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56. Zhang XM, Shen Y, Xianyu ZQ: [Serum proteomic study of prostate cancer with bone metastasis]. Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue; 2010 Aug;16(8):721-5
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  • [Title] [Serum proteomic study of prostate cancer with bone metastasis].
  • OBJECTIVE: To screen serum biomarker candidates in prostate cancer with bone metastasis by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DGE) and mass spectrometry.
  • METHODS: Serum samples were obtained from 5 prostate cancer patients with bone metastasis, and another 5 without it.
  • The differentially expressed protein spots in the serum of those with bone metastases were identified by peptide-fingerprinting with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS).
  • RESULTS: Compared with the serum samples from those without bone metastasis, 10 protein spot-features were found to be significantly increased and 5 significantly decreased, and the 3 identified proteins, Zn-alpha2-glycoprotein (ZAG), haptoglobin and apolipoprotein C-III, were all increased in the bone-metastasis group.
  • The identified proteins involved in the formation and progression of prostate cancer bone metastasis might be applied as biomarkers for bone metastasis from prostate cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / blood. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Prostatic Neoplasms / blood. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology. Proteome / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Case-Control Studies. Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Proteomics


57. Hong JH, Ahn KS, Bae E, Jeon SS, Choi HY: The effects of curcumin on the invasiveness of prostate cancer in vitro and in vivo. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis; 2006;9(2):147-52
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  • [Title] The effects of curcumin on the invasiveness of prostate cancer in vitro and in vivo.
  • Curcumin has become a focus of interest with regard to its antitumor effects in prostate cancer; however, the effects of this agent on invasion and metastasis remain less well understood.
  • Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are important prerequisite for tumor invasion and metastasis.
  • In this study, we evaluated the effects of curcumin on prostate cancer cells (DU-145) invasion in both in vitro and in vivo.
  • Curcumin treatment resulted not only in a significant reduction in the expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9, but also effected the inhibition of invasive ability in vitro.
  • Curcumin was shown to induce a marked reduction of tumor volume, MMP-2, and MMP-9 activity in the tumor-bearing site.
  • The metastatic nodules in vivo were significantly fewer in the curcumin-treated group than untreated group.
  • Curcumin appears to constitute a potential agent for the prevention of cancer progression, or at least of the initial phase of metastasis, in prostate cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Curcumin / pharmacology. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Caspase 3. Caspases / analysis. Caspases / metabolism. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Disease Models, Animal. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. In Vitro Techniques. Male. Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 / analysis. Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 / metabolism. Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 / analysis. Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 / metabolism. Mice. Neoplasms, Experimental. Probability. Sensitivity and Specificity. Statistics, Nonparametric. Transplantation, Heterologous. Tumor Cells, Cultured / cytology. Tumor Cells, Cultured / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 16389264.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-7852
  • [Journal-full-title] Prostate cancer and prostatic diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 3.4.22.- / Casp3 protein, mouse; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspase 3; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspases; EC 3.4.24.24 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 2; EC 3.4.24.35 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 9; IT942ZTH98 / Curcumin
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58. Turvey SE, Swart E, Denis MC, Mahmood U, Benoist C, Weissleder R, Mathis D: Noninvasive imaging of pancreatic inflammation and its reversal in type 1 diabetes. J Clin Invest; 2005 Sep;115(9):2454-61
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  • Importantly, an essentially identical MNP-MRI strategy has previously been used with great success to image lymph node metastases in prostate cancer patients.

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  • (PMID = 16110329.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9738
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Invest.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R24 CA092782; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R24 CA92782
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD3; 0 / Immunoglobulin G; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1187933
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59. Khan R, Maheshwari V, Harris SH, Alam K: Prostatic adenocarcinoma metastasizing to the parietal bones. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2007 Oct;50(4):759-61
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  • Prostate cancer metastasis to the axial skeleton occurs at high frequency in patients with advanced disease causing significant morbidity and mortality.
  • Apart from bone, brain is also a common site of metastasis but the involvement of the parietal bones is extremely unusual.
  • Parietal bone metastasis from prostatic adenocarcinoma was the initial presentation seen in our patient.
  • The report is intended to alert the reader of this rare site of metastasis from the prostate.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Parietal Bone / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology. Skull Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 18306543.001).
  • [ISSN] 0377-4929
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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60. Tomlins SA, Mehra R, Rhodes DR, Cao X, Wang L, Dhanasekaran SM, Kalyana-Sundaram S, Wei JT, Rubin MA, Pienta KJ, Shah RB, Chinnaiyan AM: Integrative molecular concept modeling of prostate cancer progression. Nat Genet; 2007 Jan;39(1):41-51
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  • [Title] Integrative molecular concept modeling of prostate cancer progression.
  • Despite efforts to profile prostate cancer, the genetic alterations and biological processes that correlate with the observed histological progression are unclear.
  • Using laser-capture microdissection to isolate 101 cell populations, we have profiled prostate cancer progression from benign epithelium to metastatic disease.
  • Of note, relative to low-grade prostate cancer (Gleason pattern 3), high-grade cancer (Gleason pattern 4) shows an attenuated androgen signaling signature, similar to metastatic prostate cancer, which may reflect dedifferentiation and explain the clinical association of grade with prognosis.
  • Taken together, these data show that analyzing gene expression signatures in the context of a compendium of molecular concepts is useful in understanding cancer biology.
  • [MeSH-minor] Androgens / metabolism. Disease Progression. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis. Prostatic Hyperplasia / genetics. Prostatic Hyperplasia / pathology. Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia / genetics. Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia / pathology. Signal Transduction. Systems Integration

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  • (PMID = 17173048.001).
  • [ISSN] 1061-4036
  • [Journal-full-title] Nature genetics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nat. Genet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] GEO/ GSE6099
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 5P30 CA46592; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50CA69568; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA102872; United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / U54 DA021519-01A1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / UO1 CA111275-01
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgens
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61. Saleem M, Adhami VM, Ahmad N, Gupta S, Mukhtar H: Prognostic significance of metastasis-associated protein S100A4 (Mts1) in prostate cancer progression and chemoprevention regimens in an autochthonous mouse model. Clin Cancer Res; 2005 Jan 1;11(1):147-53
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  • [Title] Prognostic significance of metastasis-associated protein S100A4 (Mts1) in prostate cancer progression and chemoprevention regimens in an autochthonous mouse model.
  • PURPOSE: We recently showed that metastasis-promoting Mts1 gene (S100A4) and protein is overexpressed during progression of prostate cancer in humans.
  • The purpose of this study was to assess the expression of S100A4 during autochthonous prostate cancer progression in transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) model.
  • Because oral consumption of green tea polyphenols (GTP) has been shown to inhibit metastasis and prostate cancer in TRAMP, we further assessed the significance of S100A4 during chemoprevention regimen.
  • RESULTS: With the progression of age and prostate cancer growth in TRAMP mice, an increase in the expression of S100A4 at mRNA and protein level in dorsolateral prostate, but not in nontransgenic mice, occurred.
  • GTP feeding to TRAMP mice resulted in marked inhibition of prostate cancer progression, which was associated with reduction of S100A4 and restoration of E-cadherin.
  • CONCLUSIONS: S100A4 represents a promising marker for prostate cancer progression and could be employed as a biomarker in chemoprevention regimens.
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Age Factors. Animals. Biomarkers / metabolism. Blotting, Western. Cadherins / metabolism. Cell Line, Tumor. DNA, Complementary / metabolism. Densitometry. Disease Progression. Flavonoids / chemistry. Guanosine Triphosphate / metabolism. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Mice. Mice, Inbred C57BL. Phenols / chemistry. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Polyphenols. RNA / metabolism. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Tea. Time Factors. Transgenes

