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1. Inoue Y, Toiyama Y, Yokoe T, Tanaka K, Miki C, Kusunoki M: Direct evidence that heterogeneity necessitates and limits the use of multidrug chemotherapy in colon cancer. Mol Med Rep; 2008 Jul-Aug;1(4):531-5
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  • [Title] Direct evidence that heterogeneity necessitates and limits the use of multidrug chemotherapy in colon cancer.
  • Considerable progress in the form of multidrug chemotherapy has recently been made in chemotherapy for the prolongation of survival in advanced colon cancer.
  • It is generally accepted that colon cancer is biologically heterogeneous for multiple properties, including sensitivity to chemotherapeutic agents and metastasis.
  • Although this partly explains the success of multidrug chemotherapy, there has been no direct evidence that multidrug regimens affect individual heterogenous cancer characteristics in colon cancer.
  • Here, we present a case of metachronous ovarian metastasis in a colon cancer patient with dissemination who underwent irinotecan-based followed by oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy.
  • We were able to obtain three samples from the patient, one of primary cancer and two of metastatic tumors from secondary surgery.
  • Of note, both chemoresistant and chemosensitive tumors were present in the patient at the same time.
  • To understand the influence of multidrugs on individual cancer characteristics, we examined differences in the molecular characteristics of the three samples using RT-PCR, focusing in particular on alterations in chemoresistant genes.
  • In shrunken peritoneal metastasis, we found a significant increase in the mRNA levels of an irinotecan-sensitive gene, although other molecular factors were resistant to both 5-FU and oxaliplatin.
  • We also confirmed that the recurrent ovarian tumor showed significant resistance to all three drugs: 5-FU, irinotecan and oxaliplatin.
  • These results suggest that the heterogeneity of colon cancer necessitates and limits the use of multidrug chemotherapy.

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  • (PMID = 21479445.001).
  • [ISSN] 1791-2997
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular medicine reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol Med Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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2. Yook JH, Oh ST, Kim BS: Clinical prognostic factors for ovarian metastasis in women with gastric cancer. Hepatogastroenterology; 2007 Apr-May;54(75):955-9
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  • [Title] Clinical prognostic factors for ovarian metastasis in women with gastric cancer.
  • BACKGROUND/AIMS: Krukenberg's tumor is considered to be a metastatic carcinoma to the ovary derived from a primary malignancy, usually from the gastrointestinal tract.
  • This retrospective study tries to evaluate the clinicopathologic characteristics of ovarian metastasis in female gastric cancer and to define the prognostic factors.
  • METHODOLOGY: Of 1,890 female patients with gastric cancers, 37 patients with metastatic ovarian carcinomas were analyzed.
  • RESULTS: Patients with ovarian metastasis were younger in age, higher in primary tumor location, and far advanced in depth of invasion and lymph node metastases.
  • Ovarian metastasis was largely related to the peritoneal seeding, which was statistically significant on survival time.
  • The young female patients with far advanced gastric cancer were vulnerable to recurrence of ovarian metastasis and were considered to undergo prophylactic oophorectomy with gastrectomy.
  • The prognosis of ovarian metastasis is dismal, because this is frequently associated with the peritoneal disseminations.
  • CONCLUSIONS: It is essential to treat the peritoneal disseminations in order to improve the survival rate of female gastric cancer patients with ovarian metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Krukenberg Tumor / diagnosis. Krukenberg Tumor / secondary. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / secondary. Stomach Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17591102.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-6390
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepato-gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hepatogastroenterology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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3. Falchook GS, Wolff RA, Varadhachary GR: Clinicopathologic features and treatment strategies for patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma and ovarian metastases. Gynecol Oncol; 2008 Mar;108(3):515-9
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  • [Title] Clinicopathologic features and treatment strategies for patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma and ovarian metastases.
  • BACKGROUND: Ovarian metastases from pancreatic adenocarcinoma are uncommon and data on the clinical features, treatment, and survival of patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma with ovarian metastases is limited.
  • METHODS: We reviewed the charts of 18 patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma with ovarian metastasis who had presented to The University of Texas M. D.
  • Anderson Cancer Center from 1985 to 2005.
  • RESULTS: Of the 18 patients diagnosed with pancreatic adenocarcinoma and ovarian metastases, 8 (44%) presented with ovarian metastases initially and a pancreatic primary tumor became apparent only on further imaging or during surgery.
  • On pathology review, the primary pancreatic cancers (5 out of 18) and ovarian metastases (8 out of 16) showed mucinous characteristics.
  • Patients who underwent resection of their ovarian metastases followed by chemotherapy had a trend of longer median survival compared to patients who received chemotherapy alone without resection of the ovarian metastases (16.5 vs. 8.5 months, respectively; p=0.28).
  • No responses were observed in the ovarian metastases to chemotherapy alone.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Primary pancreatic adenocarcinoma with synchronous ovarian metastases may present initially as symptomatic ovarian masses and they commonly have mucinous histologic characteristics.
  • Surgical resection of ovarian metastases may play an important palliative role in the treatment of symptomatic patients with good performance status and lead to longer survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / therapy. Pancreatic Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Combined Modality Therapy. Databases, Factual. Female. Humans. Medical Records. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Texas. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18164378.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-6859
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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4. Fujiwara M, Taube J, Sharma M, McCalmont TH, Kim J: PAX8 discriminates ovarian metastases from adnexal tumors and other cutaneous metastases. J Cutan Pathol; 2010 Sep;37(9):938-43
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  • [Title] PAX8 discriminates ovarian metastases from adnexal tumors and other cutaneous metastases.
  • BACKGROUND: The distinction of metastatic ovarian carcinoma from other metastatic carcinomas and primary adnexal lesions in the skin is often difficult.
  • PAX8 is a transcription factor that plays a critical role in development of the Müllerian system and has been shown to be a useful discriminatory marker between ovarian and breast carcinomas.
  • Identification of ovarian cutaneous metastases may be of benefit in patients with familial breast-ovarian carcinoma syndrome.
  • METHODS: PAX8 immunohistochemical analysis was performed on 24 cases of metastatic adenocarcinomas to the skin and compared with 7 cases of primary adnexal lesions and also compared with p63 immunohistochemical staining results.
  • Patients with metastatic adenocarcinomas had clinically documented primary malignancies, and patients with primary adnexal carcinomas had no known history of another adenocarcinoma.
  • RESULTS: Cutaneous ovarian and renal cell carcinoma metastases (2/2 and 8/8, respectively) showed positive nuclear expression of PAX8.
  • The p63 expression profile supported the distinction between adnexal and metastatic adenocarcinomas.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Although cutaneous ovarian metastasis is a rare phenomenon, the prognosis is extremely poor.
  • PAX8 expression is a useful marker that effectively discriminated metastatic ovarian carcinomas from metastatic breast carcinomas and primary adnexal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Paired Box Transcription Factors / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 20492080.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / PAX8 protein, human; 0 / Paired Box Transcription Factors
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5. Gil OD, Lee C, Ariztia EV, Wang FQ, Smith PJ, Hope JM, Fishman DA: Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) promotes E-cadherin ectodomain shedding and OVCA429 cell invasion in an uPA-dependent manner. Gynecol Oncol; 2008 Feb;108(2):361-9
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  • [Title] Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) promotes E-cadherin ectodomain shedding and OVCA429 cell invasion in an uPA-dependent manner.
  • OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the role of LPA in regulating E-cadherin cell surface expression, adhesion, and invasion in epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC) cells.
  • Immunofluorescence and Western blot analysis were performed to determine cell surface expression and shedding of E-cadherin 80-kDa soluble fragment by LPA.
  • High levels of soluble E-cadherin in malignant ascites may also affect ovarian metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Cadherins / biosynthesis. Lysophospholipids / pharmacology. Ovarian Neoplasms / metabolism. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Line, Tumor. Down-Regulation. Female. Humans. Immunoglobulin Fc Fragments / genetics. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Protein Structure, Tertiary. RNA, Messenger / biosynthesis. RNA, Messenger / genetics. Recombinant Fusion Proteins / pharmacology. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 18073130.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-6859
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cadherins; 0 / Immunoglobulin Fc Fragments; 0 / Lysophospholipids; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Recombinant Fusion Proteins; 22002-87-5 / lysophosphatidic acid; EC 3.4.21.73 / Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator
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6. Januszewska M, Emerich J, Dibniak J, Sliwinski W, Stukan M: [Clinical analysis of patients with Krukenberg tumor of the ovary]. Ginekol Pol; 2006 Mar;77(3):203-8
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  • [Title] [Clinical analysis of patients with Krukenberg tumor of the ovary].
  • [Transliterated title] Analiza kliniczna chorych z guzem Krukenberga na materiale własnym oraz przeglad literatury.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze clinical data such as diagnosis, surgical treatment and follow-up of patients with Krukenberg tumor (KT).
  • The definition of KT was that of Krukenberg's.
  • Fourteen patients were diagnosed with malignant disease before surgery for ovarian tumor--11 were treated for breast cancer, 2 underwent resection of the stomach and one had rectosigmoidectomy.
  • Before surgery a diagnosis for ovarian tumor such as ultrasonography, computer tomography and Ca125 were performed--in most cases sonography findings revealed mixed cystic and solid tumor of 320 cm in diameter; in 70% cases serum Ca125 was elevated with the highest result of 772 IU/ml.
  • From among 20 patients who were suspected for primary ovarian cancer with no other malignant disease before surgery 9 had stomach cancer, 6 colon cancer, in 2 cases ovarian tumor was a metastasis from breast and in 1 from gall bladder; in 2 patients primary tumor was not found.
  • The surgery performed in patients with KT was that of done for primary ovarian cancer.
  • Surgical findings revealed ovarian tumor of 3-10 cm in diameter, solid and bilateral in most cases.
  • The mean time between diagnosis of malignant disease and metastases to the ovary was 18 months.
  • The best overall prognosis was for patients with breast cancer and the worst for cases with stomach cancer.
  • CONCLUSIONS: There is a poor prognosis for patients with Krukenberg tumor.
  • The diagnosis is late, in most cases during surgery for ovarian tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Krukenberg Tumor / diagnosis. Krukenberg Tumor / surgery. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Female. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / pathology. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / surgery. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 16871838.001).
  • [ISSN] 0017-0011
  • [Journal-full-title] Ginekologia polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ginekol. Pol.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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7. Khunamornpong S, Siriaunkgul S, Suprasert P, Pojchamarnwiputh S, Na Chiangmai W, Young RH: Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma metastatic to the ovary: a report of 16 cases of an underemphasized form of secondary tumor in the ovary that may mimic primary neoplasia. Am J Surg Pathol; 2007 Dec;31(12):1788-99
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  • [Title] Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma metastatic to the ovary: a report of 16 cases of an underemphasized form of secondary tumor in the ovary that may mimic primary neoplasia.
  • The potential for adenocarcinoma metastatic to the ovary to mimic primary mucinous neoplasms is a well-known issue to surgical pathologists, most of the recent literature emphasizing pancreatic and various other origins for the ovarian metastases.
  • Although an origin in the gallbladder or extrahepatic bile ducts is acknowledged for some cases little information exists on tumors originating within the intrahepatic bile ducts.
  • Thirteen presented with nonspecific pelvic symptoms similar to primary ovarian neoplasms.
  • The hepatic tumors were radiologically detected before the ovarian lesion in 2 cases.
  • Hepatic and ovarian masses were simultaneously detected by preoperative radiologic studies or at exploratory laparotomy in 10 cases.
  • There were a total of 26 metastatic ovarian lesions which included 22 clinically recognized ovarian masses (range 3 to 20 cm, mean 11.8 cm).
  • Microscopically, surface implants were observed in 80% of tumors, multinodular growth in 48%, and infiltrative stromal invasion (including microinvasionlike foci as it would be applied if the tumors were primary) in 86%.
  • The tumors most closely mimicked primary mucinous neoplasms although a resemblance to other mullerian neoplasms was also seen.
  • Foci often mimicked mucinous borderline tumors of typical type or with intraepithelial carcinoma and benign-appearing mucinous epithelium was seen in 62% of tumors.
  • Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma should be included in the list of origins of possible ovarian metastatic tumors that mimic primary ovarian mucinous neoplasia, particularly in parts of the world where cholangiocarcinoma of the liver is relatively common.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Duct Neoplasms / pathology. Cholangiocarcinoma / secondary. Ovarian Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged


