Ichikawa T: CAG polymorphic repeat length in androgen receptor gene combined with pretreatment serum testosterone level as prognostic factor in patients with metastatic prostate cancer. Eur Urol; 2005 Apr;47(4):557-63
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  • [Title] CAG polymorphic repeat length in androgen receptor gene combined with pretreatment serum testosterone level as prognostic factor in patients with metastatic prostate cancer.
  • OBJECTIVE: Androgen ablation has been the initial treatment of choice for men with metastatic prostate cancer, but the disease generally relapses to an androgen-independent state thereafter.
  • However, the relevance of a combination of these factors has not been reported.
  • We therefore investigated the clinical significance of CAG repeat length and pretreatment serum T levels among Japanese patients with metastatic prostate cancer (TxNxM1), and analyzed their relevance to survival.
  • METHODS: Fifty-two Japanese patients with metastatic prostate cancer were enrolled in this study.
  • The length of the CAG repeat was positively associated with age at diagnosis (p=0.032).

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  • (PMID = 15774258.001).
  • [ISSN] 0302-2838
  • [Journal-full-title] European urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Androgen; 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone
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79. Johnson TL Jr: Abdominal and back pain in a 65-year-old patient with metastatic prostate cancer. J Chiropr Med; 2010 Mar;9(1):11-6

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  • [Title] Abdominal and back pain in a 65-year-old patient with metastatic prostate cancer.
  • OBJECTIVE: Prostate cancer remains the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths, and African American men are affected with this disease disproportionately in terms of incidence and mortality.
  • The purpose of this article is to present a case report that illustrates the importance of a careful evaluation, including a comprehensive historical review and appropriate physical and laboratory assessment, of a patient with back pain and seemingly unrelated symptoms.
  • CLINICAL FEATURES: A 65-year-old African American man presented to a chiropractic clinic after experiencing lower back pain for 1 month.
  • The digital rectal examination was unremarkable, but the serum prostate-specific antigen was markedly elevated.
  • A suspicion of metastatic prostate cancer resulted in subsequent referral, further diagnostic evaluation, and palliation.
  • CONCLUSION: Chiropractic physicians should maintain a high degree of suspicion for catastrophic causes of back-related complaints, such as metastatic prostate cancer.
  • The Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial Risk Calculator, a research validated instrument, should be used in the assessment of prostate cancer risk.
  • Performance of the digital rectal examination and of the prostate-specific antigen determination remains integral in the clinical assessment of the health status in aging men, with or without back pain.

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  • (PMID = 21629393.001).
  • [ISSN] 1556-3715
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of chiropractic medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Chiropr Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3081242
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Chiropractic / Digital rectal examination / Low back pain / Neoplasm metastasis / Prostate / Prostate-specific antigen
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80. Oh WK, Landrum MB, Lamont EB, McNeil BJ, Keating NL: Does oral antiandrogen use before leuteinizing hormone-releasing hormone therapy in patients with metastatic prostate cancer prevent clinical consequences of a testosterone flare? Urology; 2010 Mar;75(3):642-7
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. TESTOSTERONE .

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  • [Title] Does oral antiandrogen use before leuteinizing hormone-releasing hormone therapy in patients with metastatic prostate cancer prevent clinical consequences of a testosterone flare?
  • LHRH agonists are associated with initial testosterone rises that may cause clinical disease flares in men with metastatic prostate cancer.
  • METHODS: We identified newly diagnosed metastatic prostate cancer patients treated in Veterans Affairs Hospitals from 2001-2004 with LHRH agonists with or without prior antiandrogen therapy.
  • RESULTS: Of 1566 metastatic prostate cancer patients treated with LHRH agonists, 1245 (79.5%) patients received oral antiandrogens before initiating LHRH agonist treatment.
  • Hispanic men, married patients, and those without prior cancer were treated less often with oral antiandrogens (all P < or = .05).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Antiandrogen therapy before LHRH agonists in metastatic prostate cancer was not associated with differences in fractures, spinal cord compression, bladder outlet obstruction, or narcotic prescriptions.
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis