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  • [ErratumIn] Clin Cancer Res. 2005 Feb 1;11(3):1353
  • (PMID = 15671539.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / P50DK 65303; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA 101039; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA 78809
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Cadherins; 0 / DNA, Complementary; 0 / Flavonoids; 0 / Phenols; 0 / Polyphenols; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / S100 Proteins; 0 / S100a4 protein, mouse; 0 / Tea; 63231-63-0 / RNA; 86-01-1 / Guanosine Triphosphate
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62. Axanova L, Morré DJ, Morré DM: Growth of LNCaP cells in monoculture and coculture with osteoblasts and response to tNOX inhibitors. Cancer Lett; 2005 Jul 8;225(1):35-40
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  • An in vitro coculture model of prostate cancer cells (LNCaP) with human osteoblasts (hFOB) was utilized to define the efficacy of the tNOX inhibitors EGCg, capsaicin, Capsibiol-T and phenoxodiol against bone metastasis of prostate cancer alone and in combination with Taxol and cisplatin.
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / pharmacology. Bone Neoplasms / prevention & control. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Cell Survival. Cisplatin / pharmacology. Humans. Isoflavones / pharmacology. Male. Paclitaxel / pharmacology. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 15922855.001).
  • [ISSN] 0304-3835
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCCIH NIH HHS / AT / P50 AT0047
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / Antioxidants; 0 / Capsibiol-T; 0 / Isoflavones; 0 / Plant Extracts; 8R1V1STN48 / Catechin; 995FT1W541 / phenoxodiol; BQM438CTEL / epigallocatechin gallate; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; S07O44R1ZM / Capsaicin
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63. Kitagawa Y, Konaka H, Mizokami A, Namiki M: [Clinical implications of bisphosphonate for bone metastases of prostate cancer]. Nihon Rinsho; 2007 Nov 28;65 Suppl 9:356-9
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  • [Title] [Clinical implications of bisphosphonate for bone metastases of prostate cancer].
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Density Conservation Agents / therapeutic use. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Diphosphonates / therapeutic use. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18161131.001).
  • [ISSN] 0047-1852
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon rinsho. Japanese journal of clinical medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Rinsho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bone Density Conservation Agents; 0 / Diphosphonates; 0 / RANK Ligand
  • [Number-of-references] 12
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6
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4. Briganti A, Blute ML, Eastham JH, Graefen M, Heidenreich A, Karnes JR, Montorsi F, Studer UE: Pelvic lymph node dissection in prostate cancer. Eur Urol; 2009 Jun;55(6):1251-65
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  • [Title] Pelvic lymph node dissection in prostate cancer.
  • CONTEXT: Pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND) is considered the most reliable procedure for the detection of lymph node metastases in prostate cancer (PCa); however, the therapeutic benefit of PLND in PCa management is currently under debate.
  • Keywords included prostate cancer, pelvic lymph node dissection, radical prostatectomy, imaging, and complications.
  • Extended PLND (ePLND; ie, removal of obturator, external iliac, hypogastric with or without presacral and common iliac nodes) significantly improves the detection of lymph node metastases compared with limited PLND (lPLND; ie, removal of obturator with or without external iliac nodes), which is associated with poor staging accuracy.
  • Because not all patients with PCa are at the same risk of harbouring nodal metastases, several nomograms and tables have been developed and validated to identify candidates for PLND.
  • According to these prediction models, a staging PLND might be omitted in low-risk PCa patients because of the low rate of lymph node metastases found, even after extended dissections (<8%).
  • Indeed, patients with low-volume nodal metastases experience excellent survival rates, regardless of adjuvant treatment.
  • Patients with low-volume nodal metastases have a good long-term prognosis; to what extent this prognosis is the result of a positive impact of PLND on PCa outcomes is still to be determined.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymph Node Excision / methods. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymph Nodes / surgery. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Prostatectomy / methods. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Needle. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Pelvis. Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis. Risk Assessment. Survival Analysis


65. Venkitaraman R, Cook GJ, Dearnaley DP, Parker CC, Huddart RA, Khoo V, Eeles R, Horwich A, Sohaib SA: Does magnetic resonance imaging of the spine have a role in the staging of prostate cancer? Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol); 2009 Feb;21(1):39-42
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  • [Title] Does magnetic resonance imaging of the spine have a role in the staging of prostate cancer?
  • AIMS: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an effective method for evaluating the spine in patients with a high risk of metastatic disease.
  • The aim of this study was to compare MRI spine with radionuclide bone scan in detecting spinal metastases for staging prostate cancer patients.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cohort of 99 patients with locally advanced prostate cancer at high risk of skeletal metastasis (prostate-specific antigen>10 ng/ml, composite Gleason score>or=8) or equivocal findings on bone scan were included in the retrospective study, and their MRI spine and bone scans were analysed.
  • RESULTS: Ten patients were detected to have definite spinal metastasis by bone scan, whereas 12 patients had definite skeletal metastasis by MRI spine.
  • Compared with the 'gold standard', derived from clinical and radiological follow-up, the sensitivities for radionuclide bone scan and that for MRI spine for detecting skeletal metastasis were 71.4 and 85.7%, respectively (P=0.023), whereas the specificities were 96.5 and 97.7%, respectively (P=0.95).
  • Of the 34 individual metastatic lesions in the spine, 15 were concordantly positive on both scans, whereas five lesions were positive only by bone scan and 11 positive only by MRI.
  • The addition of MRI spine in the staging for prostate cancer resulted in a change of stage and management plan in seven (7%) patients.
  • CONCLUSION: MRI spine has comparable specificity and slightly better sensitivity than bone scan to detect spinal metastasis from prostate cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology. Spinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Spinal Neoplasms / secondary. Spine / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18993040.001).
  • [ISSN] 0936-6555
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical oncology (Royal College of Radiologists (Great Britain))
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / / 10588; United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / G0501019
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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66. Yonou H, Ochiai A, Ashimine S, Maeda H, Horiguchi Y, Yoshioka K, Ogawa Y, Hatano T, Tachibana M: The bisphosphonate YM529 inhibits osteoblastic bone tumor proliferation of prostate cancer. Prostate; 2007 Jun 15;67(9):999-1009
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The bisphosphonate YM529 inhibits osteoblastic bone tumor proliferation of prostate cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: In men, prostate cancer frequently metastasizes to the bones, where it forms osteoblastic lesions with an osteolytic element that cause pain.
  • However, the role of osteoclastogenesis in bone metastasis of human prostate cancer is unknown.
  • Bisphosphonates are already known to be beneficical for treating osteolytic bone metastases, so we employed a model of osteoblastic bone tumor of human prostate cancer to investigate whether a new bisphosphonate (YM529: minodronate) could inhibit both the formation of bone tumors and the progression of established osteoblastic tumors.
  • METHODS: Human prostate cancer cells (LNCaP) were injected into adult human bone implants in nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient mice, after which osteoblastic bone tumors developed.
  • YM529 (1 microg/day) was administered subcutaneously every day for 2 weeks, starting either immediately or 2 weeks after implantation of the tumor cells, and the mice were sacrificed at 4 weeks after implantation.
  • The bone tumors were examined histologically and the number of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-stained osteoclasts in each tumor focus was counted.
  • CONCLUSIONS: YM529 reduced the tumor burden in bone by inhibiting both the formation of new lesions and the progression of existing tumors, suggesting that osteoclasts are involved in the formation of bone tumors by prostate cancer.
  • Treatment with this bisphosphonate may potentially be beneficial for patients with bone metastases of prostate cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / prevention & control. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Diphosphonates / pharmacology. Imidazoles / pharmacology. Osteoblasts / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Humans. Male. Mice. Mice, Nude. Neoplasm Transplantation / pathology. Transplantation, Heterologous