8. Huang SY, Jung SM, Ng KK, Chang YC, Lai CH: Ovarian metastasis in a nulliparous woman with endometrial adenocarcinoma failing conservative hormonal treatment. Gynecol Oncol; 2005 May;97(2):652-5
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  • [Title] Ovarian metastasis in a nulliparous woman with endometrial adenocarcinoma failing conservative hormonal treatment.
  • BACKGROUND: There have been several reports about successful fertility-preserving treatment of endometrial carcinoma with subsequent pregnancy.
  • However, conservative hormonal treatment for early-stage endometrial cancer still entails some risk.
  • CASE: We present a 36-year-old nulliparous woman, initially diagnosed as clinical stage IA, grade 1 endometrial adenocarcinoma, receiving 6-month conservative treatment with remission achieved at 4 months from diagnosis.
  • The final pathology revealed well-differentiated endometrioid adenocarcinoma with inner one-third myometrial invasion and right ovarian metastasis.
  • CONCLUSION: This case report signals a warning that negative preoperative imaging studies are not reassuring for a relapsing low-grade, early-stage endometrial carcinoma failing conservative treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Endometrial Neoplasms / drug therapy. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Megestrol Acetate / therapeutic use. Ovarian Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 15863173.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] TJ2M0FR8ES / Megestrol Acetate
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9. Madersbacher S, Ponholzer A, Franz K, Höltl W: [Synchronous bilateral renal cell cancer with a single ovarian metastasis and a fibromuscular dysplasia of the renal artery]. Aktuelle Urol; 2007 Jan;38(1):52-4
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  • [Title] [Synchronous bilateral renal cell cancer with a single ovarian metastasis and a fibromuscular dysplasia of the renal artery].
  • INTRODUCTION: Ovarian metastases of renal cell cancer (RCC) are extremely rare with less than 20 cases reported to date.
  • These metastases occur in the majority of cases metachronous (i. e. prior to or after identification of the primary tumour) or--such as in our case--synchronous.
  • CASE REPORT: A 42-year-old women was diagnosed for synchronous bilateral renal and a left-sided ovarian mass.
  • In a first surgical step, the ovarian metastasis was removed laparoscopically and the 20 cm tumour on the right kidney via a transperitoneal tumour nephrectomy (histology: clear cell RCC, pT3bN0V1R0M1).
  • CONCLUSION: Although extremely rare, the possibility of an ovarian metastasis should be considered in women with RCC.
  • The presented case was unique because of synchronous bilateral RCC, an ovarian metastasis and a fibromuscular dysplasia of the renal artery requiring a sophisticated surgical approach.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Renal Cell / secondary. Fibromuscular Dysplasia / diagnosis. Kidney Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / secondary. Ovarian Neoplasms / secondary. Renal Artery Obstruction / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Anastomosis, Surgical. Blood Vessel Prosthesis Implantation. Female. Humans. Laparoscopy. Neoplasm Staging. Nephrectomy. Postoperative Complications / diagnosis. Postoperative Complications / therapy. Stents


10. Kasamatsu T, Onda T, Sawada M, Kato T, Ikeda S, Sasajima Y, Tsuda H: Radical hysterectomy for FIGO stage I-IIB adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix. Br J Cancer; 2009 May 5;100(9):1400-5
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  • [Title] Radical hysterectomy for FIGO stage I-IIB adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix.
  • A retrospective analysis was carried out to identify risk factors for survival and relapse in patients with FIGO stage I-IIB cervical adenocarcinoma (AC), who underwent radical hysterectomy, and to compare outcome and spread pattern with those of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC).
  • Among the patients with AC, Cox model identified tumour size (95% CI: 1.35-30.71) and node metastasis (95% CI: 5.09-53.44) as independent prognostic factors for survival, and infiltration to vagina (95% CI: 1.15-5.76) and node metastasis (95% CI: 6.39-58.87) as independent prognostic factors for relapse.
  • No significant difference was found in the positive rates of lymph nodes or location of initial failure sites between the two groups, but ovarian metastatic rate was significantly higher in patients with pathologic stage IIB AC (P=0.02).
  • FIGO stage I-IIB patients with AC or SCC, who underwent radical hysterectomy, have similar prognosis and spread pattern, but different ovarian metastasis rates.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Hysterectomy. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Recurrence. Retrospective Studies. Survivors. Time Factors. Vaginal Neoplasms / pathology


11. Khurana P, Sachdev R, Uppal S, Bisaria D: Krukenberg tumor in a 13-year-old girl: a rare occurrence. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2010 Oct-Dec;53(4):874-5
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  • [Title] Krukenberg tumor in a 13-year-old girl: a rare occurrence.
  • [MeSH-major] Krukenberg Tumor / diagnosis. Krukenberg Tumor / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Ovary / pathology

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  • (PMID = 21045460.001).
  • [ISSN] 0974-5130
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] India
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12. Prat J: Ovarian carcinomas, including secondary tumors: diagnostically challenging areas. Mod Pathol; 2005 Feb;18 Suppl 2:S99-111
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  • [Title] Ovarian carcinomas, including secondary tumors: diagnostically challenging areas.
  • The differential diagnosis of ovarian carcinomas, including secondary tumors, remains a challenging task.
  • Mucinous carcinomas of the ovary are rare and can be easily confused with metastatic mucinous carcinomas that may present clinically as a primary ovarian tumor.
  • International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage is the single most important prognostic factor, and stage I carcinomas have an excellent prognosis; FIGO stage is largely related to the histologic features of the ovarian tumors.
  • Metastatic colon cancer is frequent and often simulates ovarian endometrioid adenocarcinoma.
  • Although immunostains for cytokeratins 7 and 20 can be helpful in the differential diagnosis, they should always be interpreted in the light of all clinical information.
  • Occasionally, endometrioid carcinomas may exhibit a microglandular pattern simulating sex cord-stromal tumors.
  • However, typical endometrioid glands, squamous differentiation, or an adenofibroma component are each present in 75% of these tumors whereas immunostains for calretinin and alpha-inhibin are negative.
  • Endometrioid carcinoma of the ovary is associated in 15-20% of the cases with carcinoma of the endometrium.
  • Most of these tumors have a favorable outcome and they most likely represent independent primary carcinomas arising as a result of a Mullerian field effect.
  • Although the criteria for distinguishing metastatic from independent primary carcinomas rely mainly upon conventional clinicopathologic findings, loss of heterozygosity and gene mutation analyses can be helpful.
  • Transitional cell carcinomas are distinguished from undifferentiated carcinomas by the presence of thick, undulating papillae with smooth luminal borders, microspaces, and tumor cells with distinctive 'urothelial' appearance.
  • Krukenberg tumors are metastatic adenocarcinomas traditionally perceived as composed of mucin-filled signet-ring cells associated with a striking proliferation of the ovarian stroma but many variations on this pattern occur.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Base Sequence. Colonic Neoplasms / pathology. Cytoskeletal Proteins / genetics. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Intermediate Filament Proteins / analysis. Keratin-20. Keratin-7. Keratins / analysis. Mutation. Prognosis. Trans-Activators / genetics. beta Catenin. ras Proteins / genetics

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  • (PMID = 15492758.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CTNNB1 protein, human; 0 / Cytoskeletal Proteins; 0 / Intermediate Filament Proteins; 0 / KRT20 protein, human; 0 / KRT7 protein, human; 0 / Keratin-20; 0 / Keratin-7; 0 / Trans-Activators; 0 / beta Catenin; 68238-35-7 / Keratins; EC 3.6.5.2 / ras Proteins
  • [Number-of-references] 63
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13. Reichelt DC, Scherer A, Blondin D: [Initial diagnosis of Krukenberg tumor in pregnancy]. Rofo; 2009 May;181(5):483-5
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  • [Title] [Initial diagnosis of Krukenberg tumor in pregnancy].
  • [Transliterated title] Erstdiagnose eines Krukenberg-Tumors in der Schwangerschaft.
  • [MeSH-major] Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Krukenberg Tumor / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / diagnosis. Ultrasonography, Prenatal
  • [MeSH-minor] Abortion, Eugenic. Adult. Carcinoma, Signet Ring Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Signet Ring Cell / secondary. Carcinoma, Signet Ring Cell / surgery. Female. Gastrectomy. Humans. Ovariectomy. Ovary / pathology. Pregnancy. Pregnancy Trimester, Second. Stomach Neoplasms / diagnosis. Stomach Neoplasms / surgery


14. Bloch-Marcotte C, Ambrosetti D, Novellas S, Caramella T, Dahman M, Thyss A, Chevallier P: Ovarian metastasis from choroidal melanoma. Clin Imaging; 2008 Jul-Aug;32(4):318-20
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  • [Title] Ovarian metastasis from choroidal melanoma.
  • Ocular melanoma has a strong tendency to metastasize often several years after its initial diagnosis was made.
  • After three treatments, a check-up with computed tomography demonstrated the presence of a right ovarian mass.
  • An ovariectomy was performed, and the pathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of an ovarian metastasis from an ocular melanoma.
  • This is the fourth case of metastasis to the ovary from an ocular melanoma reported in the medical literature.
  • [MeSH-major] Choroid Neoplasms / pathology. Melanoma / secondary. Ovarian Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / radiography. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 18603189.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-4499
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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15. Iyibozkurt AC, Akhan SE, Topuz S, Citil I, Berkman S: Laparoscopic evaluation of metastatic ovarian cancer: a case report. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2005;26(1):123-4
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  • [Title] Laparoscopic evaluation of metastatic ovarian cancer: a case report.
  • OBJECTIVE AND CASE: Both noninvasive and invasive methods have limited value in the diagnosis of metastatic ovarian cancer.
  • We present a case with the initial complaint of abdominal distention in whom primary and metastatic tumor sites were safely diagnosed by using laparoscopy: a gastric tumor with ovarian metastasis.
  • DISCUSSION: Diagnostic laparoscopy by the open technique provides a safe and effective diagnostic option in patients with metastatic ovarian cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Signet Ring Cell / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Stomach Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Laparotomy. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasm Metastasis


16. Tan KL, Tan WS, Lim JF, Eu KW: Krukenberg tumors of colorectal origin: a dismal outcome--experience of a tertiary center. Int J Colorectal Dis; 2010 Feb;25(2):233-8
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  • [Title] Krukenberg tumors of colorectal origin: a dismal outcome--experience of a tertiary center.
  • BACKGROUND: Krukenberg tumor (KT) is described as metastases of the ovary usually from a tumor of gastric origin.
  • As colorectal cancer (CRC) is now the most common cancer in Singapore, we are seeing more KT with colorectal origin.
  • PURPOSE: To determine the pattern of presentation of KT from CRC origin in terms of patient demographics, time of onset related to the diagnosis of CRC, presence of elevated serum tumor markers, carcinomatosis peritoneii, and survival of patients.
  • Median age at diagnosis was 53 years old (range: 38-79).
  • Sixteen patients (64%) had ovarian metastasis at the time of diagnosis of the CRC.
  • Eleven patients (44%) had unilateral ovarian involvement.
  • Serum Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) was available for 21 patients, 18 (86%) were raised; serum cancer antigen-125 (CA-125) was available for seven patients, five (71%) were raised.
  • There were 11 mortalities (44%) and all died of the disease.
  • Median time between diagnosis of KT and death was 19 months.
  • The rest of the patients were alive with existence of disease at last follow-up.
  • There was 0% disease-free survival.
  • Patients investigated for elevated CA-125 and unilateral ovarian mass should have the diagnosis of colorectal cancer excluded before treatment of ovarian mass.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology. Krukenberg Tumor / secondary. Ovarian Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age of Onset. Aged. CA-125 Antigen / blood. Carcinoembryonic Antigen / blood. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Peritoneal Neoplasms / secondary. Retrospective Studies. Singapore / epidemiology. Survival Analysis. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19705132.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1262
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of colorectal disease
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Colorectal Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CA-125 Antigen; 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen
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17. Imamura H, Kishimoto T, Kawabata R, Furukawa H, Fukunaga M, Ohzato H, Miyanishi K, Yamamoto T, Miwa H: [A case of gastric cancer with bilateral ovarian metastasis after gastrectomy performed ovarian resection]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2010 Nov;37(12):2490-2
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  • [Title] [A case of gastric cancer with bilateral ovarian metastasis after gastrectomy performed ovarian resection].
  • The patient was a 51-year-old female, who underwent radical surgery for cancer of remnant stomach in May 2006 (f-T4N0M0P0H0CY0, por 2, Stage IIIA, Cur B).
  • Bilateral ovarian resection was performed in March 2009 for bilateral ovarian metastasis, so called "Krukenberg tumor" with peritoneal dissemination detected with CT scan after one-year adjuvant chemotherapy with S-1 (80 mg/m2, 4 weeks on and 2 weeks off).
  • In ovary metastasis of gastric cancer, even if accompanied by peritoneum metastasis, ovarian resection as a reduction surgery followed by chemotherapy may improve survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Krukenberg Tumor / secondary. Krukenberg Tumor / therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / secondary. Ovarian Neoplasms / therapy. Stomach Neoplasms / pathology. Stomach Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 21224616.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Drug Combinations; 150863-82-4 / S 1 (combination); 1548R74NSZ / Tegafur; 5VT6420TIG / Oxonic Acid; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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18. Demirkiran F, Bese T, Arvas M, Yilmaz O, Ilvan S: Ovarian metastasis from malignant thymoma. Int J Gynaecol Obstet; 2009 May;105(2):176-7
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  • [Title] Ovarian metastasis from malignant thymoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / secondary. Thymoma / secondary

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  • (PMID = 19232597.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-3479
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynaecology and obstetrics: the official organ of the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Gynaecol Obstet
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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19. Gineste D: [Cancer of the left kidney with ovarian metastasis: retrograde venous dissemination?]. J Chir (Paris); 2007 Jan-Feb;144(1):75-6
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  • [Title] [Cancer of the left kidney with ovarian metastasis: retrograde venous dissemination?].
  • [Transliterated title] Cancer du rein gauche et métastases ovariennes: un mode de dissémination par voie veineuse rétrograde?
  • [MeSH-major] Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplastic Cells, Circulating / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / secondary. Renal Veins / pathology. Venous Thrombosis / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Renal Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / secondary. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Middle Aged


20. Sonoki T, Iwanaga E, Mitsuya H, Asou N: Ovarian relapse seven years after bone marrow transplantation for B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia: an unusual Krukenberg tumor. Am J Hematol; 2005 Sep;80(1):75-6
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  • [Title] Ovarian relapse seven years after bone marrow transplantation for B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia: an unusual Krukenberg tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Marrow Transplantation / adverse effects. Burkitt Lymphoma / therapy. Krukenberg Tumor / etiology. Ovarian Neoplasms / etiology