81. Botto H, Rouprêt M, Mathieu F, Richard F: [Multicentre randomized trial comparing triptorelin medical castration versus surgical castration in the treatment of locally advanced or metastatic prostate cancer]. Prog Urol; 2007 Apr;17(2):235-9
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  • [Title] [Multicentre randomized trial comparing triptorelin medical castration versus surgical castration in the treatment of locally advanced or metastatic prostate cancer].
  • [Transliterated title] Etude randomisée multicentrique comparant la castration médicale par triptoréline à la castration chirurgicale dans le traitement du cancer de la prostate localement avancé ou métastatique.
  • OBJECTIVE: To report the results of a trial comparing the efficacy of triptorelin and surgical castration in the treatment of locally advanced or metastatic prostate cancer.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: 80 patients with previously untreated locally advanced or metastatic prostate cancer prostate cancer were included in a one-year multicentre, randomized, prospective, open-label therapeutic trial.
  • On multivariate analysis, age, impaired performance status and PAP level (> 3.2 ng/ml) were predictive factors of a poor outcome.
  • [MeSH-minor] Acid Phosphatase. Age Factors. Aged. Follow-Up Studies. Forecasting. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. Prospective Studies. Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases / blood. Survival Rate. Testosterone / blood. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17489325.001).
  • [ISSN] 1166-7087
  • [Journal-full-title] Progrès en urologie : journal de l'Association française d'urologie et de la Société française d'urologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prog. Urol.
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone; 57773-63-4 / Triptorelin Pamoate; EC 3.1.3.2 / Acid Phosphatase; EC 3.1.3.2 / prostatic acid phosphatase; EC 3.1.3.48 / Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases
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82. Wyatt JP, Anderson HF, Greer KE, Cordoro KM: Acquired hypertrichosis lanuginosa as a presenting sign of metastatic prostate cancer with rapid resolution after treatment. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2007 Feb;56(2 Suppl):S45-7
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  • [Title] Acquired hypertrichosis lanuginosa as a presenting sign of metastatic prostate cancer with rapid resolution after treatment.
  • BACKGROUND: Acquired hypertrichosis lanuginosa (AHL) is a rare cutaneous disorder that involves spontaneous growth of lanugo-type hair in association with overt or occult malignant neoplasms.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: We report the occurrence of AHL associated with metastatic prostate cancer and its abrupt resolution after bilateral orchiectomy.
  • To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of an association with prostate cancer.
  • Physician awareness of the addition of prostate cancer to the growing list of AHL-associated malignancies provides rationale for appropriate testing and referral.


83. Birtle AJ, Freeman A, Masters JR, Payne HA, Harland SJ, BAUS Section of Oncology Cancer Registry: Tumour markers for managing men who present with metastatic prostate cancer and serum prostate-specific antigen levels of &lt;10 ng/mL. BJU Int; 2005 Aug;96(3):303-7
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  • [Title] Tumour markers for managing men who present with metastatic prostate cancer and serum prostate-specific antigen levels of <10 ng/mL.
  • OBJECTIVE: To define immunohistochemical features of the primary cancers that might help in the differential diagnosis and monitoring of treatment in men presenting with metastatic prostate cancer and low serum levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA), who can be difficult to diagnose and manage.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Paraffin blocks of prostate biopsies were obtained for 33 patients presenting with untreated metastatic prostate cancer and serum PSA levels of <10 ng/mL.
  • Sections were immunostained for PSA, prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP), prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA), androgen receptor (AR), chromogranin A and CD 56.
  • PSA immunostaining was equivocal in 12 (36%) cases and in a further 19 (58%) was strong but focal and could be missed on biopsy sampling.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Surface / metabolism. Glutamate Carboxypeptidase II / metabolism. Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood. Prostatic Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy / methods. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Prostate / pathology