67. Compérat E, Azzouzi AR, Chartier-Kastler E, Ménégaux F, Capron F, Richard F, Charlotte F: Late recurrence of a prostatic adenocarcinoma as a solitary splenic metastasis. Urol Int; 2007;78(1):86-8
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  • [Title] Late recurrence of a prostatic adenocarcinoma as a solitary splenic metastasis.
  • Splenic metastases of solid tumors are exceptional.
  • We report the first case of an isolated splenic metastasis from prostate carcinoma, 5 years after radical prostatectomy.
  • The splenic tumor was revealed by a pain and progressive increase in the serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level.
  • This case suggests that splenic metastasis might be the result of the growth of an early blood-borne micrometastasis within the spleen after a period of clinical latency.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology. Splenic Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Diagnosis, Differential. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Prostatectomy. Radiation-Sensitizing Agents. Splenectomy. Taxoids / therapeutic use. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17192740.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-1138
  • [Journal-full-title] Urologia internationalis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Radiation-Sensitizing Agents; 0 / Taxoids; 15H5577CQD / docetaxel
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68. Klepzig M, Jonas D, Oremek GM: Procollagen type 1 amino-terminal propeptide: a marker for bone metastases in prostate carcinoma. Anticancer Res; 2009 Feb;29(2):671-3
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  • [Title] Procollagen type 1 amino-terminal propeptide: a marker for bone metastases in prostate carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to assess the utility of the bone formation marker procollagen type 1 amino-terminal propeptide (P1NP) in indicating bone metastases in patients with prostate carcinoma.
  • Alkaline phosphatase (AP) and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) were measured as a comparison.
  • The patients were divided into three groups, 32 patients with benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH), 38 patients with prostate carcinoma and 30 patients with prostate carcinoma with bone metastases.
  • RESULTS: PINP concentrations were elevated in about 87% of the patients with confirmed bone metastases, the P1NP levels were significantly (p < or = 0.001) higher (median: 194.7 ng/ml) than in the patients without bone involvement (median: 38.0 ng/ml) and the BPH patients (median: 42.2 ng/ml), who both presented P1NP levels within the normal range.
  • CONCLUSION: P1NP is a reliable predictor of the presence or absence of bone metastases in prostate carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Bone Neoplasms / blood. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Peptide Fragments / blood. Procollagen / blood. Prostatic Neoplasms / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Humans. Male. Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood. Prostatic Hyperplasia / blood

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  • (PMID = 19331219.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Peptide Fragments; 0 / Procollagen; 0 / procollagen type I carboxy terminal peptide; EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen
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69. Pinto F, Brescia A, Sacco E, Volpe A, Gardi M, Gulino G, Bassi P: Disseminated intravascular coagulation secondary to metastatic prostate cancer: case report and review of the literature. Arch Ital Urol Androl; 2009 Dec;81(4):212-4
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  • [Title] Disseminated intravascular coagulation secondary to metastatic prostate cancer: case report and review of the literature.
  • Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is the most frequent coagulation disorder associated with metastatic prostate cancer.
  • We report a case of a 60-year-old white man who was admitted in our department with ecchymoses and haematuria secondary to a DIC associated with metastatic prostate cancer.

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  • (PMID = 20608143.001).
  • [ISSN] 1124-3562
  • [Journal-full-title] Archivio italiano di urologia, andrologia : organo ufficiale [di] Societa italiana di ecografia urologica e nefrologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Ital Urol Androl
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anilides; 0 / Nitriles; 0 / Tosyl Compounds; A0Z3NAU9DP / bicalutamide; EFY6W0M8TG / Leuprolide
  • [Number-of-references] 27
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70. Selimoglu H, Duran C, Saraydaroglu O, Guclu M, Kiyici S, Ersoy C, Eren MA, Tuncel E, Imamoglu S: Prostate cancer metastasis to thyroid gland. Tumori; 2007 May-Jun;93(3):292-5
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  • [Title] Prostate cancer metastasis to thyroid gland.
  • Metastases to the thyroid gland are rarely encountered in clinical practice.
  • Prostate cancer is one of the most frequent malignancies in men.
  • It generally has a favorable course, and autopsy series have shown occult prostate cancer in many subjects, especially in aged males.
  • However, prostate cancer sometimes exhibits an aggressive behavior and cases with a poor prognosis have been reported.
  • Occasional reports of metastasis from prostate cancer to the thyroid gland have been documented.
  • We describe the case of a 73-year-old patient presenting with thyroid metastasis from long-standing prostate cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Prostate-Specific Antigen / analysis


71. Nohara T, Kawashima A, Takahashi T, Kitamura M, Akai H, Oka T, Mano M: [Prostate cancer metastasized to thyroid cartilage: a case report]. Nihon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi; 2005 Nov;96(7):697-700
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  • [Title] [Prostate cancer metastasized to thyroid cartilage: a case report].
  • A 75-year-old male was diagnosed as prostate cancer (serum PSA: 4,772 ng/ml, Gleason score: 4 + 4 = 8) with multiple bone metastases.
  • And he noticed a painless mass of the frontal neck a month before the diagnosis.
  • Computed tomography of the neck showed a tumor in the thyroid cartilage.
  • Biopsy of the neck tumor revealed metastasis of prostate cancer by positive PSA staining.
  • Metastasis of malignant tumor to cartilaginous tissue is extremely rare because there are usually no vessels in it.
  • Only 4 cases of the metastasis of prostate cancer to the thyroid cartilage have been reported.
  • It was thought that tiny bone marrows were formed in the ossified cartilage and it caused hematogenous metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Neoplastic Cells, Circulating / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Cartilage / pathology