21. Che X, Shan Y, Zhou ZX, Zhao DB, Bi JJ, Shao YF, Zhao P: [Surgial treatment and prognosis of ovarian metastasis from colorectal cancer]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi; 2007 Nov;29(11):864-6
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  • [Title] [Surgial treatment and prognosis of ovarian metastasis from colorectal cancer].
  • OBJECTIVE: To summarize the surgical treatment experiece and to investigate the prognosis of the patients with ovarian metastasis from colorectal cancer.
  • METHODS: The data of 67 patients with synchronous or asynchronous ovarian metastasis from colorectal cancer surgically treated between January 1989 and December 2005 were collected and analyzed retrospectively using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (Release 11.5, SPSS, Inc).
  • Univariate analysis revealed that the metastasis was confined in the ovary or pelvis only, unilateral/double ovarian metastasis, and operation mode were all statistically significant prognostic factors (P <0.05).
  • CONCLUSION: Surgical treatment is still the most effective mode in the treatment for the ovary metastasis from colorectal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / secondary. Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery. Ovariectomy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / secondary. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / surgery. Adult. Aged. Carcinoma, Signet Ring Cell / secondary. Carcinoma, Signet Ring Cell / surgery. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Hysteroscopy / methods. Middle Aged. Proportional Hazards Models. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate


22. Kim WY, Kim TJ, Kim SE, Lee JW, Lee JH, Kim BG, Bae DS: The role of cytoreductive surgery for non-genital tract metastatic tumors to the ovaries. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol; 2010 Mar;149(1):97-101
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  • [Title] The role of cytoreductive surgery for non-genital tract metastatic tumors to the ovaries.
  • STUDY DESIGN: From September 1994 to December 2006, 158 patients with pathologically confirmed metastatic tumors to the ovaries at Samsung Medical Center (SMC) were included in this study.
  • RESULTS: The primary tumor origin was mostly stomach (73 cases) and colon (61 cases).
  • Krukenberg tumor (pathologically proven signet ring cell carcinoma) was found in 34 cases: stomach (25), colon (2), appendix (1), and unknown (6).
  • Residual disease after surgery was >2 cm in 65 (41.1%) cases and <2 cm in 93 (58.9%) cases.
  • The median survival times according to the primary tumor site showed significant differences (p=0.002) and were as follows: stomach 12 months, colon 17 months.
  • The median survival in cases with residual disease <2 cm vs. >2 cm was 26 months vs. 15 months (p=0.017) and the median survival with vs. without adjuvant chemotherapy was 16 months vs. 10 months (p=0.001).
  • However, age, bilateral tumors, chronology of diagnosis and mass size did not affect survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Colonic Neoplasms / pathology. Krukenberg Tumor / secondary. Neoplasms, Second Primary / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / secondary. Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery. Ovary / surgery. Stomach Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20018420.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-7654
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of obstetrics, gynecology, and reproductive biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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23. Sakpal SV, Babel N, Pulinthanathu R, Denehy TR, Chamberlain RS: Krukenberg tumor: metastasis of Meckel's diverticular adenocarcinoma to ovaries. J Nippon Med Sch; 2009 Apr;76(2):96-102
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  • [Title] Krukenberg tumor: metastasis of Meckel's diverticular adenocarcinoma to ovaries.
  • At surgery she had carcinomatosis and bilateral ovarian metastases arising from a cancer in a Meckel's diverticulum.
  • Histology identified the primary to be a signet-ring cell adenocarcinoma within the Meckel's with ovarian metastases.
  • This is the first report of a Krukenberg tumor from a Meckel's diverticulum.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Signet Ring Cell / secondary. Ileal Neoplasms / pathology. Meckel Diverticulum. Ovarian Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 19443995.001).
  • [ISSN] 1345-4676
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of Nippon Medical School = Nippon Ika Daigaku zasshi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Nippon Med Sch
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 26
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24. Lerwill MF, Young RH: Ovarian metastases of intestinal-type gastric carcinoma: A clinicopathologic study of 4 cases with contrasting features to those of the Krukenberg tumor. Am J Surg Pathol; 2006 Nov;30(11):1382-8
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  • [Title] Ovarian metastases of intestinal-type gastric carcinoma: A clinicopathologic study of 4 cases with contrasting features to those of the Krukenberg tumor.
  • Ovarian metastases of intestinal-type gastric adenocarcinomas are rare, and information on them is very limited compared with that on signet-ring cell carcinomas that result in the Krukenberg tumor.
  • In 3 patients, the ovarian metastases were identified several to 21 months after the diagnosis of the gastric primary, and the tumors were synchronous in the fourth.
  • Two tumors were bilateral, 1 unilateral, and for 1, the laterality was unknown.
  • The ovarian tumors were characteristically solid and cystic, with multinodular growth in 2.
  • In 2 cases, the ovarian tumors had a pseudoendometrioid morphology with tubulo-glandular, cribriform, and papillary patterns; they also had focal trabecular and insular patterns.
  • In the other 2 cases, the ovarian tumors had a mucinous appearance, 1 being dominantly cystic with occasional goblet cells and the other with prominent foveolar-type cells.
  • Two ovarian tumors examined expressed cytokeratin 7 and 20 but not estrogen receptor.
  • Three patients with follow-up information all died within 1 year of the ovarian metastases.
  • Although information is limited, our results suggest that metastatic spread to the ovary by intestinal-type gastric adenocarcinoma is usually seen in patients older than those with Krukenberg tumors, with a known history of gastric carcinoma, and with concomitant widespread disease.
  • Involvement of the ovary by intestinal-type gastric carcinoma produces a microscopic picture distinctly different from that of a Krukenberg tumor.
  • These metastatic intestinal-type tumors may be confused with metastases from other gastrointestinal sites that are more frequently the cause of pseudoendometrioid or mucinous metastases, and like such tumors may be confused with primary ovarian endometrioid and mucinous neoplasms.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Krukenberg Tumor / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / secondary. Stomach Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Intestinal Neoplasms / metabolism. Intestinal Neoplasms / pathology. Middle Aged


25. Taranto AJ, Lourie R, Lau WF: Ovarian vascular pedicle sign in ovarian metastasis arising from gall bladder carcinoma. Australas Radiol; 2006 Oct;50(5):504-6
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  • [Title] Ovarian vascular pedicle sign in ovarian metastasis arising from gall bladder carcinoma.
  • A case of a large mass in the pelvis confirmed to be a rare ovarian metastasis arising from a primary adenocarcinoma of the gall bladder is presented.
  • The value of the recently described ovarian pedicle sign in confirming the organ of origin of the pelvic mass is emphasized.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Gallbladder Neoplasms / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / secondary. Ovary / radiography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Contrast Media / administration & dosage. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Humans. Middle Aged. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Radiographic Image Enhancement / methods. Rare Diseases

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  • (PMID = 16981953.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-8461
  • [Journal-full-title] Australasian radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Australas Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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26. Metindir J, Dilek GB, Pak I: Staining characterization by immunohistochemistry of tumor cancer antigen in patients with endometrial cancer. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2008;29(5):489-92
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  • [Title] Staining characterization by immunohistochemistry of tumor cancer antigen in patients with endometrial cancer.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the correlation between the pattern of cancer antigen (CA-125) expression by immunohistochemistry and pathologic parameters in endometrial carcinoma.
  • METHODS: Seventy-two cases of primary uterine carcinomas, 66 endometrioid carcinoma and six non-endometrioid, were analyzed by immunohistochemistry for CA-125 expression.
  • Myometrial invasion was evaluated by assessing the percentage of myometrial thickness involved at the site of deepest tumor extension.
  • Presence or absence of vascular invasion, cervical stromal invasion, lymph node metastasis, and ovarian metastasis from endometrial cancer was assessed.
  • Tumor size was measured by the maximum diameter.
  • Peritoneal washings were examined for the presence or absence of cancer cells.
  • Percentage of the cancer area stained in high-power fields was examined.
  • RESULTS: Of the 72 patients, 66 (91.7%) had endometrioid carcinoma and six (8.3%) had non-endometrioid carcinoma.
  • Of the seventy-two patients, 38 (52.7%) had surgical Stage I disease, 12 (16.7%) had Stage II, 16 (22.2%) had Stage III disease, and six (8.4%) had Stage IV disease.
  • Forty-eight (66.7%) patients had deep myometrial invasion, 29 (40.3%) had lymphovascular invasion, 25 (34.7%) had cervical stromal involvement, and 12 (16.7%) had ovarian metastasis.
  • Twenty-eight (38.9%) patients had grade 1, 25 (34.7%) had grade 2, and 19 (26.4%) had grade 3 disease.
  • Fifty-nine (81.9%) patients had a tumor size greater than 2 cm.
  • Negative staining was noted in ten (13.9%) tumors, weakly positive in 23 (31.9%), positive in 16 (22.3%) and strongly positive in 23 (31.9%).
  • Grade 0 intensity was found in nine (12.5%) tumors, grade 1 in 16 (22.3%), grade 2 in 21 (29.16), and grade 3 in 26 (36.11).
  • Negative percentage of positive cells examined was found in nine (12.5%) tumors, < 10% in 19 (26.38%), 11-50% in 18 (25%), 51-80% in 13 (18.05%), > 80 in 13 (18.05%).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Intensity, percentage of positive stained cells for CA-125, and IRS can be used to determine the need for abdominal hysterectomy and lymphadenectomy for staging in endometrial cancer.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Hysterectomy. Immunohistochemistry. Lymph Node Excision. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Middle Aged. Myometrium / pathology. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 19051819.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CA-125 Antigen
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27. Sengupta S, Kim KS, Berk MP, Oates R, Escobar P, Belinson J, Li W, Lindner DJ, Williams B, Xu Y: Lysophosphatidic acid downregulates tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases, which are negatively involved in lysophosphatidic acid-induced cell invasion. Oncogene; 2007 May 3;26(20):2894-901
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  • [Title] Lysophosphatidic acid downregulates tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases, which are negatively involved in lysophosphatidic acid-induced cell invasion.
  • Ovarian cancer is a highly metastatic disease.
  • Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) levels are elevated in ascites from ovarian cancer patients, but its potential role in ovarian cancer metastasis has just begun to be revealed.
  • In this work, we show that LPA stimulates invasion of primary ovarian cancer cells, but not ovarian epithelial or borderline ovarian tumor cells, although these benign cells indeed respond to LPA in cell migration.
  • In vivo, LPA stimulates tumor metastasis in an orthotopic ovarian tumor model, which can be inhibited by a PI3K inhibitor, LY294002.
  • In summary, LPA is likely a key component for promoting ovarian metastasis in vivo.
  • Our in vivo metastasis mouse model is useful for studying the efficacy of therapeutic regimes of ovarian cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Movement / drug effects. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / drug effects. Lysophospholipids / pharmacology. Ovarian Neoplasms / genetics. Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Epithelial Cells / drug effects. Female. GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gi-Go / metabolism. Humans. Mice. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Metastasis. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases / antagonists & inhibitors. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases / metabolism. Tumor Cells, Cultured. Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays. p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17130843.001).
  • [ISSN] 0950-9232
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncogene
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncogene
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA095042
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Lysophospholipids; 0 / Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases; 22002-87-5 / lysophosphatidic acid; EC 2.7.1.- / Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases; EC 2.7.11.24 / p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases; EC 3.6.5.1 / GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gi-Go
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28. Singh M, Arora P, Singh S, Bohara S, Khurana N, Zutshi V, Kumar R: Adult neuroblastoma of the ovary: a rare tumor with review of literature. J Cancer Res Ther; 2010 Jul-Sep;6(3):367-9
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  • [Title] Adult neuroblastoma of the ovary: a rare tumor with review of literature.
  • Neuroblastoma is a tumor of pediatric age group and is extremely rare in adults.
  • Ovarian neuroblastoma has never been reported in the literature before.
  • We, hereby, present a case of a 38-year-old lady with bilateral ovarian neuroblastoma diagnosed as Krukenberg's tumor clinicoradiologically.
  • [MeSH-major] Neuroblastoma / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 21119280.001).
  • [ISSN] 1998-4138
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cancer research and therapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Cancer Res Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] India
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29. Skírnisdóttir I, Garmo H, Holmberg L: Non-genital tract metastases to the ovaries presented as ovarian tumors in Sweden 1990-2003: occurrence, origin and survival compared to ovarian cancer. Gynecol Oncol; 2007 Apr;105(1):166-71
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  • [Title] Non-genital tract metastases to the ovaries presented as ovarian tumors in Sweden 1990-2003: occurrence, origin and survival compared to ovarian cancer.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of this register study was to determine occurrence of non-genital ovarian metastasis detected by gynecologic surgery presented as ovarian neoplasm in Sweden from 1 January 1990 to 31 December 2003.
  • Age at diagnosis, survival for ovarian metastasis compared to ovarian cancer and prognostic factors were evaluated.
  • METHODS: Utilizing the population-based Swedish In-Patient Registry, Cancer Registry and Causes of Death Registry, we identified 255 cases with non-genital tract metastases to the ovaries detected at gynecological surgery.
  • During the study period, 10,955 newly diagnosed cases of ovarian cancer were reported to the Swedish Cancer Registry.
  • RESULTS: The proportion of ovarian metastases detected at surgery of all ovarian neoplasm increased from 1.7% to 3.0% during the study period.
  • The patients with ovarian metastasis of non-GI origin were younger than patients with primary ovarian cancer.
  • The most common primary diseases were breast cancer (29%), colon cancer (27%) and gastric cancer (16%).
  • Ovarian metastasis of GI origin preceded primary diagnosis in 51% of patients but for women with disease of non-GI origin the primary diagnosis was made in 18% of patients after surgery.
  • Five-year survival for patients with ovarian metastasis of GI origin was 11% and it was 24% if metastases were of non-GI origin.
  • Five-year survival for women with ovarian metastases from breast cancer was 26%.
  • In a multivariate analysis, GI surgery at primary surgery for ovarian metastasis was unfavorable prognostic factor.
  • Diagnosis of primary disease known before surgery, primary disease of non-GI or unknown origin and operation at university hospital all had favorable prognostic impact for overall survival.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Detection of non-genital ovarian metastasis at gynecologic surgery is associated with poor prognosis, and prognosis is worse in tumors with GI origin and if the primary is not detected prior to surgery.
  • The results indicate that a thorough patient evaluation is very important before surgery for suspected ovarian neoplasm.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Incidence. Middle Aged. Proportional Hazards Models. Registries. Survival Rate. Sweden / epidemiology