84. Hayes VM, Severi G, Eggleton SA, Padilla EJ, Southey MC, Sutherland RL, Hopper JL, Giles GG: The E211 G&gt;A androgen receptor polymorphism is associated with a decreased risk of metastatic prostate cancer and androgenetic alopecia. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 2005 Apr;14(4):993-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The E211 G>A androgen receptor polymorphism is associated with a decreased risk of metastatic prostate cancer and androgenetic alopecia.
  • The androgen receptor (AR) gene encodes a transcription factor, which mediates androgen action in target tissues, including the prostate.
  • Prostate cancer is androgen dependent, implicating AR in susceptibility to this male condition.
  • Male pattern balding, androgenetic alopecia, has recently been associated with prostate cancer, suggesting shared androgen pathways.
  • The CAG and GGC repeats in the AR have been studied extensively as markers of prostate cancer susceptibility, with inconclusive findings, whereas the AR-E211 G>A polymorphism has been associated with androgenetic alopecia.
  • We assessed the repeat linked single nucleotide polymorphism as a marker of risk association in prostate cancer, including androgenetic alopecia, in an Australian population-based case-control study.
  • In 815 prostate cancer cases and 719 controls, the proportion of A-allele carriers was the same in each group.
  • Overall, there was no evidence for an association between the A allele and risk of prostate cancer, however, the proportion of A-allele carriers in metastatic prostate cancer (5%) was lower than in less advanced disease (16%, P = 0.03).
  • The proportion of A-allele carriers was 24% in nonbald men but it was lower in men with vertex alopecia alone (13%, P = 0.001) or in combination with frontal alopecia (7%, P < 0.0001).
  • This inverse association between the A allele and baldness was independent of prostate cancer status (P for interaction = 0.2).
  • These results suggest that the AR-E211 A allele, in linkage with the functional repeat sequences, is associated with a lower risk of metastatic prostate cancer and a lower risk of alopecia.

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  • (PMID = 15824176.001).
  • [ISSN] 1055-9965
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Androgen
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85. Abu-Hamar Ael H, Gameel TA: Prognostic Significance of PSA, Gleason Score, Bone Metastases in Patients with Metastatic Prostate Cancer Under Palliative Androgen Deprivation Treatment. J Egypt Natl Canc Inst; 2009 Sep;21(3):229-36
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Prognostic Significance of PSA, Gleason Score, Bone Metastases in Patients with Metastatic Prostate Cancer Under Palliative Androgen Deprivation Treatment.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic significance of each of the following in the development and progression of hormonal refractory disease in patients with metastatic prostate cancer under hormonal palliative treatment: The initial serum level prostate specific antigen (PSA), the Gleason score (GS), the presence of bone metastases with or without visceral metastases, and the PSA decline.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: During the time period from January 2005 to December 2008, a total of 92 patients with newly diagnosed, histologically confirmed metastatic prostate cancer (MPC) were under palliative androgen deprivation therapy.
  • Metastases were confirmed by positive bone scintigraphy with 925 MBq 99mTc-MDP using a tomographic gamma camera, computerized axial tomography or magnetic resonance imagining.
  • The influences of the following prognostic factors were evaluated: The initial serum level of prostate specific antigen (PSA), the Gleason score (GS), the presence of bone metastases with or without visceral metastases, and the PSA decline, on the time to disease progression.
  • RESULTS: The time to progression was significantly delayed in patients with initial PSA level $50ng/ml (median: 32 months), Gleason Score $7 (median: 33 months), bone metastases only (median: 30 months) and PSA level normalization within 6 months (median: 30 months) compared to that of patients with initial PSA level >50ng/ml (median: 24 months), Gleason Score >7 (median: 24 months), bone, distant lymph nodes and/or visceral metastases (median: 24 months), PSA level decline (median: 18 months) (p-values were 0.002, <0.001, <0.001 and <0.001 respectively).
  • The time to progression was not significantly delayed in patients with $6 sites bone metastases (median: 30 months) compared to that of patients with >6 sites bone metastases (median: 28 months) (p=0.122).
  • CONCLUSION: Our results showed that the initial PSA level, the Gleason score, the presence of bone, lymph nodes and visceral metastases, and the PSA level decline could predict increased risk of disease progression in patients with metastatic prostate cancer.

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  • (PMID = 21132033.001).
  • [ISSN] 1110-0362
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Egyptian National Cancer Institute
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Egypt Natl Canc Inst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Egypt
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86. Povelitsa EA: [Insulin-like factor of growth (IGFI), insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP3) and transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1) in patients with locally-advanced and metastatic cancer of prostate]. Vopr Onkol; 2007;53(5):544-8
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  • [Title] [Insulin-like factor of growth (IGFI), insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP3) and transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1) in patients with locally-advanced and metastatic cancer of prostate].
  • The paper deals with a study of growth factors in blood serum from patients with locally-advanced and metastatic cancer of prostate prior to treatment.
  • Twelve months after diagnosis was made, the data were compared with the initial indices.
  • Immunoenzymatic assay was used in combination with the existing standard procedures of examination of cancer patients.
  • Data were compared with clinico-morphological and serologic evidence on tumor process using medico-biological statistics.