72. Venkitaraman R, Cook GJ, Dearnaley DP, Parker CC, Khoo V, Eeles R, Huddart RA, Horwich A, Sohaib SA: Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging in the detection of skeletal metastases in patients with prostate cancer. J Med Imaging Radiat Oncol; 2009 Jun;53(3):241-7
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  • [Title] Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging in the detection of skeletal metastases in patients with prostate cancer.
  • Whole-body MRI is an effective method for evaluating the entire skeletal system in patients with metastatic disease.
  • This study aimed to compare whole-body MRI and radionuclide bone scintigraph in the detection of skeletal metastases in patients with prostate cancer.
  • Patients with prostate cancer at high risk of skeletal metastasis with (i) prostate-specific antigen of > or =50 ng/mL;.
  • (ii) composite Gleason score of > or =8 with prostate-specific antigen of >20 ng/mL; or (iii) node-positive disease were enrolled in this prospective study before systemic treatment was initiated.
  • Seven patients had bone metastases on bone scans, while seven patients had skeletal metastases by whole-body MRI, with concordant findings only in four patients.
  • Bone scans detected more rib metastases, while MRI identified more metastatic lesions in the spine.
  • Whole-body MRI and radionuclide bone scintigraphy have similar specificity and sensitivity and may be used as complementary investigations to detect skeletal metastases from prostate cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Algorithms. Bone Neoplasms / diagnosis. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted / methods. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Prostatic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Whole Body Imaging / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Humans. Image Enhancement / methods. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Reproducibility of Results. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 19624290.001).
  • [ISSN] 1754-9485
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medical imaging and radiation oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Imaging Radiat Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / / 10588; United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / G0501019; United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / / C46/A2131
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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73. Spahn M, Kneitz S, Scholz CJ, Stenger N, Rüdiger T, Ströbel P, Riedmiller H, Kneitz B: Expression of microRNA-221 is progressively reduced in aggressive prostate cancer and metastasis and predicts clinical recurrence. Int J Cancer; 2010 Jul 15;127(2):394-403
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  • [Title] Expression of microRNA-221 is progressively reduced in aggressive prostate cancer and metastasis and predicts clinical recurrence.
  • Emerging evidence shows that microRNAs (miR) are involved in the pathogenesis of a variety of cancers, including prostate carcinoma (PCa).
  • Little information is available regarding miR expression levels in lymph node metastasis of prostate cancer or the potential of miRs as prognostic markers in this disease.
  • Therefore, we analyzed the global expression of miRs in benign, hyperplastic prostate tissue (BPH), primary PCa of a high risk group of PCa patients, and corresponding metastatic tissues by microarray analysis.
  • Consistent with the proposal that some miRs are oncomirs, we found aberrant expression of several miRs, including the downregulation of miR-221, in PCa metastasis.
  • In a large study cohort, the prostate-specific oncomir miR-221 was progressively downregulated in aggressive forms of PCa.
  • Kaplan-Meier estimates and Cox proportional hazard models showed that miR-221 downregulation was linked to tumor progression and recurrence in a high risk prostate cancer cohort.
  • Our results showed that progressive miR-221 downregulation hallmarks metastasis and presents a novel prognostic marker in high risk PCa.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. MicroRNAs / physiology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Prostatic Neoplasms / genetics. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Cohort Studies. Computational Biology. Disease Progression. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Prostatic Hyperplasia / genetics. Prostatic Hyperplasia / metabolism. Prostatic Hyperplasia / pathology. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 19585579.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0215
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / MIRN221 microRNA, human; 0 / MicroRNAs; 0 / RNA, Messenger
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74. Kosari F, Munz JM, Savci-Heijink CD, Spiro C, Klee EW, Kube DM, Tillmans L, Slezak J, Karnes RJ, Cheville JC, Vasmatzis G: Identification of prognostic biomarkers for prostate cancer. Clin Cancer Res; 2008 Mar 15;14(6):1734-43
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  • [Title] Identification of prognostic biomarkers for prostate cancer.
  • PURPOSE: This paper describes a process for the identification of genes that can report on the aggressiveness of prostate tumors and thereby add to the information provided by current pathologic analysis.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Expression profiling data from over 100 laser capture microdissection derived samples from nonneoplastic epithelium; Gleason patterns 3, 4, and 5 and node metastasis prostate cancer were used to identify genes at abnormally high levels in only some tumors.
  • Selected genes were validated in a case-control study in which cases (systemic progression within 5 years) and controls (no systemic progression at 7 years of follow-up) were matched for all clinical and pathologic criteria from time of prostatectomy (n = 175).
  • RESULTS: A number of candidate variably overexpressed genes selected for their association with aggressive prostate cancer phenotype were evaluated in the case control study.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The process described here identified genes that add information not available from current clinical measures and can improve the prognosis of prostate cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Prostatic Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Antigens, Neoplasm / genetics. Automatic Data Processing. Case-Control Studies. Cluster Analysis. DNA Topoisomerases, Type II / genetics. DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics. Follow-Up Studies. Gene Expression Profiling. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Prognosis. Prostatectomy. Receptors, Somatostatin / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18347174.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; 0 / somatostatin receptor type 1; EC 5.99.1.3 / DNA Topoisomerases, Type II; EC 5.99.1.3 / DNA topoisomerase II alpha
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75. Chua CW, Chiu YT, Yuen HF, Chan KW, Man K, Wang X, Ling MT, Wong YC: Suppression of androgen-independent prostate cancer cell aggressiveness by FTY720: validating Runx2 as a potential antimetastatic drug screening platform. Clin Cancer Res; 2009 Jul 1;15(13):4322-35
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  • [Title] Suppression of androgen-independent prostate cancer cell aggressiveness by FTY720: validating Runx2 as a potential antimetastatic drug screening platform.
  • PURPOSE: Previously, FTY720 was found to possess potent anticancer effects on various types of cancer.
  • In the present study, we aimed to first verify the role of Runx2 in prostate cancer progression and metastasis, and, subsequently, assessed if FTY720 could modulate Runx2 expression, thus interfering downstream events regulated by this protein.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: First, the association between Runx2 and prostate cancer progression was assessed using localized prostate cancer specimens and mechanistic investigation of Runx2-induced cancer aggressiveness was then carried out.
  • Last, the involvement of Runx2 in FTY720-induced anticancer effects was evaluated by modulating Runx2 expression in various prostate cancer cell lines.
  • RESULTS: Runx2 nuclear expression was found to be up-regulated in prostate cancer and its expression could be used as a predictor of metastasis in prostate cancer.
  • Further mechanistic studies indicated that Runx2 accelerated prostate cancer aggressiveness through promotion of cadherin switching, invasion toward collagen I, and Akt activation.
  • CONCLUSION: This study provided a novel mechanism for the anticancer effect of FTY720 on advanced prostate cancer, thus highlighting the therapeutic potential of this drug in treating this disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Core Binding Factor Alpha 1 Subunit / physiology. Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor / methods. Propylene Glycols / therapeutic use. Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology. Sphingosine / analogs & derivatives
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Androgens / pharmacology. Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Case-Control Studies. Down-Regulation / drug effects. Down-Regulation / genetics. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm / drug effects. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm / genetics. Fingolimod Hydrochloride. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / drug effects. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Metastasis. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 19509141.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgens; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Core Binding Factor Alpha 1 Subunit; 0 / Propylene Glycols; 0 / RUNX2 protein, human; G926EC510T / Fingolimod Hydrochloride; NGZ37HRE42 / Sphingosine
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76. Fujii M, Abe K, Hayashi K, Kosuda S, Yano F, Watanabe S, Katagiri S, Ka WJ, Tominaga S: Honda sign and variants in patients suspected of having a sacral insufficiency fracture. Clin Nucl Med; 2005 Mar;30(3):165-9
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  • PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to reassess whether the Honda sign (HS) and its variants on bone scans can be used to differentiate an insufficiency fracture (IF) of the sacrum from a metastasis and to evaluate extrapelvic tracer accumulation in patients suspected of having a sacral IF.
  • RESULTS: Twenty-four of the patients had a sacral IF and 1 had a sacral metastasis from prostate cancer and another from lung cancer.
  • One of the 2 patients with metastasis exhibited the HS and the other exhibited a variant.
  • The most common site was the pubic bone (50%, 12 of 24), and the second most common site was the spine (46%, 11 of 24), where the accumulation was the result of a compression fracture or degenerative joint disease of the spine.
  • CONCLUSIONS: A "Honda sign or variation" with evidence of fractures elsewhere or no evidence of other metastatic disease should be strong evidence for a sacral insufficiency fracture.
  • The likelihood of having a solitary metastasis to the sacrum is small.
  • [MeSH-major] Sacrum / injuries. Sacrum / radionuclide imaging. Spinal Fractures / radionuclide imaging. Spinal Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Spinal Neoplasms / secondary. Technetium Tc 99m Medronate
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Radiopharmaceuticals / pharmacokinetics. Reproducibility of Results. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 15722819.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-9762
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; X89XV46R07 / Technetium Tc 99m Medronate
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77. Hövels AM, Heesakkers RA, Adang EM, Barentsz JO, Jager GJ, Severens JL: Cost-effectiveness of MR lymphography for the detection of lymph node metastases in patients with prostate cancer. Radiology; 2009 Sep;252(3):729-36
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  • [Title] Cost-effectiveness of MR lymphography for the detection of lymph node metastases in patients with prostate cancer.
  • PURPOSE: To apply a decision analytic model to determine whether the addition of magnetic resonance (MR) lymphography to the diagnostic workup of patients with intermediate or high probability of lymph node metastases is cost effective from a health care perspective.
  • Probabilistic sensitivity analysis showed that in 63% of simulations, MR lymphography was cost saving and resulted in better patient outcome for patients with prostate cancer and intermediate or high probability of lymph node metastases.
  • CONCLUSION: MR lymphography is an efficient strategy in the detection of lymph node metastases of prostate cancer when compared with the PLND strategy.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / economics. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19717752.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-1315
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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78. Ananias HJ, van den Heuvel MC, Helfrich W, de Jong IJ: Expression of the gastrin-releasing peptide receptor, the prostate stem cell antigen and the prostate-specific membrane antigen in lymph node and bone metastases of prostate cancer. Prostate; 2009 Jul 1;69(10):1101-8
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  • [Title] Expression of the gastrin-releasing peptide receptor, the prostate stem cell antigen and the prostate-specific membrane antigen in lymph node and bone metastases of prostate cancer.
  • OBJECTIVE: Cell membrane antigens like the gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR), the prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA), and the prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA), expressed in prostate cancer, are attractive targets for new therapeutic and diagnostic applications.
  • Therefore, we investigated in this study whether these antigens are expressed in metastasized prostate cancer.
  • METHODS: Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded specimens of 15 patients with uni- or bilateral lymph node metastases of prostate cancer (totaling 21 cases) and 17 patient-cases of bone metastases were processed for immunohistochemistry with anti-GRPR, anti-PSCA, and anti-PSMA antibodies.
  • RESULTS: GRPR staining in lymph node metastases was seen in 85.7% of cases (18 of 21 cases), PSCA in 95.2% (20/21), and PSMA in 100% (21/21).
  • GRPR in bone metastases was seen in 52.9% of cases (9/17), PSCA in 94.1% (16/17), and PSMA in 100% (17/17).
  • CONCLUSION: We have shown for the first time that GRPR is expressed in the vast majority of lymph node metastases and in 52.9% of bone metastases of prostate cancer.
  • PSCA and PSMA are both highly expressed in lymph node and bone metastases.
  • Although PSCA and PSMA are mostly expressed in prostate cancer metastases, GRPR offers an interesting alternative target as it can be targeted relatively easy with peptide-based (radio)pharmaceuticals.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Neoplasm / biosynthesis. Antigens, Surface / biosynthesis. Bone Neoplasms / metabolism. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Glutamate Carboxypeptidase II / biosynthesis. Membrane Glycoproteins / biosynthesis. Neoplasm Proteins / biosynthesis. Prostatic Neoplasms / metabolism. Receptors, Bombesin / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / biosynthesis. GPI-Linked Proteins. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / physiology. Humans. Lymph Nodes / metabolism. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Retrospective Studies