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  • [ErratumIn] Gynecol Oncol. 2007 Jul;106(1):276
  • (PMID = 17184826.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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30. Jeremić K, Berisavac M, Argirović R, Gojnić M, Bosković V, Milenković V, Mostić T: Solitary ovarian metastasis from cutaneous melanoma--case report. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2006;27(4):443-4
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  • [Title] Solitary ovarian metastasis from cutaneous melanoma--case report.
  • A 47-year-old patient with two previous deliveries and three deliberate abortions was admitted to the Institute of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Clinical Center of Serbia with the diagnosis of a uterine myoma and left adnexal mass.
  • Five years previously, she had undergone excision of a malignant melanoma from her left leg.
  • The final histopathological diagnosis was metastatic amelanotic malignant melanoma of the left ovary and uterine myomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / secondary. Ovarian Neoplasms / secondary. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17009650.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CA-125 Antigen
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31. Sanjuán A, Martínez Román S, Martínez-Zamora MA, Pahisa J: Bilateral ovarian metastasis on transposed ovaries from cervical carcinoma. Int J Gynaecol Obstet; 2007 Oct;99(1):64-5
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  • [Title] Bilateral ovarian metastasis on transposed ovaries from cervical carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / secondary. Ovary / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / pathology. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / therapy. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Risk Factors


32. Omranipour R, Abasahl A: Ovarian metastases in colorectal cancer. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2009 Dec;19(9):1524-8
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  • [Title] Ovarian metastases in colorectal cancer.
  • PURPOSE: The aims of this study were to determine the incidence, clinicopathologic features, and prognostic factors of ovarian involvement in primary colorectal cancer (CRC) and also to clear the role of prophylactic oophorectomy.
  • There were 5 metastatic carcinomas, 8 primary ovarian tumors, and 47 normal ovaries in the pathologic evaluation.
  • Patients with ovarian metastases had higher stages of tumor.
  • Ovarian metastases were not related to menstrual status, CRC location, size, differentiation, and mucin production, as well as abnormal morphology of the ovary.
  • The global prevalence of ovarian metastases in CRCs was 2.7%, and isolated ovarian metastases occurred in fewer than half of them.
  • Of 120 women who underwent colectomy alone, 8 (6.6%) developed ovarian metastasis during 2 years of follow-up.
  • Only 3 cases had isolated ovarian metastases.
  • No patient with synchronous or metachronous ovarian metastases from CRC survived 5 years.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Isolated ovarian metastases from primary CRC occur with a low frequency, and this may partially explain the debate regarding prophylactic oophorectomy at the time of curative resection for primary CRC.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / pathology. Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Ovariectomy. Prevalence. Preventive Medicine / methods. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Young Adult


33. Li LY, Zeng SY, Wan L, Ao MH: [Study of the risk factors for ovarian metastasis in patients with endometrial carcinoma]. Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi; 2008 May;43(5):352-5
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  • [Title] [Study of the risk factors for ovarian metastasis in patients with endometrial carcinoma].
  • OBJECTIVE To investigate the risk factors for ovarian metastasis and the possibility of ovarian preservation in patients with endometrial carcinoma.
  • METHODS: The clinicopathological features of endometrial carcinoma patients who were diagnosed and treated initially with a surgical staging procedure from Jan 1997 to Dec 2006 in our hospital were retrospectively reviewed.
  • RESULTS: Of the 638 cases reviewed, 36 (5.6%, 36/638) had ovarian metastasis.
  • Univariate analysis revealed that histological type and grade, myometrial invasion, positive peritoneal fluid cytology, pelvic lymph node metastasis, invasion of parauterine, para-aortic node metastasis and invasion of uterine serosa were significantly associated with ovarian metastasis (P < 0.05); while age, lymph-vascular invasion and cervical invasion were not significantly associated with ovarian metastasis (P > 0.05).
  • Factors predictive of ovarian metastasis by multivariate analysis were ranked as follows according to risk intensity: pelvic lymph node metastasis, positive peritoneal cytology, and histological grade.
  • CONCLUSION: In young patients with grade 1 endometrioid carcinoma, with no pelvic lymph node metastasis, no para-aortic lymph node metastasis, no myometrial invasion and with negative peritoneal fluid cytology, ovarian preservation could be considered.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Endometrioid / pathology. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Female. Humans. Hysterectomy / methods. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Ovary / pathology. Ovary / surgery. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 18953868.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-567X
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua fu chan ke za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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34. Alois M, Valentina P, Andreas G: The "Krukrnberg" tumor in male. Arch Esp Urol; 2005 Nov;58(9):971-3
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  • [Title] The "Krukrnberg" tumor in male.
  • OBJECTIVES: The ovarian metastasis by a gastrointestinal cancer is called Krukenberg tumor.
  • We report a case of metastasis to the testis and epididymis by gastric cancer that can be the analogue in male.
  • METHODS: A patient, submitted to total gastrectomy for a poorly differentiated gastric adenocarcinoma (TNM stage: pT3 GIII N+ M 1) developed one year later a painful swelling of the right hemiscrotum and groin.
  • The palpation revealed a painful mandarine-like mass conglobated in the right testis and epididymis, with a further mass at the external inguinal-ring and multiple little nodes along the spermatic cord.
  • An inguinal orchifuniculectomy was performed and the histological tests described a poorly differentiated, microtubular adenocarcinoma, infiltrating the connective tissue, without spreading to the testis, that was properly structured.
  • The atypical tumor formations expressed carcinoembryonal antigen, but were negative for -HCG and PSA.
  • The immune-histochemical results confirmed the diagnosis of an adenocarcinoma.
  • RESULTS/CONCLUSION: The metastasis in testicles and/or epididymus are rare and cannot be differentiated clinically or by imaging procedures from a primary testicle neoplasia.
  • Only the exact anamnesis of previous tumors and the age can provide some indications.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Epididymis. Genital Neoplasms, Male / secondary. Stomach Neoplasms / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / secondary


35. Togami S, Nomoto M, Higashi M, Goto M, Yonezawa S, Tsuji T, Batra SK, Douchi T: Expression of mucin antigens (MUC1 and MUC16) as a prognostic factor for mucinous adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix. J Obstet Gynaecol Res; 2010 Jun;36(3):588-97
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  • [Title] Expression of mucin antigens (MUC1 and MUC16) as a prognostic factor for mucinous adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix.
  • AIM: Only limited data are available regarding mucin antigen expression in adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix.
  • METHODS: Fifty-two patients with mucinous adenocarcinoma of the endocervical type were enrolled for making clear implication of the mucin antigens.
  • Clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis included International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage, histological grade, nodal and ovarian metastases, overall and disease-free survivals.
  • RESULTS: The majority of mucinous adenocarcinoma showed overexpression of MUC1 and MUC16.
  • Particularly, overexpression of MUC1 was associated with a lower disease-free survival rate and lymph node metastasis.
  • However, absence of expression of MUC1 and/or MUC16 was associated with longer overall and disease-free survival.
  • In cases classified as FIGO stage Ib (n = 35), after adjusting for patient age at diagnosis and stratifying by histological grade, MUC1 and/or MUC 16 overexpression was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival (hazard ratio [HR] = 6.16, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.01-118.5, P < 0.05).
  • After stratifying by ovarian metastasis, MUC1 and/or MUC 16 overexpression was also an independent prognostic factor for disease-free survival (HR = 5.50, 95% CI = 0.82-87.4, P < 0.05).
  • CONCLUSION: The expressions of MUC1 and/or MUC16 may be available as independent prognostic factors for the endocervical type of mucinous adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. CA-125 Antigen / metabolism. Membrane Proteins / metabolism. Mucin-1 / metabolism. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / metabolism. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Middle Aged. Prognosis


36. Minicozzi A, Borzellino G, Momo EN, Segattini C, Pitoni F, Steccanella F, De Manzoni G: [Treatment of the peritoneal carcinomatosis by cytoreductive surgery and intraperitoneal hyperthermic chemotherapy (IHPC): postoperative morbidity and mortality and short-term follow-up]. Ann Ital Chir; 2008 Jul-Aug;79(4):231-9
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  • Primary tumor was ovarian carcinoma in ten patients: four cases presented peritoneal surface malignancies (PSM) after any time from hysteroadnexectomy related to primary tumor, six cases synchronous PSM.
  • Primary tumor was gastric cancer in seven patients: the peritoneal washing was positive in four cases and, during follow-up period after gastrectomy, other two cases presented PSM.
  • One patient was previously treated with ovariectomy for ovaric mass that resulted a Krukenberg's tumor of gastric cancer.
  • Primary tumor was pseudomixoma peritonei in four patients; cytoreductive surgery and IHPC was carried as first line therapy in only one patient.
  • Three patients were previously treated for colon carcinoma.
  • RESULTS: The mean Peritoneal Cancer Index (PCI) was 14.
  • After a median follow-up of 8 months (range 2-34), 14 (58%) patients are alive and 13 are disease free.
  • It' s still debated whether it could be useful or not in colorectal related carcinosis, whereas there is a general agreement in the un uselessness of this technique in gastric cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / secondary. Carcinoma / therapy. Chemotherapy, Cancer, Regional Perfusion. Hyperthermia, Induced. Peritoneal Neoplasms / secondary. Peritoneal Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Length of Stay. Male. Middle Aged. Mitomycin / administration & dosage. Mitomycin / therapeutic use. Peritoneum / surgery. Postoperative Complications. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19093624.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-469X
  • [Journal-full-title] Annali italiani di chirurgia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Ital Chir
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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37. Bayod MJ, Carlón ME, Idoate MA: [Pseudomeigs syndrome in a patient with Krukenberg's tumor]. Rev Med Univ Navarra; 2007 Jul-Sep;51(3):19-22
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  • [Title] [Pseudomeigs syndrome in a patient with Krukenberg's tumor].
  • [Transliterated title] Síndrome de Pseudomeigs en paciente con tumor de Krukenberg.
  • We report the case of a fiftyone-year-old woman with a past medical history of Linfoma no Hodking and a gastric adenocarcinoma with signet ring cells.
  • She came to our institution with a twenty month history of dysnea secondary to pleural effussion, bilateral lower extremity edema and probably had ascitis.
  • The anatomopathological analysis showed bilateral ovarian implants from signet ring cell adenocarcinoma (Krukenberg tumor).
  • This patient developed a PseudoMeigs syndrome consisting on malignant ovarian tumor asociated with ascitis and pleural effusion without malignant cells.
  • Oncological patients who present with ascitis and benign pleural effusion, the diagnosis of PseudoMeigs syndrome should be considered.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Signet Ring Cell / secondary. Krukenberg Tumor / diagnosis. Meigs Syndrome / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary. Ovarian Neoplasms / secondary. Stomach Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Ascites / etiology. Diagnosis, Differential. Diagnostic Imaging. Female. Fibroma / diagnosis. Humans. Lymphoma, Follicular. Middle Aged. Pleural Effusion / etiology

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  • (PMID = 18183782.001).
  • [ISSN] 0556-6177
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista de medicina de la Universidad de Navarra
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Med Univ Navarra
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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38. Chudy B, Łata S: [49 year old patient with staphylococcal sepsis caused by agranulocytosis after polychemotheraphy]. Przegl Lek; 2010;67(5):440-1
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  • This study presents a case of adverse effects of chemotherapeutic agents: alkylating drug (cisplatyna) and taksoin (taxol) on a patient with metastatic cancer of unknown primary which was manifesting with Krukenberg tumor symptoms.
  • The main disease symptoms were caused by bone marrow malignant infiltrations, and pancytopenia in peripheral blood, but mainly staphylococcal sepsis and hemorrhagic diathesis.
  • In conclusion, the need to be cautious while making the decision to implement chemotherapy on patients with very advanced cancer in terms of prolonging their lives was pointed out.
  • [MeSH-major] Agranulocytosis / etiology. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Bone Marrow Neoplasms / secondary. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / drug therapy. Sepsis / etiology. Staphylococcal Infections / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Krukenberg Tumor / diagnosis. Krukenberg Tumor / drug therapy. Krukenberg Tumor / secondary. Middle Aged. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy. Paclitaxel / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 20684357.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-2240
  • [Journal-full-title] Przegla̧d lekarski
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prz. Lek.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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39. Kuwabara Y, Yamada T, Yamazaki K, Du WL, Banno K, Aoki D, Sakamoto M: Establishment of an ovarian metastasis model and possible involvement of E-cadherin down-regulation in the metastasis. Cancer Sci; 2008 Oct;99(10):1933-9
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  • [Title] Establishment of an ovarian metastasis model and possible involvement of E-cadherin down-regulation in the metastasis.
  • Clinical observations of cases of ovarian metastasis suggest that there may be a unique mechanism underlying ovarian-specific metastasis.
  • This study was undertaken to establish an in vivo model of metastasis to the ovary, and to investigate the mechanism of ovarian-specific metastasis.
  • We examined the capacity for ovarian metastasis in eight different human carcinoma cell lines by implantation in female NOD/SCID mice transvenously and intraperitoneally.
  • By transvenous inoculation, only RERF-LC-AI, a poorly differentiated carcinoma cell line, frequently demonstrated ovarian metastasis.
  • By intraperitoneal inoculation, four of the eight cell lines (HGC27, MKN-45, KATO-III, and RERF-LC-AI) metastasized to the ovary.
  • We compared E-cadherin expression among ovarian metastatic cell lines and others.
  • All of these four ovarian metastatic cell lines and HSKTC, a Krukenberg tumor cell line, showed E-cadherin down-regulation and others did not.
  • E-cadherin was then forcibly expressed in RERF-LC-AI, and inhibited ovarian metastasis completely.
  • We also performed histological investigation of clinical ovarian-metastatic tumor cases.
  • About half of all ovarian-metastatic tumor cases showed loss or reduction of E-cadherin expression.
  • These data suggest that E-cadherin down-regulation may be involved in ovarian-specific metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Cadherins / genetics. Disease Models, Animal. Down-Regulation. Ovarian Neoplasms / metabolism. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Carcinoma / genetics. Carcinoma / metabolism. Carcinoma / pathology. Cell Line, Tumor. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Mice. Mice, Inbred NOD. Mice, SCID. Neoplasm Metastasis. Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays