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  • (PMID = 18154118.001).
  • [ISSN] 0507-3758
  • [Journal-full-title] Voprosy onkologii
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vopr Onkol
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 3; 0 / Transforming Growth Factor beta1; 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I
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87. Ruiz-Martín I, Rodríguez-Sánchez CA, Ocaña-Fernández A, del Valle-Zapico J, Soto de Prado-Otero D, Cruz-Hernández JJ: Metastatic prostate cancer with a normal prostate-specific antigen level. Clin Transl Oncol; 2005 Oct;7(9):412-3
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  • [Title] Metastatic prostate cancer with a normal prostate-specific antigen level.
  • Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is the most commonly used tumour marker for prostate cancer, both in screening and in follow-up.
  • However, there are many false positive increases in the presence of other prostate diseases and, currently, there is no consensus regarding sensitivity and specificity of the PSA test, nor what constitutes the upper limit of normality.
  • We report a case of a 67-year-old patient with metastatic prostate cancer who, with increased level of alkaline phosphatase and normal PSA, showed clinical and radiological evidence of progression of the disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / blood. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood. Prostatic Neoplasms / blood


88. Dearnaley DP, Mason MD, Parmar MK, Sanders K, Sydes MR: Adjuvant therapy with oral sodium clodronate in locally advanced and metastatic prostate cancer: long-term overall survival results from the MRC PR04 and PR05 randomised controlled trials. Lancet Oncol; 2009 Sep;10(9):872-6
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  • [Title] Adjuvant therapy with oral sodium clodronate in locally advanced and metastatic prostate cancer: long-term overall survival results from the MRC PR04 and PR05 randomised controlled trials.
  • BACKGROUND: Bisphosphonates might modulate the development of symptomatic bone metastases in men with prostate cancer.
  • METHODS: 311 men with metastatic disease were recruited to PR05 between 1994 and 1998, and 508 men with non-metastatic disease were recruited to PR04 from 1994 to 1997.
  • All men were treated according to the recruiting site's standard practice at the time: for metastatic disease, all men were starting or responding to long-term hormone therapy; for non-metastatic disease, most men had radiotherapy, hormone therapy, or both.
  • Men were randomly assigned to take four tablets per day of sodium clodronate (2080 mg) or matching placebo for up to 3 years (metastatic disease) or 5 years (non-metastatic).
  • FINDINGS: Of the 278 men with metastatic disease, 258 (93%) were reported to have died.
  • Evidence of a benefit for those with metastatic disease from use of sodium clodronate compared with placebo was seen in overall survival (hazard ratio [HR] 0.77, 95% CI 0.60-0.98; p=0.032).
  • Of the 471 men with non-metastatic disease, 281 (60%) were reported to have died, with no evidence of improvement in overall survival with clodronate compared with placebo (HR 1.12, 0.89-1.42; p=0.94).
  • INTERPRETATION: Long-term data from these trials show that a first-generation bisphosphonate, sodium clodronate, improves overall survival in men with metastatic prostate cancer who are starting hormone therapy, but there is no evidence of an effect in men with non-metastatic prostate cancer.

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  • (PMID = 19674936.001).
  • [ISSN] 1474-5488
  • [Journal-full-title] The Lancet. Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lancet Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] ISRCTN/ ISRCTN38477744/ ISRCTN61384873
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / / CRUK/ 10588; United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / MRC/ G0501019; United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / MRC/ MC/ U122861330; United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Bone Density Conservation Agents; 0813BZ6866 / Clodronic Acid
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2748902
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89. Tumminello FM, Badalamenti G, Fulfaro F, Incorvaia L, Crescimanno M, Flandina C, Sepporta MV, Leto G: Serum follistatin in patients with prostate cancer metastatic to the bone. Clin Exp Metastasis; 2010 Dec;27(8):549-55
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  • [Title] Serum follistatin in patients with prostate cancer metastatic to the bone.
  • The clinical significance of circulating follistatin (FLST), an inhibitor of the multifunctional cytokine activin A (Act A), was investigated in patients with prostate cancer (PCa).
  • The serum concentrations of this molecule were determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in PCa patients with (M+) or without (M0) bone metastases, in patients with benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) and in healthy subjects (HS).
  • The effectiveness of FLST in detecting PCa patients with skeletal metastases was determined by the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis.
  • In cancer patients the serum concentrations of FLST significantly correlated with the presence of bone metastases (P = 0.0005) or increased PSA levels (P = 0.04).
  • These findings suggest that FLST may be regarded as a potential, molecular target in the treatment of metastatic bone disease while its clinical role as soluble marker in the clinical management of PCa patients with bone metastases needs to be better defined.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / blood. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Follistatin / blood. Prostatic Neoplasms / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Activins / blood. Aged. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood. Sensitivity and Specificity