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 19343734.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0045
  • [Journal-full-title] The Prostate
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prostate
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Antigens, Surface; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / GPI-Linked Proteins; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / PSCA protein, human; 0 / Receptors, Bombesin; EC 3.4.17.21 / Glutamate Carboxypeptidase II; EC 3.4.17.21 / glutamate carboxypeptidase II, human
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79. Zhao P, Luo R, Wu J, Xie F, Li H, Xiao X, Fu L, Zhu X, Liu R, Zhu Y, Liang Z, Huang W: E10A, an adenovirus carrying human endostatin gene, in combination with docetaxel treatment inhibits prostate cancer growth and metastases. J Cell Mol Med; 2010 Jan;14(1-2):381-91
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  • [Title] E10A, an adenovirus carrying human endostatin gene, in combination with docetaxel treatment inhibits prostate cancer growth and metastases.
  • We assessed whether the combination of E10A with docetaxel would enhance antiangiogenic activities and inhibit prostate cancer growth and metastases.
  • Combination use of conditioned medium from prostate cancer cells infected by E10A and docetaxel exerted synergistic inhibition of HUVECs proliferation, migration and tube formation, compared with either agent alone.
  • In prostate cancer s.c. xenograft models, combined therapy resulted in significant tumor growth inhibition and survival improvement.
  • The antitumoral effect was tightly correlated with a remarkable decrease in tumor cell proliferation, microvessel, especially immature vasculature and significant increase in apoptosis induction.
  • Systemic administration of E10A and docetaxel also effectively inhibited orthotopic growth and metastases of prostate cancer and achieved better in vivo antiangiogenic effects than either agent alone.
  • Our data indicate that E10A in combination with docetaxel exert enhanced antiangiogenic activities and inhibit prostate cancer growth and metastases.
  • Therefore, this approach may be an effective treatment for advanced prostate cancer and deserves more extensive investigation.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoviridae / genetics. Animals. Apoptosis. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation. Combined Modality Therapy. Genetic Vectors. Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells. Humans. Male. Mice. Mice, Nude. Neoplasm Metastasis / therapy. Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays

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  • (PMID = 26065034.001).
  • [ISSN] 1582-4934
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cellular and molecular medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cell. Mol. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Endostatins; 0 / Taxoids; 15H5577CQD / docetaxel
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3837610
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80. Maeda T, Tateishi U, Komiyama M, Fujimoto H, Watanabe S, Terauchi T, Moriyama N, Arai Y, Sugimura K, Kakizoe T: Distant metastasis of prostate cancer: early detection of recurrent tumor with dual-phase carbon-11 choline positron emission tomography/computed tomography in two cases. Jpn J Clin Oncol; 2006 Sep;36(9):598-601
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  • [Title] Distant metastasis of prostate cancer: early detection of recurrent tumor with dual-phase carbon-11 choline positron emission tomography/computed tomography in two cases.
  • Several types of recurrence may be detected by radiologic assessment after treatment in patients with prostate cancer.
  • However, early detection of distant metastasis using positron emission tomography has so far never been published.
  • We report two patients who underwent hormone therapy or surgical resection for prostate cancer.
  • They developed distant metastases which were detected on whole body [C-11] choline positron emission tomography/computed tomography with significant elevation of serum PSA level.
  • In one patient, recurrent tumor of the supraclavicular node (6 mm) diminished in size after subsequent hormone therapy.
  • Surgical resection of recurrent tumor of the lung (12 mm) was performed in the other patient, the pathology of which confirmed the metastatic adenocarcinoma derived from the prostate.
  • The recurrent tumor can be correctly detected by dual-phase whole body [C-11] choline positron emission tomography/computed tomography.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis / radionuclide imaging. Pelvic Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Positron-Emission Tomography. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Carbon Radioisotopes. Choline. Early Diagnosis. Humans. Male. Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16844733.001).
  • [ISSN] 0368-2811
  • [Journal-full-title] Japanese journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Jpn. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Carbon Radioisotopes; EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen; N91BDP6H0X / Choline
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81. Kim HS, Sung W, Lee S, Chang SG, Park YK: Lymphatic vessel densities of lymph node-negative prostate adenocarcinoma in Korea. Pathol Res Pract; 2009;205(4):249-54
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  • [Title] Lymphatic vessel densities of lymph node-negative prostate adenocarcinoma in Korea.
  • Although lymphatic vessel density (LVD) is associated with regional lymph node (LN) metastasis in prostate adenocarcinoma, no study is available that examines whether the LVD is correlated with prognostic factors other than LN metastasis in LN-negative prostate adenocarcinoma.
  • The aim of our study was to analyze intratumoral (IT), peritumoral (PT), and nontumoral (NT) LVDs, and to determine if there is a correlation between the LVD and the clinicopathological parameters in the Korean LN-negative prostate adenocarcinoma patients.
  • The IT-LVD was significantly lower in patients with larger tumor volume (P=0.029) and higher preoperative prostate-specific antigen level (P=0.008).
  • Our results suggest that IT- and PT-LVDs may increase in LN-negative prostate adenocarcinoma as a result of lymphangiogenesis, but IT lymphatics may decrease due to mechanical compression and destruction caused by proliferating tumor cells.
  • In addition, IT-LVD may be used as a prognostic factor in LN-negative prostate adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Korea. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood

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  • (PMID = 19058917.001).
  • [ISSN] 1618-0631
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology, research and practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Res. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen
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82. Slavine NV, Antich PP: Practical method for radioactivity distribution analysis in small-animal PET cancer studies. Appl Radiat Isot; 2008 Dec;66(12):1861-9
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  • [Title] Practical method for radioactivity distribution analysis in small-animal PET cancer studies.
  • We demonstrate reconstruction results for the amount of radioactivity within the scanned mouse in a sample study of osteolytic and osteoblastic bone metastasis from prostate cancer xenografts.
  • Our method uses high-resolution images to determine the volume of organ or tumor and the amount of their radioactivity has the possibility of saving time, effort and the necessity to sacrifice animals.
  • This method has utility for prognosis and quantitative analysis in small-animal cancer studies, and will enhance the assessment of characteristics of tumor growth, identifying metastases, and potentially determining the effectiveness of cancer treatment.

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  • (PMID = 18667322.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-9800
  • [Journal-full-title] Applied radiation and isotopes : including data, instrumentation and methods for use in agriculture, industry and medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Appl Radiat Isot
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U24 CA126608; None / None / / U24 CA126608-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U24 CA126608-02
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS77452; NLM/ PMC2644068
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83. Williams SA, Singh P, Isaacs JT, Denmeade SR: Does PSA play a role as a promoting agent during the initiation and/or progression of prostate cancer? Prostate; 2007 Feb 15;67(3):312-29
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  • [Title] Does PSA play a role as a promoting agent during the initiation and/or progression of prostate cancer?
  • Prostate cancer cells, like normal prostate epithelial cells, produce high levels of the differentiation marker and serine protease prostate-specific antigen (PSA).
  • PSA is used extensively as a biomarker to screen for prostate cancer, to detect recurrence following local therapies, and to follow response to systemic therapies for metastatic disease.
  • While much is known about PSA's role as a biomarker, only a relatively few studies address the role played by PSA in the pathobiology of prostate cancer.
  • Autopsy studies have documented that not only do prostate cancer cells maintain production of high amounts of PSA but they also maintain the enzymatic machinery required to process PSA to an enzymatically active form.
  • A variety studies performed over the last 10 years have hinted at a role for PSA in growth, progression, and metastases of prostate cancer.
  • A fuller understanding of PSA's functional role in prostate cancer biology, however, has been hampered by the lack of appropriate models and tools.
  • Instead, by reviewing what is known about the genetics, biochemistry, and biology of PSA in normal and malignant prostate tissue, insights may be gained into the role PSA may be playing in the pathobiology of prostate cancer that can connect measurement of this biomarker to an understanding of the underlying etiology and progression of the disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent / enzymology. Prostate-Specific Antigen / metabolism. Prostatic Neoplasms / enzymology. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Animals. Bone Neoplasms / metabolism. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Enzyme Activation. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Models, Molecular