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  • (PMID = 19016752.001).
  • [ISSN] 1349-7006
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cadherins
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40. Wu H, He YL, Cai SR, Zhang CH, Wu WH, Wang Z, Song W, Zhan WH: [Comparison of clinicopathological features and operative prognosis of gastric carcinoma complicated with Krukenberg tumor and with pelvic peritoneal dissemination]. Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2008 Aug 1;46(15):1174-8
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  • [Title] [Comparison of clinicopathological features and operative prognosis of gastric carcinoma complicated with Krukenberg tumor and with pelvic peritoneal dissemination].
  • OBJECTIVE: To compare the clinicopathological characters and operative prognosis of gastric cancer complicated with Krukenberg tumor and with pelvic peritoneal dissemination.
  • METHODS: Thirty-nine female cases of gastric carcinoma with pelvic metastasis were treated operated on between August 1994 and March 2006.
  • Among them, 18 cases were complicated with Krukenberg tumor and 21 cases with pelvic peritoneal dissemination.
  • RESULTS: There was no significant difference in age, tumor location and size, hepatic metastasis, organic encroachment, infiltration degree, positive lymph nodes, differentiated degree, tissue typing, Borrmann typing, value of carcinoembryonic antigen between the two groups (P > 0.05).
  • The rate of P3 (peritoneal dissemination) in the cases of Krukenberg tumor (44.4%) was significantly lower than that in pelvic peritoneal dissemination group (85.7%) (P < 0.01), whereas the focal resection rate (77.8%) and multi-organ dissection rate (55.6%) were significantly higher than in pelvic peritoneal dissemination (38.0%, 23.8%) (P < 0.05).
  • The mean survival in the patients with Krukenberg tumor and pelvic peritoneal dissemination was 20.5, 15.0 months, respectively (P < 0.05).
  • Non-focal resection, pelvic peritoneal dissemination, P3 of peritoneal implantation, hepatic metastasis, organic encroachment, total gastric cancer were unfavorable prognosis factors for all cases.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Compared with pelvic peritoneal dissemination, the gastric cancer with Krukenberg tumor is associated with more limited peritoneal dissemination, higher resection rate and better prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Krukenberg Tumor / pathology. Pelvic Neoplasms / secretion. Peritoneal Neoplasms / secondary. Stomach Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Seeding. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 19094685.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5815
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua wai ke za zhi [Chinese journal of surgery]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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41. Sharma K, Rathi AK, Sood G, Malhotra A, Kumar V, Bahadur AK, Singh K: Metastatic ovarian tumour in patient of carcinoma stomach. Trop Gastroenterol; 2008 Apr-Jun;29(2):112-3
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  • [Title] Metastatic ovarian tumour in patient of carcinoma stomach.
  • Krukenberg tumour (KT) is a metastatic ovarian tumour with primary usually seen in the gastrointestinal tract.
  • Here we report the case of a 50-year old menopausal patient with gastric tumour presenting with solitary metastasis to the ovary within 5 months of primary gastric surgery, for which total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy was done.
  • This case stresses the urgent need for early detection and surveillance of treatable tumours metastasising to the ovary.
  • [MeSH-major] Krukenberg Tumor / secondary. Ovarian Neoplasms / secondary. Stomach Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18972776.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-636X
  • [Journal-full-title] Tropical gastroenterology : official journal of the Digestive Diseases Foundation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Trop Gastroenterol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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42. Bilbao I, Vilallonga R, Allende E, Montero A, Quiroga S, Viladomiu L, Charco R, Margarit C: [Krukenberg's tumor as the first clinical manifestation of fibrolamellar hepatocarcinoma]. Gastroenterol Hepatol; 2008 Jun-Jul;31(6):341-6
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  • [Title] [Krukenberg's tumor as the first clinical manifestation of fibrolamellar hepatocarcinoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Tumor de Krukenberg como manifestación inicial de hepatocarcinoma fibrolamelar.
  • Krukenberg's tumor refers to unilateral or bilateral ovarian metastatic tumors whose origin may be known or unknown.
  • The incidence of this type of tumor is difficult to evaluate but may represent between 3% and 8% of ovarian tumors.
  • In most cases, the primary tumor is identified and is usually digestive (basically gastric or colorectal).
  • There are some references to primary hepatic tumors (gall bladder tumor and hepatocarcinoma) but none to fibrolamellar hepatocarcinoma as the primary tumor.
  • We present the case of a 45-year-old woman who presented with lower hemiabdominal pain and who was diagnosed with Krukenberg's tumor of hepatic origin.
  • Although ovarian involvement in primary digestive tumors is possible, hepatic origin is rare.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / secondary. Krukenberg Tumor / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 18570810.001).
  • [ISSN] 0210-5705
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastroenterología y hepatología
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastroenterol Hepatol
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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43. Mithieux F, Coriat R, De La Fouchardière C, Méeus P, Rivoire M: [Pseudo-Meigs syndrome: particular management of ovarian metastases in colorectal cancer]. Gastroenterol Clin Biol; 2008 Mar;32(3):261-4
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  • [Title] [Pseudo-Meigs syndrome: particular management of ovarian metastases in colorectal cancer].
  • [Transliterated title] Le pseudosyndrome de Meigs, particularité dans la prise en charge des métastases ovariennes de cancer colorectal.
  • Ascites and/or pleural effusion with ovarian metastases in colorectal cancer are usually related to peritoneal carcinomatosis.
  • Pseudo-Meigs syndrome is a characterized by non-malignant ascites and/or pleural effusion caused by pelvic tumors other than solid benign ovarian tumors.
  • We treated two patients who developed this syndrome in a context of colorectal cancer.
  • After ovarian metastasis resection, ascites and pleural diffusion disappeared.
  • In the presence of acellular ascites with ovarian metastases from colorectal cancer, diagnosis of pseudo-Meigs syndrome may allow surgical treatment with curative intent.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology. Meigs Syndrome / therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / secondary


44. Montero A, Allende H, Tallada N, Ramon y Cajal S, Margarit C, Viladomiu L: Fine needle aspiration cytology of massive bilateral ovarian metastasis of fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma. Acta Cytol; 2007 Jul-Aug;51(4):682-3
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  • [Title] Fine needle aspiration cytology of massive bilateral ovarian metastasis of fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 17718158.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
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45. Kim DD, Park IJ, Kim HC, Yu CS, Kim JC: Ovarian metastases from colorectal cancer: a clinicopathological analysis of 103 patients. Colorectal Dis; 2009 Jan;11(1):32-8
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  • [Title] Ovarian metastases from colorectal cancer: a clinicopathological analysis of 103 patients.
  • OBJECTIVE: To improve management of ovarian metastasis through assessment of clinicopathological features and treatment outcomes associated with ovarian metastasis from colorectal cancer.
  • METHOD: We recruited 103 subjects who were diagnosed with ovarian metastasis and subjected to surgery between June 1989 and December 2005.
  • Survival and its associated factors were analysed with a median follow-up of 31 months after ovarian surgery (range 1-129 months).
  • RESULTS: The mean age at diagnosis was 46 years (range 14-72 years), synchronous ovarian metastasis occurred in 74 patients and metachronous in 29 patients.
  • The primary tumour was more commonly associated with the colon rather than the rectum (84/1608, 5.2%vs 19/1534, 1.2%, P < 0.001).
  • The estimated 5-year disease free survival and overall survival rate were 40.1% and 26.6%, respectively.
  • From univariate analysis, lymphovascular invasion (35.6%vs 12.8%, P = 0.034), combined metastasis (50.9%vs 15.6%, P = 0.0035) and bilaterale ovarian metastasis (36.4%vs 10.6%, P = 0.015) were identified as significant poor prognosis factors, and from multivariate analysis combined metastasis and bilaterale ovarian metastasis were significant (P = 0.034 and P = 0.015, respectively).
  • CONCLUSION: This study suggests a role for regular follow-up computed tomography scans within 6 months postoperatively and tumour marker assays for the early detection of ovarian metastasis in premenopausal women after primary surgery, especially in colonic patients with poor prognostic factors.
  • [MeSH-major] Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 18462217.001).
  • [ISSN] 1463-1318
  • [Journal-full-title] Colorectal disease : the official journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Colorectal Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CA-125 Antigen
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46. Botana Rial M, Fernández-Villar A, González Piñeiro A, Leiro Fernández V: [Primary lung adenocarcinoma with ovarian metastasis: a rare presentation of bronchogenic carcinoma]. Arch Bronconeumol; 2009 Nov;45(11):571-2
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  • [Title] [Primary lung adenocarcinoma with ovarian metastasis: a rare presentation of bronchogenic carcinoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Adenocarcinoma de origen pulmonar con enfermedad metástasica en ovario: una forma rara de presentación de carcinoma broncogénico.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Carcinoma, Bronchogenic / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 19467750.001).
  • [ISSN] 1579-2129
  • [Journal-full-title] Archivos de bronconeumología
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Bronconeumol.
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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47. Klein RL, Brown AR, Gomez-Castro CM, Chambers SK, Cragun JM, Grasso-Lebeau L, Lang JE: Ovarian cancer metastatic to the breast presenting as inflammatory breast cancer: a case report and literature review. J Cancer; 2010;1:27-31
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  • [Title] Ovarian cancer metastatic to the breast presenting as inflammatory breast cancer: a case report and literature review.
  • Background. Primary ovarian carcinoma with metastasis to the breast is rare, with only 39 cases reported in the current literature.
  • Ovarian metastasis to the breast presenting as inflammatory breast carcinoma is even more infrequent, with only 6 cases reported.Case.
  • We present a patient who developed metastatic inflammatory cancer of the breast from a stage IIIC papillary serous ovarian adenocarcinoma approximately 1 year after the original diagnosis.
  • Pathologic analysis confirmed the origin of the tumor: a high-grade adenocarcinoma morphologically similar to the previously diagnosed ovarian cancer.
  • In addition, the tumor was strongly positive on immunohistochemistry for CA-125, identical to the ovarian primary.
  • The patient died of diffuse metastasis 5 months after the breast tumor was noted.Conclusion.
  • Although ovarian metastasis to the breast presenting as inflammatory breast cancer is rare, it should be included in the differential diagnosis for any patient with a personal history of ovarian cancer.
  • Accurate differentiation is necessary because treatment differs significantly for patients with ovarian metastasis to the breast, as compared with patients with primary inflammatory breast cancer.
  • Ovarian metastasis to the breast confers a poor prognosis: patient survival ranged from 3 to 18 months, with a median survival of 6 months after the diagnosis of the breast metastasis.