90. Montgomery RB, Goldman B, Tangen CM, Hussain M, Petrylak DP, Page S, Klein EA, Crawford ED, Southwest Oncology Group: Association of body mass index with response and survival in men with metastatic prostate cancer: Southwest Oncology Group trials 8894 and 9916. J Urol; 2007 Nov;178(5):1946-51; discussion 1951
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  • [Title] Association of body mass index with response and survival in men with metastatic prostate cancer: Southwest Oncology Group trials 8894 and 9916.
  • PURPOSE: We evaluated the effect of body mass index on prostate specific antigen response, and progression-free and overall survival in men with androgen dependent or androgen independent metastatic prostate cancer.
  • The first study included 1,006 men treated with androgen deprivation for metastatic prostate cancer.
  • The second study included 671 patients treated with chemotherapy for metastatic, androgen independent prostate cancer.
  • RESULTS: Among men with androgen dependent disease, higher body mass index was associated with longer overall (p <0.001) and progression-free (p = 0.009) survival, as well as with an increased likelihood of achieving a prostate specific antigen nadir less than 4 ng/ml (p = 0.008).
  • Among men with androgen independent prostate cancer, no clear association could be detected between body mass index and progression-free survival, overall survival or prostate specific antigen response.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed higher body mass index to be associated with better overall and progression-free survival in patients with androgen dependent metastatic prostate cancer.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Disease-Free Survival. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Prognosis. Proportional Hazards Models. Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Southwestern United States / epidemiology. Survival Rate / trends

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  • [CommentIn] J Urol. 2007 Nov;178(5):1842-3 [17868740.001]
  • (PMID = 17868721.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-5347
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA32102; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA38926
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 76W6J0943E / Flutamide; EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen
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91. Chen CH, Tzai TS, Huang SP, Wu HC, Tai HC, Chang YH, Pu YS: Clinical outcome of Taiwanese men with metastatic prostate cancer compared with other ethnic groups. Urology; 2008 Dec;72(6):1287-92
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Clinical outcome of Taiwanese men with metastatic prostate cancer compared with other ethnic groups.
  • OBJECTIVES: Prostate cancer incidence varies significantly among different ethnic groups.
  • We sought to compare the survival outcome in patients with metastatic prostate cancer among different ethnic groups and to identify independent prognostic factors affecting overall survival in Taiwanese patients.
  • METHODS: From January 1996 to February 2005, 482 men with newly diagnosed metastatic prostate adenocarcinoma were enrolled from five major medical centers in Taiwan.
  • The cohort accounted for about 11.5% of all patients with metastatic disease during the period in Taiwan.
  • The demographics, tumor characteristics, and survival outcome were compared with several published Western and Japanese series.
  • Five series were selected from MEDLINE: the Southwest Oncology Group; Detroit Metropolitan Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program Registry; American College of Surgeons; National Cancer Registry in Sweden; and Gurma and Nagasaki University Group in Japan.
  • In a multivariate analysis with age adjustment, bone pain, Gleason score 8 or greater, and visceral metastases independently predicted a reduced overall survival in our series compared with each favorable strata (hazard ratio 2.22, 1.96, and 1.51, respectively; all P <0.05).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Taiwanese men with metastatic prostate cancer might have a better survival compared with Western men.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Ethnic Groups. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Neoplasm Metastasis. Prostate-Specific Antigen / biosynthesis. Retrospective Studies. Taiwan. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18372020.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-9995
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen
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92. Weinfurt KP, Li Y, Castel LD, Saad F, Timbie JW, Glendenning GA, Schulman KA: The significance of skeletal-related events for the health-related quality of life of patients with metastatic prostate cancer. Ann Oncol; 2005 Apr;16(4):579-84
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The significance of skeletal-related events for the health-related quality of life of patients with metastatic prostate cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: We examined the clinical relevance of skeletal-related events (SREs) for health state preferences, pain and health-related quality of life in patients with advanced prostate cancer and a history of bone metastases.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data were from a clinical trial of zoledronic acid versus placebo in the treatment of SREs associated with advanced prostate cancer metastatic to bone.
  • CONCLUSIONS: SREs have important and significant effects on measures of health-related quality of life in men with prostate cancer.