84. Lamoureux F, Ory B, Battaglia S, Pilet P, Heymann MF, Gouin F, Duteille F, Heymann D, Redini F: Relevance of a new rat model of osteoblastic metastases from prostate carcinoma for preclinical studies using zoledronic acid. Int J Cancer; 2008 Feb 15;122(4):751-60
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  • [Title] Relevance of a new rat model of osteoblastic metastases from prostate carcinoma for preclinical studies using zoledronic acid.
  • Animal models that mimic osteoblastic metastases associated with prostate carcinoma are required to improve the therapeutic options in humans.
  • Rat AT6-1 prostate tumor cells were characterized in vitro at the transcriptional (bone and epithelial markers) and functional (induction of mineralized nodules) levels.
  • The tumor itself is associated with bone formation as revealed by SEM analysis and polarized light microscopy.
  • ZOL prevents the development of such osteoblastic lesions, related to a direct inhibitory effect on tumor cell proliferation independent of caspase 3 activation, but associated with cell cycle arrest.
  • A new rat model of osteoblastic bone metastases was validated in immunocompetent rats and used to show the relevance of using ZOL in such lesions, as this compound shows bifunctional effects on both bone remodelling and tumor cell proliferation.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Apoptosis / drug effects. Bone Marrow Cells / drug effects. Bone Remodeling / drug effects. Cell Cycle / drug effects. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Humans. Male. Mice. Mice, Inbred C3H. Osteoblasts / drug effects. Osteoblasts / metabolism. Osteogenesis / drug effects. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley. Tumor Cells, Cultured / drug effects

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 17960623.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0215
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bone Density Conservation Agents; 0 / Diphosphonates; 0 / Imidazoles; 6XC1PAD3KF / zoledronic acid
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85. Lerner I, Baraz L, Pikarsky E, Meirovitz A, Edovitsky E, Peretz T, Vlodavsky I, Elkin M: Function of heparanase in prostate tumorigenesis: potential for therapy. Clin Cancer Res; 2008 Feb 1;14(3):668-76
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  • [Title] Function of heparanase in prostate tumorigenesis: potential for therapy.
  • Whereas the role of heparanase in sustaining the pathology of human cancer is well documented, its association with prostate carcinoma remains uncertain.
  • Our research was undertaken to elucidate the significance of heparanase in prostate tumorigenesis and bone metastasis.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We applied immunohistochemical analysis of tissue microarray, in vitro adhesion and invasion assays, as well as mouse models of intraosseous growth and spontaneous metastasis of prostate cancer, monitored by whole-body bioluminescent imaging.
  • RESULTS: We report a highly statistically significant (P < 0.0001) prevalence of heparanase overexpression in prostate carcinomas versus noncancerous tissue, as well as strong correlation between tumor grade and the extent of heparanase expression.
  • We observed >5-fold increase in the metastatic potential of PC-3 prostate carcinoma cells engineered to overexpress heparanase.
  • Notably, overexpression of a secreted form of the enzyme also led to a dramatic increase in intraosseous prostate tumor growth.
  • Local in vivo silencing of heparanase resulted in a 4-fold inhibition of prostate tumor growth, representing the first successful application of anticancer therapy based on heparanase small interfering RNA and validating the potential of heparanase as a target for prostate cancer treatment.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Heparanase directly contributes to prostate tumor growth in bone and its ability to metastasize to distant organs.
  • Thus, anti-heparanase strategy may become an important modality in the treatment of prostate cancer patients, particularly those with bone metastases.
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy. Bone Neoplasms / enzymology. Bone Neoplasms / pathology. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Cell Adhesion. Cell Division. Cell Line, Tumor. Cloning, Molecular. Collagen. Drug Combinations. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Laminin. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Prostate / enzymology. Proteoglycans. Reference Values. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Transfection

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  • (PMID = 18212251.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA106456-01
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Drug Combinations; 0 / Laminin; 0 / Proteoglycans; 119978-18-6 / matrigel; 9007-34-5 / Collagen; EC 3.2.1.- / heparanase; EC 3.2.1.31 / Glucuronidase
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86. Shiraishi J, Li Q, Appelbaum D, Pu Y, Doi K: Development of a computer-aided diagnostic scheme for detection of interval changes in successive whole-body bone scans. Med Phys; 2007 Jan;34(1):25-36
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  • [Title] Development of a computer-aided diagnostic scheme for detection of interval changes in successive whole-body bone scans.
  • It is a well-established imaging modality for the diagnosis of osseous metastasis and for monitoring osseous tumor response to chemotherapy and radiation therapy.
  • Although the sensitivity of bone scan examinations for detection of bone abnormalities has been considered to be relatively high, it is time consuming to identify multiple lesions such as bone metastases of prostate and breast cancers.
  • Therefore, we developed a new computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) scheme for the detection of interval changes in successive whole-body bone scans by use of a temporal subtraction image which was obtained with a nonlinear image-warping technique.

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  • (PMID = 17278486.001).
  • [ISSN] 0094-2405
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med Phys
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA62625; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA98119
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
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87. Varghese S, Rabkin SD, Nielsen PG, Wang W, Martuza RL: Systemic oncolytic herpes virus therapy of poorly immunogenic prostate cancer metastatic to lung. Clin Cancer Res; 2006 May 1;12(9):2919-27
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  • [Title] Systemic oncolytic herpes virus therapy of poorly immunogenic prostate cancer metastatic to lung.
  • PURPOSE: Our goal was to evaluate whether systemic administration of NV1042, an interleukin-12 (IL-12)-expressing oncolytic herpes simplex virus, and its noncytokine parental vector NV1023 are effective against preexisting metastatic prostate cancer in an immunocompetent mice model.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Metastatic TRAMP-C2 lung tumors established in C57Bl/6 or nude mice were treated on day 21 with four i.v. administrations of NV1042 or NV1023 and sacrificed on day 42 to assess virus efficacy and the potential mechanism of efficacy.
  • However, NV1042 was further effective compared with NV1023 in controlling the growth of lung tumors (as determined by mean surface tumor nodule number, lung weights, and surface tumor burden) and in extending survival.
  • NV1042-treated mice exhibited a transient increase of serum IL-12 1 day posttreatment, whereas IL-12 levels in tumor bearing lungs persisted a further 2 days at least.
  • The IL-12-mediated enhancement observed with NV1042 in the syngeneic model was abrogated in athymic mice treated in a similar manner, thus indicating a role for T cells in the augmented efficacy of NV1042 virus.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Systemic administration of the IL-12-expressing NV1042 virus is more effective than its noncytokine parent, NV1023, against preestablished metastatic lung tumors.
  • Given the clinical safety profile of NV1020, the parental vector of NV1023, and NV1042's enhanced efficacy and ability to activate the host immune system, NV1042 merits clinical consideration for treating metastatic prostate cancers.
  • [MeSH-major] Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Oncolytic Virotherapy. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Line, Tumor. Male. Mice. Mice, Inbred C57BL. Neoplasm Transplantation. Organ Size / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 16675589.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 1R01CA102139
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
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88. Walz J, Chun FK, Klein EA, Reuther A, Saad F, Graefen M, Huland H, Karakiewicz PI: Nomogram predicting the probability of early recurrence after radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer. J Urol; 2009 Feb;181(2):601-7; discussion 607-8
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  • [Title] Nomogram predicting the probability of early recurrence after radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer.
  • PURPOSE: We developed a nomogram predicting the probability of early biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy because early recurrence predisposes to distant metastasis and prostate cancer related mortality.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: From January 1992 to December 2005, 2,911 patients underwent radical prostatectomy for localized prostate cancer.
  • Age, prostate specific antigen, pathological Gleason sum, surgical margin, extracapsular extension, seminal vesicle invasion and lymph node invasion were considered.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Nomograms. Prostatectomy / methods. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Factors. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy, Needle. Cohort Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Predictive Value of Tests. Probability. Prognosis. Proportional Hazards Models. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment. Sensitivity and Specificity. Survival Analysis. Time Factors