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  • (PMID = 20842221.001).
  • [ISSN] 1837-9664
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2931350
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; breast cancer / breast cancer metastasis / inflammatory breast cancer / ovarian cancer / ovarian cancer metastasis
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48. Ronnett BM, Yemelyanova AV, Vang R, Gilks CB, Miller D, Gravitt PE, Kurman RJ: Endocervical adenocarcinomas with ovarian metastases: analysis of 29 cases with emphasis on minimally invasive cervical tumors and the ability of the metastases to simulate primary ovarian neoplasms. Am J Surg Pathol; 2008 Dec;32(12):1835-53
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  • [Title] Endocervical adenocarcinomas with ovarian metastases: analysis of 29 cases with emphasis on minimally invasive cervical tumors and the ability of the metastases to simulate primary ovarian neoplasms.
  • Clinicopathologic features of 29 cases of synchronous and metachronous endocervical and ovarian tumors (26 HPV-related, 3 unrelated to HPV) were analyzed.
  • In 18 cases, the cervical tumors were clearly invasive; these included 5 clinically evident tumors diagnosed before the ovarian metastases (immediately preoperatively to 7 y), 11 clinically unsuspected tumors diagnosed concurrently in specimens obtained for evaluation of ovarian/pelvic masses, 1 case with concurrent clinically evident cervical and ovarian masses, and 1 clinically occult tumor diagnosed subsequent to the ovarian metastasis.
  • In 11 cases, the cervical tumors were more limited; these included 5 tumors comprised predominantly of adenocarcinoma in situ with small foci of superficial invasion ("microinvasive carcinomas") diagnosed before the ovarian metastases (3 mo to 7 y) and 6 tumors comprised of extensive adenocarcinoma in situ lacking unequivocally recognizable stromal invasion diagnosed before (9 mo to 7 y, n=4), concurrently with (n=1), or subsequent to (n=1) the ovarian metastases.
  • Fifteen cervical tumors involved lower uterine segment corpus endometrium or endomyometrium, including 4 tumors that were minimally invasive or not recognizably invasive in the cervix.
  • The ovarian tumors ranged in size from 2.1 to 30.0 cm (mean/median=12.7/13.5); they were unilateral in 19 cases (65.5%) and 12 of these were unilateral and 10 cm or greater.
  • In 26 cases, including the 19 unilateral tumors, the ovarian tumors exhibited "borderlinelike," confluent glandular, cribriform, and/or villoglandular patterns simulating primary ovarian atypical proliferative (borderline) tumors or well-differentiated carcinomas; these patterns were pure in 24 and admixed with minor infiltrative foci in 2.
  • The ovarian tumors had features typical of metastases (bilateral and infiltrative) in only 3 cases.
  • In all HPV-related cases the paired endocervical and ovarian tumors contained identical HPV types, establishing the ovarian tumors as metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Ovarian Neoplasms / secondary. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / metabolism. DNA, Viral / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. In Situ Hybridization. Middle Aged. Papillomavirus Infections / complications. Papillomavirus Infections / epidemiology. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Receptors, Estrogen / metabolism. Receptors, Progesterone / metabolism


49. Glisić A, Atanacković J: Krukenberg tumor in pregnancy. The lethal outcome. Pathol Oncol Res; 2006;12(2):108-10
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  • [Title] Krukenberg tumor in pregnancy. The lethal outcome.
  • Krukenberg tumor refers to gastrointestinal cancer metastatic to the ovaries and its prognosis is uniformly poor.
  • She presented with a large abdominopelvic tumor.
  • Because of suspected ovarian torsion, we performed urgent surgery.
  • At laparotomy, bilateral ovarian tumors, ascites and gastric cancer located at the cardia and the lesser curvature invading the serosa were identified.
  • We performed right ovariectomy, resection of the left ovary, and gastric biopsy.
  • Histological examination of the specimen yielded diagnosis of Krukenberg tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Krukenberg Tumor / secondary. Ovarian Neoplasms / secondary. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / pathology. Stomach Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [ISSN] 1219-4956
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology oncology research : POR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Oncol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
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50. Rosanò L, Cianfrocca R, Masi S, Spinella F, Di Castro V, Biroccio A, Salvati E, Nicotra MR, Natali PG, Bagnato A: Beta-arrestin links endothelin A receptor to beta-catenin signaling to induce ovarian cancer cell invasion and metastasis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A; 2009 Feb 24;106(8):2806-11
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  • [Title] Beta-arrestin links endothelin A receptor to beta-catenin signaling to induce ovarian cancer cell invasion and metastasis.
  • The activation of endothelin-A receptor (ET(A)R) by endothelin-1 (ET-1) has a critical role in ovarian tumorigenesis and progression.
  • To define the molecular mechanism in ET-1-induced tumor invasion and metastasis, we focused on beta-arrestins as scaffold and signaling proteins of G protein-coupled receptors.
  • Here, we demonstrate that, in ovarian cancer cells, beta-arrestin is recruited to ET(A)R to form two trimeric complexes: one through the interaction with Src leading to epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR) transactivation and beta-catenin Tyr phosphorylation, and the second through the physical association with axin, contributing to release and inactivation of glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3beta and beta-catenin stabilization.
  • We then demonstrate that silencing of both beta-arrestin-1 and beta-arrestin-2 inhibits ET(A)R-driven signaling, causing suppression of Src, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), AKT activation, as well as EGFR transactivation and a complete inhibition of ET-1-induced beta-catenin/TCF transcriptional activity and cell invasion.
  • Finally, ET(A)R is expressed in 85% of human ovarian cancers and is preferentially co-expressed with beta-arrestin-1 in the advanced tumors.
  • In a xenograft model of ovarian metastasis, HEY cancer cells expressing beta-arrestin-1 mutant metastasize at a reduced rate, highlighting the importance of this molecule in promoting metastases.
  • ZD4054 treatment significantly inhibits metastases, suggesting that specific ET(A)R antagonists, by disabling multiple signaling activated by ET(A)R/beta-arrestin, may represent new therapeutic opportunities for ovarian cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Arrestins / metabolism. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Metastasis. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Receptor, Endothelin A / metabolism. Signal Transduction. beta Catenin / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Blotting, Western. Cell Line, Tumor. Female. Humans. Microscopy, Fluorescence. Phosphorylation. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / genetics. Transcriptional Activation. Transplantation, Heterologous. Tyrosine / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19202075.001).
  • [ISSN] 1091-6490
  • [Journal-full-title] Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Arrestins; 0 / Receptor, Endothelin A; 0 / beta Catenin; 0 / beta-arrestin; 42HK56048U / Tyrosine; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2650347
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51. Ishii Y, Itoh N, Takahashi A, Masumori N, Ikeda T, Tsukamoto T: Bladder cancer discovered by ovarian metastasis: cytokeratin expression is useful when making differential diagnosis. Int J Urol; 2005 Jan;12(1):104-7
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  • [Title] Bladder cancer discovered by ovarian metastasis: cytokeratin expression is useful when making differential diagnosis.
  • A 49-year-old woman underwent hysterectomy and bilateral adnexectomy after the diagnosis of a right ovarian tumor with paraaortic and pelvic lymph node metastases.
  • The pathological diagnosis was undifferentiated carcinoma of the ovary.
  • After the operation, a bladder tumor was discovered during the evaluation for microscopic hematuria.
  • The bladder tumor was pathologically diagnosed as transitional cell carcinoma, pT1b, G3.
  • Although the pathological findings of the bladder cancer and ovarian cancer were very similar, we could diagnose primary bladder cancer with ovary and lymph node metastases according to the immunohistochemical staining pattern of cytokeratins 7 and 20.
  • Herein, the clinical usefulness of immunohistochemical staining using cytokeratins for making a differential diagnosis of the origin of a tumor in the pelvic cavity is demonstrated.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / metabolism. Intermediate Filament Proteins / metabolism. Keratins / metabolism. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / diagnosis. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma / secondary. Carcinoma / therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Keratin-20. Keratin-7. Middle Aged. Ovarian Neoplasms / secondary. Ovarian Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 15661064.001).
  • [ISSN] 0919-8172
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Intermediate Filament Proteins; 0 / KRT20 protein, human; 0 / KRT7 protein, human; 0 / Keratin-20; 0 / Keratin-7; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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52. Małgorzata J, Janusz E: [Krukenberg tumor--8 years after surgical treatment of gastric carcinoma]. Ginekol Pol; 2008 Aug;79(8):564-6
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  • [Title] [Krukenberg tumor--8 years after surgical treatment of gastric carcinoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Guz Krukenberga--8 lat po radykalnym leczeniu raka zoładka.
  • The aim of the study was to discuss the case of Krukenberg tumor in a patient, eight years after the diagnosis and surgical treatment of gastric carcinoma.
  • In case of gastric carcinoma diagnosed in women, a regular gynecological examination is necessary due to a high propability of metastases into ovaries, even if the clinical stage of gastric carcinoma is low.
  • [MeSH-major] Krukenberg Tumor / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Second Primary / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Stomach Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Gastrectomy. Humans. Treatment Outcome


53. Morimoto Y, Imai S, Matsumoto T, Kunisue M, Kawasaki S, Yamaguchi K, Okabe M, Kawamoto K, Ito T, Ogasawara K: [A case of Stage IV non-operated advanced breast cancer with local recurrence thirteen years after initial therapy]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2007 Oct;34(10):1693-5
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  • [Title] [A case of Stage IV non-operated advanced breast cancer with local recurrence thirteen years after initial therapy].
  • A 73-year-old woman underwent chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and hormonal therapies for right advanced breast cancer (T4, N3, M1, Stage IV) in 1993.
  • After the interruption of hormonal therapies, the serum levels of tumor markers had been elevated, and she had a right axillary local recurrence and a right ovarian metastasis detected by a FDG-PET/CT in February 2006.
  • The serum levels of tumor markers have been remarkably reduced, and FDG-PET/CT has showed the disappearance of the right axillary local recurrence, and the decrease of FDG accumulation of the right ovarian metastases in February 2007.
  • We present a case of non-operated advanced breast cancer with local recurrence surviving successfully long term when treated with AI.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aromatase Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Ovarian Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 17940393.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aromatase Inhibitors; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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54. Kodama J, Hasengaowa, Kusumoto T, Seki N, Matsuo T, Nakamura K, Hongo A, Hiramatsu Y: Versican expression in human cervical cancer. Eur J Cancer; 2007 Jun;43(9):1460-6
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  • [Title] Versican expression in human cervical cancer.
  • Versican expression may enhance tumour invasion and metastasis.
  • However, the expressions of versican in cervical cancer have seldom been characterised.
  • Stromal versican expression was significantly higher in patients with lymph node metastasis (p<0.0001).
  • Epithelial versican expression was significantly higher in patients with non-squamous cell cercinoma (p=0.0003), lymph-vascular space invasion (p=0.046), lymph node metastasis (p=0.009) and ovarian metastasis (p=0.0001).
  • Multivariate analysis showed that high epithelial versican expression was an independent prognostic factor for disease-free survival.
  • Versican enrichment of the tumour tissue may be associated with progression in cervical cancer.
  • Versican expression can serve as an indicator of poor prognosis in patients with cervical cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / metabolism. Versicans / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis

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  • (PMID = 17446061.001).
  • [ISSN] 0959-8049
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 126968-45-4 / Versicans
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55. Hornung M, Vogel P, Schubert T, Schlitt HJ, Bolder U: A case of virilization induced by a Krukenberg tumor from gastric cancer. World J Surg Oncol; 2008;6:19
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  • [Title] A case of virilization induced by a Krukenberg tumor from gastric cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: The Krukenberg tumor represents ovarian metastases associated with gastric cancer or other gastrointestinal malignancies.
  • Histology shows typical mucus-production and numerous signet-ring cells.
  • Occasionally Krukenberg tumors have endocrine function and, as a consequence, some patients demonstrate hirsutism and virilization.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: Here we report a case of virilization associated with an extensive gastric adenocarcinoma and Krukenberg tumor in a premenopausal woman.
  • Virilization occurred three months after diagnosis of gastric cancer and the ovarian tumors.
  • CONCLUSION: Despite the limitation in survival time early oopherectomy should be considered to prevent the development of virilization even in palliative situations if a Krukenberg tumor is diagnosed with gastric cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Signet Ring Cell / therapy. Krukenberg Tumor / therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / therapy. Virilism / etiology

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  • (PMID = 18279511.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-7819
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2275731
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56. Amendolara M, Barbarino C, Bucca D, Guarnieri F, Novello G, Romano MF, Vacca U, Ranzato R: [Krukenberg tumour: diagnostic findings and surgical therapy. Recent acquisitions]. Chir Ital; 2007 Jul-Aug;59(4):591-5
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  • [Title] [Krukenberg tumour: diagnostic findings and surgical therapy. Recent acquisitions].
  • [Transliterated title] Tumore di Krukenberg: riscontro diagnostico e terapia chirurgica. Recenti acquisizioni.
  • The authors report on their experience with two cases of Krukenberg's tumour treated at Chioggia Hospital in patients admitted for pelvic tumours.
  • The clinical manifestation of Krukenberg's tumour is mainly related to the presence of the pelvic mass even in advanced forms of gastrointestinal cancers.
  • The authors stress the importance of an adequate follow-up of premenopausal patients with a previous gastrectomy for adenocarcinoma because the incidence of ovarian metastases is quite frequent and influences the prognosis.
  • They consider a more valid policy to be a thorough follow-up in women with a previous gastrectomy for adenocarcinoma because the priority must be accorded to diagnosing secondary lesions so as to be able to perform an ovariectomy which may improve the prognosis.
  • The prognosis may be distinctly unfavourable as in one of the cases reported by the Authors involving a very rare form of secondary lesion of the bone marrow and consequent medullary aplasia, with the onset of severe haemorrhages in several areas leading to the patient's death.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Gastrectomy. Krukenberg Tumor / secondary. Ovarian Neoplasms / secondary. Stomach Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17966785.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-4773
  • [Journal-full-title] Chirurgia italiana
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chir Ital
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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57. Kim MJ, Chung HH, Kim JW, Park NH, Song YS, Kang SB: Uterine corpus involvement as well as histologic type is an independent predictor of ovarian metastasis in uterine cervical cancer. J Gynecol Oncol; 2008 Sep;19(3):181-4
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  • [Title] Uterine corpus involvement as well as histologic type is an independent predictor of ovarian metastasis in uterine cervical cancer.
  • OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the independent risk factors for ovarian metastasis in cervical cancer.
  • METHODS: Among 1,040 consecutive patients who underwent operation for cervical cancer at our institution from January 1998 to July 2007, a total of 625 patients had both ovaries removed during primary operation were retrospectively selected by medical records.
  • In order to determine clinicopathological risk factors for ovarian metastasis, we analyzed patients' demographics, FIGO stage, and other pathologic findings.
  • The Chi-square or Fisher's extract tests were used to compare any association of clinicopathologic variables with ovarian metastasis.
  • For multivariate analysis, the log regression models were used to determine independent predictors for ovarian metastasis.
  • RESULTS: Overall, ovarian metastasis was detected in fourteen (2.2%) patients: two of 473 patients with squamous cell carcinoma (0.4%) and twelve of 151 patients with non-squamous cell carcinoma (7.9%), respectively (p<0.0001).
  • Univariate analysis represents age (</=45 vs. >45 years: p=0.347), histologic types (squamous vs. non-squamous, p<0.0001), FIGO stages (IA1-IIA </=4 cm vs. IB2-IIB >4 cm, p=0.054), stromal invasion (</=1/2 vs. >1/2, p=0.788), lymph node metastasis (positive vs. negative, p=0.007), parametrium (involved vs. uninvolved, p=0.145), upper vagina (involved vs. uninvolved, p=0.003), uterine corpus (involved vs. uninvolved, p<0.0001), and margin status (involved vs. uninvolved, p=0.017).
  • By multivariate analysis, uterine corpus involvement was the only independent risk factor for ovarian metastasis (p=0.008), in addition to histologic types (p<0.0001).
  • CONCLUSION: Based on our study, uterine involvement of cervical cancer is an independent predictor for ovarian metastasis, except histologic types.
  • Ovarian preservation in cervical cancer may be safely performed only when no involvement of uterine corpus is present.