93. Okegawa T, Kinjo M, Nutahara K, Higashihara E: Pretreatment serum level of HER2/nue as a prognostic factor in metastatic prostate cancer patients about to undergo endocrine therapy. Int J Urol; 2006 Sep;13(9):1197-201
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pretreatment serum level of HER2/nue as a prognostic factor in metastatic prostate cancer patients about to undergo endocrine therapy.
  • BACKGROUND: Overexpression of the HER2 receptor protein and amplification of the HER2 gene has been implicated in tumor development and progression, and has been associated with a poor prognosis in several types of cancer.
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate whether pretreatment serum HER2 levels can be used to predict biochemical recurrence-free survival in prostate cancer patients about to undergo endocrine therapy.
  • METHODS: The study population consisted of 379 untreated patients with histologically diagnosed prostate cancer: 197 with T2N0M0, 93 with T3N0M0, 19 with TxN1Mx, and 70 with TxNxM1.
  • Serum HER2 levels were assessed in the prostate cancer patients prior to treatment as well as in a control group of 100 patients with histologically confirmed non-cancer.
  • RESULTS: The mean level of HER2 in serum was significantly higher in prostate cancer patients than non-prostate cancer patients (P = 0.006).
  • Also, the serum HER2 level was significantly higher in bone metastatic cancer patients (14.3 +/- 6.3 ng/mL) than in non-metastatic patients (T2: 11.9 +/- 2.3 ng/mL, P = 0.003; T3: 12.2 +/- 2.8 ng/mL, P = 0.011).
  • The metastatic patients were divided into those with low and high HER2 levels using a cutoff value of 12.6 ng/mL based on receiver-operating characteristic curves.
  • Multivariate Cox logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the pretreatment serum HER2 value (P = 0.022), serum prostate-specific antigen value (P = 0.018), and extent of disease score (P = 0.027) were independent predictors of recurrence.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The pretreatment serum HER2 level may be a useful independent prognostic factor that is associated with a high risk of biochemical recurrence in metastatic prostate cancer patients about to undergo endocrine therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Androgen Antagonists / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Bone Neoplasms / blood. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / blood. Prostatic Neoplasms / blood. Receptor, ErbB-2 / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / blood. Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Aged. Anilides / therapeutic use. Disease-Free Survival. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Nitriles. Prognosis. Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Tosyl Compounds. Treatment Outcome


94. Su Z, Dannull J, Yang BK, Dahm P, Coleman D, Yancey D, Sichi S, Niedzwiecki D, Boczkowski D, Gilboa E, Vieweg J: Telomerase mRNA-transfected dendritic cells stimulate antigen-specific CD8+ and CD4+ T cell responses in patients with metastatic prostate cancer. J Immunol; 2005 Mar 15;174(6):3798-807
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Telomerase mRNA-transfected dendritic cells stimulate antigen-specific CD8+ and CD4+ T cell responses in patients with metastatic prostate cancer.
  • Telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) represents an attractive target for cancer immunotherapy because hTERT is reactivated in most human tumors.
  • A clinical trial was initiated in which hTERT mRNA-transfected dendritic cells (DC) were administered to 20 patients with metastatic prostate cancer.
  • Vaccination was further associated with a reduction of prostate-specific Ag velocity and molecular clearance of circulating micrometastases.
  • Our findings provide a rationale for further development of hTERT-transfected DC vaccines in the treatment of prostate and other cancers.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes / immunology. CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes / immunology. Cancer Vaccines / adverse effects. Cancer Vaccines / genetics. Cancer Vaccines / pharmacology. DNA-Binding Proteins. Humans. Immunotherapy / methods. Male. Middle Aged. RNA, Messenger / genetics. Safety. Transfection