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  • [CommentIn] Eur Urol. 2009 Nov;56(5):885-6 [20965035.001]
  • (PMID = 19084864.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-3792
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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89. Yee DS, Tang Y, Li X, Liu Z, Guo Y, Ghaffar S, McQueen P, Atreya D, Xie J, Simoneau AR, Hoang BH, Zi X: The Wnt inhibitory factor 1 restoration in prostate cancer cells was associated with reduced tumor growth, decreased capacity of cell migration and invasion and a reversal of epithelial to mesenchymal transition. Mol Cancer; 2010 Jun 23;9:162
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  • [Title] The Wnt inhibitory factor 1 restoration in prostate cancer cells was associated with reduced tumor growth, decreased capacity of cell migration and invasion and a reversal of epithelial to mesenchymal transition.
  • BACKGROUND: Aberrations in the Wnt pathway have been reported to be involved in the metastasis of prostate cancer (PCa) to bone.
  • We investigated the effect and underlying mechanism of a naturally-occurring Wnt inhibitor, WIF1, on the growth and cellular invasiveness of a bone metastatic PCa cell line, PC3.
  • Restoration of WIF1 expression in PC-3 cells resulted in a decreased cell motility and invasiveness via up-regulation of epithelial markers (E-cadherin, Keratin-8 and-18), down-regulation of mesenchymal markers (N-cadherin, Fibronectin and Vimentin) and decreased activity of MMP-2 and -9.
  • Moreover, WIF1 expression significantly reduced tumor growth by approximately 63% in a xenograft mouse model.
  • This was accompanied by an increased expression of E-cadherin and Keratin-18 and a decreased expression of vimentin in tumor tissues.
  • CONCLUSION: These data suggest that WIF1 regulates tumor invasion through EMT process and thus, may play an important role in controlling metastatic disease in PCa patients.
  • Blocking Wnt signaling in PCa by WIF1 may represent a novel strategy in the future to reduce metastatic disease burden in PCa patients.

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  • (PMID = 20573255.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-4598
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA062203; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA122558; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA122558; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA129793
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing; 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / Repressor Proteins; 0 / WIF1 protein, human
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2907330
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90. Ye L, Kynaston H, Jiang WG: Bone morphogenetic protein-10 suppresses the growth and aggressiveness of prostate cancer cells through a Smad independent pathway. J Urol; 2009 Jun;181(6):2749-59
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  • [Title] Bone morphogenetic protein-10 suppresses the growth and aggressiveness of prostate cancer cells through a Smad independent pathway.
  • PURPOSE: BMPs have been implicated in the development of bone metastasis in prostate cancer.
  • We investigated the role of BMP-10 in prostate cancer and prostate cancer cells.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: BMP-10 expression was examined in human prostate tissue and prostate cancer cell lines.
  • BMP-10 was experimentally over expressed in human prostate cancer cells.
  • The influence of BMP-10 on the biological behavior of prostate cancer cells was then investigated in in vitro studies.
  • RESULTS: BMP-10 expression was decreased or absent in prostate tumors, particularly in higher grade foci.
  • Forced BMP-10 over expression in prostate cancer cells decreased in vitro growth, cell matrix adhesion, invasion and migration.
  • Furthermore, BMP-10 induced apoptosis in prostate cancer cells through a Smad independent pathway, in which the 2 downstream candidates of BMP receptors XIAP (ILP) and ERK1/2 were activated.
  • CONCLUSIONS: BMP-10 inhibits the growth of prostate cancer cells due largely to induced apoptosis via Smad independent signaling in which XIAP and ERK1/2 are involved.
  • BMP-10 can also prevent prostate cancer cell migration and invasiveness.
  • This suggests that BMP-10 may function as a tumor suppressor and apoptosis regulator for prostate cancer.
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Proliferation. Humans. Male. Prostate / cytology. Prostate / metabolism. Signal Transduction. Tumor Cells, Cultured


91. Lebret T, Méjean A: [Physiopathology, diagnosis and management of bone metastases from prostate cancer]. Prog Urol; 2008 Nov;18 Suppl 7:S349-56
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  • [Title] [Physiopathology, diagnosis and management of bone metastases from prostate cancer].
  • [Transliterated title] Physiopathologie, diagnostic et prise en charge des métastases osseuses du cancer de prostate.
  • Bone metastasis is very frequent in prostate cancer.
  • Diagnosis is generally easy to make with scintigraphy and it can be confirmed by TDM and RMI.
  • Before metastasis become symptomatic, treatment includes physical and nutritional advice with drugs to prevent bone events (pain, fracture, compression and hypercalcemia).
  • Associated with a effective hormonal treatment, radiotherapy, surgery and analgesics are the principal treatments for symptomatic bone metastasis.
  • Endothelin inhibitors belong to a new exciting concept to treat these bone metastases, data are needed in order to use them routinely.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19070815.001).
  • [ISSN] 1166-7087
  • [Journal-full-title] Progrès en urologie : journal de l'Association française d'urologie et de la Société française d'urologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prog. Urol.
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Diphosphonates
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92. Cooperberg MR, Broering JM, Carroll PR: Risk assessment for prostate cancer metastasis and mortality at the time of diagnosis. J Natl Cancer Inst; 2009 Jun 16;101(12):878-87
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  • [Title] Risk assessment for prostate cancer metastasis and mortality at the time of diagnosis.
  • BACKGROUND: Although many tools for the assessment of prostate cancer risk have been published, most are designed to predict only biochemical recurrence, usually after a single specified treatment.
  • We assessed the accuracy of the Cancer of the Prostate Risk Assessment (CAPRA) score, which was validated previously to predict pathological and biochemical outcomes after radical prostatectomy, to predict metastases, prostate cancer-specific mortality, and all-cause mortality.
  • METHODS: We studied 10 627 men with clinically localized prostate cancer in the Cancer of the Prostate Strategic Urologic Research Endeavor registry, who underwent primary radical prostatectomy, radiation therapy (external beam or interstitial), androgen deprivation monotherapy, or watchful waiting/active surveillance, and had at least 6 months of follow-up after treatment.
  • CAPRA scores were calculated at diagnosis from the prostate-specific antigen level, Gleason score, percentage of biopsy cores that were positive for cancer, clinical tumor stage, and age at diagnosis.
  • Associations between increasing CAPRA scores and bone metastasis, cancer-specific mortality, and all-cause mortality were examined by use of proportional hazards regression, with adjustment for primary treatment; for all-cause mortality, the analysis also included adjustment for age and comorbidity.
  • RESULTS: Among the 10 627 patients, 311 (2.9%) men developed bone metastases, 251 (2.4%) died of prostate cancer, and 1582 (14.9%) died of other causes.
  • Each single-point increase in the CAPRA score was associated with increased bone metastases (hazard ratio [HR] for bone metastases = 1.47, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.39 to 1.56), cancer-specific mortality (HR for prostate cancer death = 1.39, 95% CI = 1.31 to 1.48), and all-cause mortality (HR for death = 1.13, 95% CI = 1.10 to 1.16).
  • The CAPRA score was accurate for predicting metastases (c-index = 0.78), cancer-specific mortality (c-index = 0.80), and all-cause mortality (c-index = 0.71).
  • CONCLUSIONS: In a large cohort of patients with clinically localized prostate cancer who were managed with one of five primary modalities, the CAPRA score predicted clinical prostate cancer endpoints with good accuracy.