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  • (PMID = 19471574.001).
  • [ISSN] 2005-0380
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Gynecol Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2676471
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Adenocarcinoma / Cervical cancer / Ovarian metastasis / Squamous cell carcinoma
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58. Sánchez Lihón J: [Krukenberg ovary tumor pathological clinical study of 56 cases in the Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Neoplasicas (National Cancer Institute)]. Rev Gastroenterol Peru; 2009 Jul-Sep;29(3):209-17
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  • [Title] [Krukenberg ovary tumor pathological clinical study of 56 cases in the Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Neoplasicas (National Cancer Institute)].
  • [Transliterated title] Tumor de krukenberg del ovario: estudio clinico patologico de 56 casos en el Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Neoplasicas.
  • OBJECTIVE: We report 56 cases of ovary Krukenberg tumor at Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades NeoplAsicas en relation to microscopic diagnosis, primary origin and clinicopathologic correlation.
  • The most frecuent primary tumor was stomach 33 (58.9%) cases.
  • 21 patients had frozen section.11(52.3%) cases the primary carcinoma was found during an operation for the ovary tumor and the most frecuent was stomach 9/21.
  • 35 cases the tumor was bilateral the largest dimension was 30 x 20 cm microscopic examination showed variety of patterns.the survival data, follow up and prognosis is bad.
  • CONCLUSIONS: It is important the correct diagnosis of Krukenberg tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Krukenberg Tumor / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19898592.001).
  • [ISSN] 1022-5129
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista de gastroenterología del Perú : órgano oficial de la Sociedad de Gastroenterología del Perú
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Gastroenterol Peru
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Peru
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59. Koyama T, Mikami Y, Saga T, Tamai K, Togashi K: Secondary ovarian tumors: spectrum of CT and MR features with pathologic correlation. Abdom Imaging; 2007 Nov;32(6):784-95
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  • [Title] Secondary ovarian tumors: spectrum of CT and MR features with pathologic correlation.
  • The ovaries represent common sites for metastatic disease.
  • The common primary sites for metastatic disease to the ovaries include the colon, stomach, breast, and the genitourinary tract.
  • Ovarian metastasis may occasionally represent the initial manifestation of disease, especially in cancers of the gastrointestinal tract.
  • The accurate diagnosis of this condition is always crucial since the misinterpretation of such tumors may cause significant adverse consequences for patients.
  • CT and MR features of secondary ovarian tumors differ according to the origins of the primary malignancies.
  • The great majority of metastases from gastric cancer are Krukenberg tumors, which are typically bilateral and characterized by lobulated solid tumors.
  • Metastases from colon cancer are usually cystic tumors with solid components of variable size.
  • Metastases from appendiceal tumor may present as ruptured mucinous ovarian tumors associated with pseudomyxoma peritonei.
  • Metastatic tumors from breast cancer are characterized by the relatively small size of the lesion.
  • Ovarian involvement by hematologic malignancies is typically bilateral, homogeneous solid masses.
  • Recognition of radiologic features of a variety of secondary ovarian tumors is beneficial for suspecting the secondary tumors under certain clinical conditions, and thus determining the appropriate management of the patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / secondary. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 17318680.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-0509
  • [Journal-full-title] Abdominal imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Abdom Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
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60. Jalón Monzón A, Alvarez Múgica M, Bulnes Vázquez V, González Alvarez RC, García Rodríguez J, Martín Benito JL, Ferrer Barriendo J, Regadera Sejas FJ: [Ovarian metastasis of a primary renal cell carcinoma]. Arch Esp Urol; 2008 May;61(4):534-7
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  • [Title] [Ovarian metastasis of a primary renal cell carcinoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Metástasis ovárica de carcinoma de células renales primario.
  • OBJECTIVE: We report one case of ovarian metastasis secondary to a renal clear cell carcinoma.
  • METHODS/RESULTS: 52 year-old consulting for metrorrhagia with the initial diagnosis of primary ovarian carcinoma.
  • Tumor dissemination work up tests reported a renal mass suggestive of ovarian metastasis.
  • Final diagnosis was renal clear cell carcinoma with ovarian metastasis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Metastases to the ovary pose a diagnostic problem in their interpretation, especially when they show a similar histology to the primary ovarian tumor.
  • Due to therapeutic and prognostic implications, it is very important to differentiate if it is a primary ovarian tumor or a metastasis from a renal carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Renal Cell / secondary. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 18592775.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-0614
  • [Journal-full-title] Archivos españoles de urología
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Esp. Urol.
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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61. Sallinen H, Heikura T, Laidinen S, Kosma VM, Heinonen S, Ylä-Herttuala S, Anttila M: Preoperative angiopoietin-2 serum levels: a marker of malignant potential in ovarian neoplasms and poor prognosis in epithelial ovarian cancer. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2010 Dec;20(9):1498-505
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  • [Title] Preoperative angiopoietin-2 serum levels: a marker of malignant potential in ovarian neoplasms and poor prognosis in epithelial ovarian cancer.
  • INTRODUCTION: The aims of the study were to explore the levels of angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1) and angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) in patients with benign, borderline, or malignant epithelial ovarian tumors and to compare them to those of healthy controls.
  • In addition, we aimed to study how Ang-1 and Ang-2 levels predict the clinical course and survival of patients with epithelial ovarian cancer.
  • METHODS: We enrolled 150 patients with ovarian neoplasms and 34 women with healthy ovaries in this study.
  • Furthermore, we measured the levels of Ang-1 and Ang-2 in patients having an ovarian metastasis or another cancer (n = 29).
  • Serum samples were collected preoperatively at the time of diagnosis, and Ang-1 and Ang-2 levels were measured with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
  • RESULTS: Angiopoietin-1 and Ang-2 levels were significantly elevated in serum samples of patients with ovarian carcinoma compared with healthy controls (P = 0.0005 and P < 0.0005, respectively).
  • In addition, Ang-2 levels were significantly higher in patients with ovarian carcinoma compared with patients with benign (P < 0.0005) or borderline ovarian tumors (P = 0.011).
  • In receiver operating characteristic analysis, the area under the curve for serum Ang-2 (0.77) was greater than Ang-1 (0.60) but lower than for cancer antigen 125 (0.95) to differentiate ovarian cancer from healthy control.
  • High serum levels of Ang-1 and Ang-2 were associated with primary residual tumor more than 1 cm after debulking surgery, and high Ang-2 levels correlated positively with an advanced tumor stage (P = 0.042).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Patients with ovarian cancer have higher serum levels of angiopoietins than patients with benign or borderline tumors reflecting the increased angiogenesis.
  • These results also suggest that Ang-2 may serve as an angiogenic marker of decreased patient survival in ovarian cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiopoietin-2 / blood. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Angiopoietin-1 / analysis. Angiopoietin-1 / blood. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Case-Control Studies. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial / blood. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial / mortality. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial / surgery. Preoperative Period. Prognosis. Survival Analysis. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 21119365.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-1438
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiopoietin-1; 0 / Angiopoietin-2; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; Ovarian epithelial cancer
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62. Choi HJ, Lee JH, Kang S, Seo SS, Choi JI, Lee S, Park SY: Contrast-enhanced CT for differentiation of ovarian metastasis from gastrointestinal tract cancer: stomach cancer versus colon cancer. AJR Am J Roentgenol; 2006 Sep;187(3):741-5
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  • [Title] Contrast-enhanced CT for differentiation of ovarian metastasis from gastrointestinal tract cancer: stomach cancer versus colon cancer.
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of our study was to determine whether the CT findings of ovarian metastasis from stomach cancer differ from those of ovarian metastasis from colon cancer.
  • CONCLUSION: On contrast-enhanced CT scans, ovarian metastatic lesions from stomach cancer appear more solid than, more frequently have dense enhancement of the solid portion, and are smaller than ovarian metastatic lesions from colon cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Colonic Neoplasms / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / radiography. Ovarian Neoplasms / secondary. Stomach Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Contrast Media / administration & dosage. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Iohexol / analogs & derivatives. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16928939.001).
  • [ISSN] 1546-3141
  • [Journal-full-title] AJR. American journal of roentgenology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJR Am J Roentgenol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; 4419T9MX03 / Iohexol; 712BAC33MZ / iopromide
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63. Gold JS, Jaques DP, Bentrem DJ, Shah MA, Tang LH, Brennan MF, Coit DG: Outcome of patients with known metastatic gastric cancer undergoing resection with therapeutic intent. Ann Surg Oncol; 2007 Feb;14(2):365-72
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  • [Title] Outcome of patients with known metastatic gastric cancer undergoing resection with therapeutic intent.
  • BACKGROUND: Metastatic gastric cancer has a dismal prognosis.
  • We identified a subset of patients where surgical resection with therapeutic intent was undertaken in the setting of known metastatic disease.
  • METHODS: Review of a prospectively maintained database of gastric cancer patients at a single institution over a 19-year period was performed.
  • RESULTS: Thirty-seven patients with metastatic disease known prior to resection with therapeutic intent were identified out of 3384 patients with gastric cancer (1%).
  • Twelve patients had positive peritoneal cytology as the only evidence of metastasis, 21 had gross metastasis limited to peritoneal surfaces, one had peritoneal and ovarian metastasis, one had liver metastasis, one had retropancreatic lymph node metastasis, and one had a malignant pleural effusion.
  • The median time from diagnosis to resection was 4.5 months (range 1-22) in patients receiving preoperative chemotherapy.
  • Predictors of worse prognosis were cytologic or pathologic evidence of persistent metastatic disease at the time of resection or at laparoscopy within six weeks of resection (P < .01), N3 disease (P = .03), and total gastrectomy or additional organ resection (P = .04).
  • Metastatic disease as evidenced by cytology only was not associated with improved prognosis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Highly selected patients with metastatic gastric cancer undergoing surgical resection with therapeutic intent have a relatively poor prognosis.
  • Persistent detectable metastatic disease after preoperative chemotherapy portends a particularly poor prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Stomach Neoplasms / secondary. Stomach Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17146744.001).
  • [ISSN] 1068-9265
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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64. Skarf LM, Dezube BJ, Bryan B, Berkenblit A: Ovarian carcinoma with thyroid metastases causing clinical hypothyroidism: a case report. Gynecol Oncol; 2006 Aug;102(2):394-6
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  • [Title] Ovarian carcinoma with thyroid metastases causing clinical hypothyroidism: a case report.
  • BACKGROUND: Ovarian cancer is known to metastasize to the thyroid gland.
  • Despite an incidence of ovarian metastasis to the thyroid of 3-15%, clinical hypothyroidism resulting from such metastasis has not yet been reported.
  • We present a case of metastatic ovarian cancer to the thyroid resulting in clinical hypothyroidism.
  • CASE: A 55-year-old woman with recurrent papillary adenocarcinoma of the ovary presented with fatigue, abdominal distention, lymphedema, and depression.
  • Thyroid stimulating hormone was markedly elevated, and thyroid biopsy demonstrated bilateral metastatic ovarian carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSION: Although uncommon, metastatic disease to the thyroid should be considered when evaluating a patient with advanced ovarian cancer and clinical hypothyroidism.
  • [MeSH-major] Hypothyroidism / etiology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / complications. Thyroid Neoplasms / secondary