95. Mottet N, Lucas C, Sene E, Avances C, Maubach L, Wolff JM: Intermittent androgen castration: a biological reality during intermittent treatment in metastatic prostate cancer? Urol Int; 2005;75(3):204-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Intermittent androgen castration: a biological reality during intermittent treatment in metastatic prostate cancer?
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 51 patients with metastatic prostate cancer underwent a 6-months period of continuous maximal androgen blockade (MAB) consisting of leuprorelin (3.75 mg at monthly intervals) plus flutamide (250 mg t.i.d.) followed by IMAB.
  • During each cycle, the cut-off prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels to stop and resume treatment were 4 and 10 ng/ml, respectively.
  • Before treatment, 4 patients had a T lower than normal laboratory value but these recovered all to a normal T value at the end of the first cycle.
  • [MeSH-major] Androgen Antagonists / therapeutic use. Flutamide / therapeutic use. Leuprolide / therapeutic use. Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Testosterone / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Drug Administration Schedule. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis. Prospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 16215305.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-1138
  • [Journal-full-title] Urologia internationalis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgen Antagonists; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone; 76W6J0943E / Flutamide; EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen; EFY6W0M8TG / Leuprolide
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96. Sasaki T, Komiya A, Suzuki H, Shimbo M, Ueda T, Akakura K, Ichikawa T: Changes in chromogranin a serum levels during endocrine therapy in metastatic prostate cancer patients. Eur Urol; 2005 Aug;48(2):224-9; discussion 229-30
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Changes in chromogranin a serum levels during endocrine therapy in metastatic prostate cancer patients.
  • INTRODUCTION: The concept of neuroendocrine (NE) differentiation in prostate cancer has become more widely recognized as its diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic usefulness.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: We enrolled 38 patients with stage D prostate cancer who underwent endocrine therapy by medical or surgical castration and oral antiandrogen.
  • CONCLUSION: During endocrine therapy in metastatic prostate cancer patients, serum CGA values were not related to serum PSA levels, and increased as treatment periods became longer.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Analysis of Variance. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Disease Progression. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood. Statistics, Nonparametric


97. Savorè C, Zhang C, Muir C, Liu R, Wyrwa J, Shu J, Zhau HE, Chung LW, Carson DD, Farach-Carson MC: Perlecan knockdown in metastatic prostate cancer cells reduces heparin-binding growth factor responses in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. Clin Exp Metastasis; 2005;22(5):377-90
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Perlecan knockdown in metastatic prostate cancer cells reduces heparin-binding growth factor responses in vitro and tumor growth in vivo.
  • Pln, via glycosaminoglycans in domains I and V, acts as a co-receptor for delivery of heparin binding growth factors (HBGFs) that support cancer growth and vascularization.
  • The contribution of Pln to prostate cancer growth was tested using a ribozyme approach to knockdown Pln expression levels.
  • Transfection into the androgen-independent, bone targeted prostate cancer line, C4-2B, and efficient stable knockdown of Pln was demonstrated by quantitative PCR, immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting.
  • A reduced growth rate, smaller tumor size, diminished vascularization and failure to elevate serum PSA characterized mice bearing Pln knockdown C4-2B cells.
  • We conclude that Pln is an essential ECM component involved in growth responses of metastatic prostate cancer cells to HBGFs deposited in local and metastatic microenvironment.
  • [MeSH-major] Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans / genetics. Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans / physiology. Neoplasm Metastasis / physiopathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / genetics. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Proliferation. Down-Regulation. Extracellular Matrix / physiology. Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 / physiology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Neovascularization, Pathologic. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Tumor Cells, Cultured. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / physiology