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  • (PMID = 19509351.001).
  • [ISSN] 1460-2105
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the National Cancer Institute
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Natl. Cancer Inst.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / PHS HHS / / P50 C89520
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2697208
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93. Nakata S, Nakano K, Takahashi H, Shimizu K, Higashi H, Ohki K: [A case of prostate cancer diagnosed pathologically by bone metastatic site biopsy]. Nihon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi; 2005 May;96(4):507-10
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  • [Title] [A case of prostate cancer diagnosed pathologically by bone metastatic site biopsy].
  • A 61-year-old man consulted our hospital complaining of high prostate specific antigen (PSA) value and difficulty to urinate.
  • Prostate biopsy had been performed at another hospital, but did not reveal cancer.
  • Transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy was performed, but cancer was not detected.
  • Later, PSA rose rapidly, and findings suggesting bone metastasis at right pubic bone and left sacro-ilial joint were found on computed tomography (CT), bone scintigraphy and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
  • A repeat prostate biopsy was performed, but cancer was not detected from the prostate.
  • PSA immunohistochemical staining was positive, and the diagnosis was bone metastasis from prostate cancer.
  • After endocrine therapy was started, PSA declined and bone metastasis disappeared on bone scintigraphy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Bone and Bones / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pubic Bone
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Biopsy. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood


94. Amato RJ, Jac J, Mohammad T, Saxena S: Pilot study of rapamycin in patients with hormone-refractory prostate cancer. Clin Genitourin Cancer; 2008 Sep;6(2):97-102
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  • [Title] Pilot study of rapamycin in patients with hormone-refractory prostate cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Currently, no second-line treatment exists for hormonerefractory prostate cancer (HRPC) cases that fail docetaxel regimens.
  • Rapamycin, an immunosuppressive macrolide, inhibits metastatic prostate tumor growth and angiogenesis in in vivo mouse models.
  • Patients were evaluated every 4 weeks for prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and safety and every 8 weeks for radiographic response.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Disease-Free Survival. Drug Administration Schedule. Drug Evaluation. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Pilot Projects. Prostate-Specific Antigen

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  • (PMID = 18824432.001).
  • [ISSN] 1558-7673
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical genitourinary cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Genitourin Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen; W36ZG6FT64 / Sirolimus
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95. Kanen BL, Loffeld RJ: Hypertrophic osteoarthropathy as the cause of a super scan of the bone in a patient with prostate cancer: a case report. J Med Case Rep; 2008;2:104
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  • [Title] Hypertrophic osteoarthropathy as the cause of a super scan of the bone in a patient with prostate cancer: a case report.
  • INTRODUCTION: Prostate cancer is known to have a tendency to metastasize to bone.
  • Diffuse metastasis, which is not infrequent in prostate cancer, can also be suspected on the basis of a 'super scan'.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: A patient with a history of prostate cancer presented with pleural fluid, peripheral edema and bone pain.
  • A super scan of the bone was found which suggested diffuse skeletal metastasis of the prostate cancer but the patient also had a prostate specific antigen level which was not compatible with this diagnosis.
  • It can be seen in a variety of diseases in which there is a diffusely increased bone turnover.
  • Diffuse skeletal metastasis of a well-differentiated prostate carcinoma is unlikely to be the cause of a super scan when the prostate specific antigen level is not elevated.
  • This is the first report of a super scan due to pulmonary hypertrophic osteoarthropathy which can be seen in lung carcinoma and other pulmonary diseases.

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  • (PMID = 18394199.001).
  • [ISSN] 1752-1947
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medical case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2323011
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96. Orphanos G, Ardavanis A: Leptomeningeal metastases from prostate cancer: an emerging clinical conundrum. Clin Exp Metastasis; 2010;27(1):19-23
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  • [Title] Leptomeningeal metastases from prostate cancer: an emerging clinical conundrum.
  • Leptomeningeal metastases from solid tumors are relatively uncommon events with dismal prognosis.
  • They can be seen mainly in patients with breast and lung cancer, and malignant melanoma, but have also been described in a variety of other tumor types.
  • Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis from prostate cancer is an extremely rare complication, but as patients' survival is prolonged due to more effective treatments, it is expected that more patients will present with leptomeningeal involvement in advanced stages of the disease.
  • In these cases high levels of prostate-specific antigen can be found in the cerebrospinal fluid.
  • [MeSH-major] Meningeal Carcinomatosis / secondary. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Male. Prostate-Specific Antigen / cerebrospinal fluid

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  • (PMID = 19904616.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7276
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical & experimental metastasis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Exp. Metastasis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen
  • [Number-of-references] 36
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97. Pang J, Liu WP, Liu XP, Li LY, Fang YQ, Sun QP, Liu SJ, Li MT, Su ZL, Gao X: Profiling protein markers associated with lymph node metastasis in prostate cancer by DIGE-based proteomics analysis. J Proteome Res; 2010 Jan;9(1):216-26
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Profiling protein markers associated with lymph node metastasis in prostate cancer by DIGE-based proteomics analysis.
  • Current predictive tools and imaging modalities are not accurate enough for preoperative diagnosis of lymph node metastatic prostate cancer (LNM PCa).
  • Six of these proteins, e-FABP5, MCCC2, PPA2, Ezrin, SLP2, and SM22, are functionally relevant to cancer metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional / methods. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Prostatic Neoplasms / metabolism. Proteomics / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Analysis of Variance. Blotting, Western. Fatty Acid-Binding Proteins / blood. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lymph Nodes / metabolism. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Prostatic Hyperplasia / metabolism. Reproducibility of Results. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization. Tandem Mass Spectrometry


98. Sina B, Deng A: Umbilical metastasis from prostate carcinoma (Sister Mary Joseph's nodule): a case report and review of literature. J Cutan Pathol; 2007 Jul;34(7):581-3
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  • [Title] Umbilical metastasis from prostate carcinoma (Sister Mary Joseph's nodule): a case report and review of literature.
  • Sister Mary Joseph's nodule is referred to as metastatic lesion of the umbilicus.
  • Only rarely were metastases from other locations reported.
  • We describe here an unusual case of a Sister Mary Joseph's nodule that was metastasized from prostate carcinoma 3 years after radiation therapy.
  • The lesion was the first sign of metastatic disease, and the diagnosis was made on skin biopsy.
  • The patient died of extensive metastases of prostate carcinoma 4 months later.
  • We report this case to extend the list of differential diagnosis for Sister Mary Joseph's nodule in male patients and emphasize the importance of Sister Mary Joseph's nodule as an ominous diagnostic sign.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / secondary. Umbilicus / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Impetigo / diagnosis. Male. Urachal Cyst / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17576339.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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99. Sereno Moyano M, de Castro Carpeño J, Castelo Fernández B, González Barón M: [Intracardiac metastasis in prostate microcytic carcinoma, with regard to a case]. Rev Clin Esp; 2005 Jul;205(7):359
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Intracardiac metastasis in prostate microcytic carcinoma, with regard to a case].
  • [Transliterated title] Metástasis intracardíaca en un carcinoma microcítico de próstata: a propósito de un caso.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Heart Neoplasms / secondary. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood

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  • (PMID = 16029768.001).
  • [ISSN] 0014-2565
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista clínica española
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Clin Esp
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen
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100. Hébert-Blouin MN, Amrami KK, Myers RP, Hanna AS, Spinner RJ: Adenocarcinoma of the prostate involving the lumbosacral plexus: MRI evidence to support direct perineural spread. Acta Neurochir (Wien); 2010 Sep;152(9):1567-76
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adenocarcinoma of the prostate involving the lumbosacral plexus: MRI evidence to support direct perineural spread.
  • BACKGROUND: Prostate adenocarcinoma, which may recur despite aggressive treatment, has the potential to spread to the lumbosacral plexus.
  • METHODS: The clinical data and imaging studies (magnetic resonance imaging, MRI, and positron emission tomography/computed tomography, PET/CT) of patients evaluated at our institution between 2004 and 2009 for lumbosacral plexopathy due to intraneural prostate carcinoma were retrospectively reviewed.
  • RESULTS: Four patients presenting with painful lumbosacral plexopathy were found to have intraneural lumbosacral prostate adenocarcinoma.
  • Two patients had involvement of the lumbosacral plexus ipsilateral to the lobe of the prostate most involved with adenocarcinoma at prostatectomy.
  • High-resolution MRI and PET/CT studies revealed similar findings: abnormal soft tissue signal was followed from the prostate (n = 1) or prostatic bed (n = 3) area along the expected course of the pelvic plexus to the level of the sciatic notch, where it involved the sacral spinal nerves and sciatic nerve.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The potential for prostate adenocarcinoma to spread to the lumbosacral plexus has, to our knowledge, not been readily appreciated.
  • This study, with the use of high-resolution MRI and PET/CT studies, supports the direct perineural spread of prostate adenocarcinoma via the pelvic plexus to the lumbosacral plexus.
  • This mechanism could also explain cases of leptomeningeal and/or dural-based prostate metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Lumbosacral Plexus / pathology. Peripheral Nerves / pathology. Peripheral Nervous System Neoplasms / diagnosis. Peripheral Nervous System Neoplasms / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness / diagnosis. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 20473531.001).
  • [ISSN] 0942-0940
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neurochirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neurochir (Wien)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Austria
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