98. James ND, Sydes MR, Clarke NW, Mason MD, Dearnaley DP, Anderson J, Popert RJ, Sanders K, Morgan RC, Stansfeld J, Dwyer J, Masters J, Parmar MK: Systemic therapy for advancing or metastatic prostate cancer (STAMPEDE): a multi-arm, multistage randomized controlled trial. BJU Int; 2009 Feb;103(4):464-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Systemic therapy for advancing or metastatic prostate cancer (STAMPEDE): a multi-arm, multistage randomized controlled trial.
  • There is a need to improve the outcomes for men with high-risk localised, nodal or metastatic prostate cancer, or with aggressively relapsing disease after initial therapy for local disease.
  • Thus we aim to evaluate the toxicity and efficacy of three different systemic therapies (docetaxel, zoledronic acid and celecoxib) used alone or combined at the initiation of hormone manipulation for high-risk prostate cancer.
  • The trial has several 'stages', from initial confirmation of safety to a phase III assessment of survival, with a series of intervening activity stages.
  • It is a flagship randomized clinical trial for academic research into prostate cancer in the UK.
  • It is hoped that the results will improve outcomes for patients with high-risk prostate cancer.
  • The design could be applicable to the study of new therapies in other cancer types.
  • Continued efforts are required by the urological cancer community to maintain the excellent recruitment shown to date.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Celecoxib. Diphosphonates / administration & dosage. Humans. Imidazoles / administration & dosage. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Pyrazoles / administration & dosage. Risk Factors. Sulfonamides / administration & dosage. Taxoids / administration & dosage. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18990168.001).
  • [ISSN] 1464-410X
  • [Journal-full-title] BJU international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BJU Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / ; United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / / CRUK/ 10588; United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / MRC/ G0802851; United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / / CRUK/ 3804; United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / / ; United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / MRC/ MC/ U122861330; United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / MRC/ G0500966
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase III; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Diphosphonates; 0 / Imidazoles; 0 / Pyrazoles; 0 / Sulfonamides; 0 / Taxoids; 15H5577CQD / docetaxel; 6XC1PAD3KF / zoledronic acid; JCX84Q7J1L / Celecoxib
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99. Gravis G, Bladou F, Salem N, Gonçalves A, Esterni B, Walz J, Bagattini S, Marcy M, Brunelle S, Viens P: Results from a monocentric phase II trial of erlotinib in patients with metastatic prostate cancer. Ann Oncol; 2008 Sep;19(9):1624-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Results from a monocentric phase II trial of erlotinib in patients with metastatic prostate cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Erlotinib is an orally active small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor targeted against human epidermal growth factor receptor 1/epidermal growth factor receptor (ErbB1), known to be overexpressed in a variety of cancers, including prostate cancer.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a phase II monocentric study of 30 patients with advanced or metastatic prostate cancer, 29 had castration-resistant prostate cancer and 23 had received prior chemotherapy.
  • Efficacy was defined as a decrease or stabilization of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) without clinical progression.
  • Future directions should include evaluating its use in less advanced prostate cancer.


100. Mimeault M, Johansson SL, Vankatraman G, Moore E, Henichart JP, Depreux P, Lin MF, Batra SK: Combined targeting of epidermal growth factor receptor and hedgehog signaling by gefitinib and cyclopamine cooperatively improves the cytotoxic effects of docetaxel on metastatic prostate cancer cells. Mol Cancer Ther; 2007 Mar;6(3):967-78
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Combined targeting of epidermal growth factor receptor and hedgehog signaling by gefitinib and cyclopamine cooperatively improves the cytotoxic effects of docetaxel on metastatic prostate cancer cells.
  • The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and hedgehog cascades provide a critical role in prostate cancer progression and contribute to the resistance to clinical therapies and disease relapse.
  • Therefore, we evaluated, for the first time, the antiproliferative and cytotoxic effects induced by a combination of selective inhibitors of EGFR tyrosine kinase and smoothened hedgehog signaling element, gefitinib and cyclopamine, with a current chemotherapeutic drug used in the clinics, docetaxel, on some metastatic prostate cancer cell lines.
  • Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that sonic hedgehog (SHH) expression was enhanced in 39% of primary prostatic adenocarcinomas (Gleason scores 4-10) compared with the corresponding normal tissues of the same prostate gland from 32 prostate cancer patients.
  • The confocal microscopy and Western blot analyses have also indicated the high expression levels of SHH and EGFR in metastatic LNCaP, DU145, and PC3 cells.
  • Importantly, the combined docetaxel, gefitinib, and cyclopamine also caused a higher rate of apoptotic death of prostate cancer cells compared with individual agents.
  • These findings indicate that the combined use of inhibitors of EGF-EGFR and hedgehog signaling with docetaxel could represent a more promising strategy for treatment in patients with metastatic and androgen-independent prostate cancer.

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  • (PMID = 17363490.001).
  • [ISSN] 1535-7163
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular cancer therapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cancer Ther.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA138791; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 88184
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hedgehog Proteins; 0 / Quinazolines; 0 / SHH protein, human; 0 / Taxoids; 0 / Veratrum Alkaloids; 15H5577CQD / docetaxel; 9007-43-6 / Cytochromes c; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; S65743JHBS / gefitinib; ZH658AJ192 / cyclopamine
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