65. Ma YX, Ye F, Chen HZ, Lü WG, Xie X: [Study of apoptosis and Fas expression of peritoneal fluid and peripheral blood T lymphocytes in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer and their relationship with CA125]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi; 2007 Mar 20;87(11):734-9
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  • [Title] [Study of apoptosis and Fas expression of peritoneal fluid and peripheral blood T lymphocytes in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer and their relationship with CA125].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the apoptosis and Fas (CD95) expression of T lymphocytes from the peripheral blood and peritoneal fluid of the patients with ovarian cancer and their relationship with CA125.
  • Peripheral blood samples were obtained from the following objects respectively: patients with stage III - IV ovarian cancer (n = 18) before and after treatment, patients with stage I - II ovarian cancer (n = 15), patients with benign ovarian tumor (n = 18), patients with Krukenberg tumor (n = 6) and normal control (n = 20).
  • Peritoneal fluids were obtained from all the patients with ovarian cancer, Krukenberg tumor and ten patients with benign ovarian tumor.
  • Level of serum CA125 of the patients with ovarian cancer was assessed.
  • RESULTS: In the patients with stage III - IV ovarian cancer, the apoptosis level of the peripheral blood T lymphocytes was 5.55 (3.57 - 9.62)%, significantly higher than those from the patients with stage I - II ovarian cancer, patients with benign ovarian tumor, controls (P < 0.008 in all instances) and the patients with stage III - IV ovarian cancer after treatment (P < 0.05).
  • The intensity of Fas expression of the peripheral blood T lymphocytes from the patients with stage III - IV ovarian cancer was 51 +/- 10, significantly higher than that from controls (P < 0.05).
  • In peritoneal fluid, the apoptosis rates of T lymphocytes, positive rate and intensity of Fas expression on T lymphocytes from patients with stage I - II and stage III - IV ovarian cancer were 17.41 (7.06 - 24.56)%, (57 +/- 16)%, (55 +/- 11)% and 34.06 (17.03 - 44.65)%, (66 +/- 12)%, (70 +/- 24)%, respectively, increased significantly compared with those from patients with benign ovarian tumor, which were 0.78 (0.67 - 1.44)%, (37 +/- 6)%, 43 +/- 6, respectively (P < 0.01 in all instances).
  • The apoptosis level and positive rate of Fas expression on peritoneal fluid T lymphocytes from patients with stage III - IV ovarian cancer were significantly higher than those from patients with Krukenberg tumor (P < 0.01).
  • There was a positive correlation between the serum CA125 level and the apoptosis level of peritoneal fluid T cell in the patients with stage I - II ovarian cancer (r = 0.77, P = 0.009).
  • For ovarian cancer, the apoptosis level of peritoneal fluid T lymphocytes from patients with the serum CA125 > 500 KU/L was higher than that from the patients with the serum CA125 < or = 500 KU/L (P = 0.009).
  • CONCLUSIONS:. (1) Extraordinarily increased apoptosis of T cells may play an important role in the development of systemic and celiac immunodeficiency in the patients with ovarian cancer.
  • In contrast with the patients with Krukenberg tumor, the patients with advanced ovarian cancer hare higher percentage of apoptotic peritoneal fluid T lymphocytes, which shows the particularity of local immunity defect. (2) For the patients with ovarian cancer, efficient treatment can decrease the percentage of apoptotic peripheral blood T lymphocytes. (3) The increased positive rate and intensity of Fas expression on peritoneal fluid T lymphocytes stressed the significance of Fas interference in the treatment of ovarian cancer. (4) Level of serum CA125 can reflect the celiac immunity defection in patients with ovarian cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD95 / biosynthesis. Apoptosis. Ascitic Fluid / metabolism. CA-125 Antigen / biosynthesis. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. T-Lymphocytes / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Fas Ligand Protein / biosynthesis. Female. Flow Cytometry. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging


66. Rabban JT, Barnes M, Chen LM, Powell CB, Crawford B, Zaloudek CJ: Ovarian pathology in risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomies from women with BRCA mutations, emphasizing the differential diagnosis of occult primary and metastatic carcinoma. Am J Surg Pathol; 2009 Aug;33(8):1125-36
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  • [Title] Ovarian pathology in risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomies from women with BRCA mutations, emphasizing the differential diagnosis of occult primary and metastatic carcinoma.
  • Risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO) is an effective prophylactic procedure for women with mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes, both of which confer an increased lifetime risk for ovarian, tubal, peritoneal, and breast cancer.
  • In addition to lowering this risk, RRSO also offers the opportunity to detect occult early-stage fallopian tube or ovarian carcinoma.
  • The differential diagnosis of occult tubal/ovarian cancer includes a spectrum of benign tubal and ovarian alterations and also occult metastatic breast cancer, although only rare cases of the latter have been reported in RRSO.
  • Neoadjuvant breast cancer chemotherapy may contribute to diagnostic difficulty due to treatment-induced cytologic alterations.
  • With the aim of elucidating features which may help with differential diagnosis, this study reports the incidence and pathologic features of benign ovarian alterations, benign ovarian tumors, and occult primary and metastatic malignancies in prophylactic oophorectomies from 108 women with a BRCA mutation and from 35 women with other strong risk factors for hereditary breast/ovarian carcinoma.
  • We direct particular emphasis on morphologic features of primary ovarian lesions that may mimic occult metastatic breast cancer.
  • We also evaluate histologic alterations due to neoadjuvant breast cancer chemotherapy in the ovary and fallopian tube of patients who received such treatment immediately preceding RRSO.
  • Comparison is made to ovarian metastases of breast cancer in our hospital-based population of breast cancer patients, none of whom underwent RRSO.
  • Overall, 69% of RRSO patients had a personal history of breast cancer.
  • Neoadjuvant breast cancer chemotherapy was administered in 15%.
  • Occult primary carcinoma occurred in 7 (6.5%) BRCA patients (5 in fallopian tube, 1 in fallopian tube and ovary, 1 in ovary).
  • Ovarian metastasis of breast cancer occurred in 1 (1%) BRCA patient undergoing RRSO and in up to a similar proportion (0.8%) of the hospital-based population of breast cancer patients.
  • The metastasis in the RRSO patient was clinically occult, unilateral, 0.2 cm, and demonstrated mild atypia without mitoses.
  • In contrast, ovarian metastases in the non-RRSO population were all clinically detected, bilateral, large, and exhibited well-developed malignant cytologic features.
  • None of the normal cell types in the ovary or tube demonstrated any cytologic alterations in RRSO patients who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
  • The main morphologic mimics of metastasis with superimposed chemotherapy-induced alterations in RRSO were stromal hyperthecosis (n=8), nodular hyperthecosis (n=2), adrenal rests (n=3), hilus cell nodules (n=43), and hilus cell hyperplasia (n=4).
  • Occult primary ovarian carcinoma was reliably distinguished from ovarian metastases of breast cancer by WT-1+, p53+, mammaglobin-, GCDPF-immunoprofile.
  • These results demonstrate that evaluation of RRSO specimens requires awareness of a spectrum of ovarian lesions which may mimic occult primary or metastatic carcinoma; awareness of the masquerading effects of neoadjuvant chemotherapy; and awareness of the potential morphologic differences between occult metastatic breast cancer in RRSO and non-RRSO specimens.
  • [MeSH-major] Genes, BRCA1. Genes, BRCA2. Ovarian Neoplasms / genetics. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / prevention & control
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Fallopian Tubes / surgery. Female. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Humans. Mutation. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / genetics. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / prevention & control. Ovariectomy. Ovary / drug effects. Ovary / pathology. Risk Factors


67. Ezem BU, Osuagwu CC, Onyiaorah IV: Krukenberg tumour simulating uterine fibroids and pelvic inflammatory disease. Niger J Clin Pract; 2010 Sep;13(3):336-7
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  • [Title] Krukenberg tumour simulating uterine fibroids and pelvic inflammatory disease.
  • OBJECTIVE: To report a case of cancer of the colon which presented as secondaries to the ovaries.
  • SUMMARY: The case presented is that of a 39-year-old female who presented with lower abdominal pain and a multinodular pelvic mass which led to an initial diagnosis of multiple uterine fibroids and pelvic inflammatory disease.
  • Laparotomy revealed carcinoma of the colon with bilateral krukenberg's tumour and an insignificant fibroleiomyoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Colonic Neoplasms / pathology. Krukenberg Tumor / pathology. Leiomyoma / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Abdominal Pain / etiology. Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 20857797.001).
  • [ISSN] 1119-3077
  • [Journal-full-title] Nigerian journal of clinical practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Niger J Clin Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Nigeria
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68. Oranratanaphan S, Manchana T, Sirisabya N: Clinicopathologic variables and survival comparison of patients with synchronous endometrial and ovarian cancers versus primary endometrial cancer with ovarian metastasis. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev; 2008 Jul-Sep;9(3):403-7
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  • [Title] Clinicopathologic variables and survival comparison of patients with synchronous endometrial and ovarian cancers versus primary endometrial cancer with ovarian metastasis.
  • OBJECTIVES: To determine the clinicopathologic variables and survival in the patients with synchronous endometrial and ovarian cancer (synchronous group) compared to the patients with primary endometrial cancer with ovarian metastasis (metastatic group).
  • METHODS: The medical records of 423 endometrial cancer patients who received primary surgery were reviewed.
  • Fourteen patients were diagnosed as synchronous group while 49 patients were diagnosed as metastatic group.
  • RESULTS: The median age in synchronous group was significantly younger than metastatic group (47 versus 56 years).
  • Synchronous group had significantly higher incidence of low grade tumor and lower incidence of deep myometrial invasion.
  • All patients in synchronous group presented in stage I endometrial cancer.
  • Moreover, most patients (85.7%) presented in early stage ovarian cancer and only 14.3% in advanced stage ovarian cancer.
  • Synchronous group had better disease free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) than metastatic group.
  • CONCLUSION: The patients in synchronous group were younger, more nulliparous and had a better prognosis than the patients in the metastatic group.
  • [MeSH-major] Endometrial Neoplasms / mortality. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / mortality. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / mortality. Ovarian Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Chi-Square Distribution. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Probability. Prognosis. Registries. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment. Statistics, Nonparametric. Survival Analysis. Thailand

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  • (PMID = 18990010.001).
  • [ISSN] 2476-762X
  • [Journal-full-title] Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention : APJCP
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Thailand
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69. Al-Agha OM, Nicastri AD: An in-depth look at Krukenberg tumor: an overview. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2006 Nov;130(11):1725-30
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  • [Title] An in-depth look at Krukenberg tumor: an overview.
  • Krukenberg tumor is an uncommon metastatic tumor of the ovary.
  • This article provides an overview of the major pathologic manifestations of Krukenberg tumor, patient characteristics, clinical and laboratory features of the disease, prognostic factors, and current knowledge about its pathogenesis.
  • Pathologists have to be familiar with the diagnostic histopathologic features of the tumor and its principal differential diagnoses.
  • Awareness of the diagnostic manifestations of the tumor leads to the correct diagnosis and prevents tumor misclassification, thus avoiding improper clinical management.
  • The article also addresses the potential clinical utility of serum CA 125 in patients with Krukenberg tumors.
  • Prognosis of Krukenberg tumor is still very poor but our review of the literature reveals several factors that appear to have an impact on survival.
  • There is no established treatment for Krukenberg tumors.
  • A national registry and prospective studies are needed to set a therapeutic approach for Krukenberg tumors in the hope of improving the survival rate.
  • [MeSH-major] Krukenberg Tumor / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] CA-125 Antigen / blood. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Gynecologic Surgical Procedures. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Mortality. Neoplasm Metastasis. Prognosis. Survival Analysis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17076540.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CA-125 Antigen
  • [Number-of-references] 29
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70. Oliver R, Dasgupta C, Coker A, Al-Okati D, Weekes AR: Ovarian malignant melanoma: unusual presentation of a solitary metastasis. Gynecol Oncol; 2005 Nov;99(2):412-4
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  • [Title] Ovarian malignant melanoma: unusual presentation of a solitary metastasis.
  • BACKGROUND: Malignant melanomas of the ovary are rare with unpredictable clinical and biological behavior.
  • We present this case report of a metastatic ovarian malignant melanoma, where the ovary was the first site of relapse after 10 years of remission.
  • CASE: A 58-year-old postmenopausal woman was incidentally found to have an abdominal mass, 10 years after removal of a cutaneous malignant melanoma lesion.
  • Ultrasound and CT scan revealed an adnexal mass, which was found to be a solitary ovarian tumor at laparotomy.
  • Histology confirmed malignant melanoma metastasis.
  • CONCLUSION: Relapse after a prolonged period of remission, presenting, as an isolated ovarian metastasis is an unusual presentation of malignant melanoma.
  • As illustrated by this case report, a differential diagnosis of a metastatic malignant melanoma must be considered.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / secondary. Ovarian Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16112175.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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71. Krichen Makni S, Abbes K, Khanfir A, Frikha M, Sellami Boudawara T: [Metastatic signet ring cell carcinoma to the breast from stomach]. Cancer Radiother; 2007 Sep;11(5):276-9
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  • [Title] [Metastatic signet ring cell carcinoma to the breast from stomach].
  • Metastatic tumors in the breast are quite rare and constitute 0.5 to 6% of all breast malignancies.
  • The most frequent primitive tumors are lymphoma, leukaemia and malignant melanoma.
  • A gastric tumor was discovered intraoperatively with ovarian metastasis and peritoneal carcinosis.
  • The pathological examination revealed a gastric signet ring cell carcinoma with an infiltration of the right ovary.
  • The histologic examination corresponded to a mammary metastasis by a signet ring cell carcinoma from stomach.
  • The objective of our work is to discuss through this observation the anatomoclinical and evolutionary characteristics of breast metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Signet Ring Cell / secondary. Stomach Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Breast / pathology. Female. Gastric Mucosa / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Krukenberg Tumor / pathology. Mastectomy. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / secondary. Stomach / pathology. Time Factors. Ultrasonography, Mammary


72. Zamecnik M, Voltr L, Stuk J, Chlumska A: Krukenberg tumor with yolk sac tumor differentiation. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2008 Apr;27(2):223-8
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  • [Title] Krukenberg tumor with yolk sac tumor differentiation.
  • An unusual case of bilateral Krukenberg tumor with foci of yolk sac tumor (YST) differentiation occurring in a 50-year-old patient is reported.
  • The primary tumor was in the gastric antrum, and it showed morphology of poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma with diffuse and solid growth pattern.
  • In the ovarian metastases, YST element showed microcystic/reticular and solid patterns, whereas the adenocarcinoma component was of diffuse type with signet ring cells and with some undifferentiated areas.
  • The case represents further example of the somatic cell-derived tumor with focal germ cell-type differentiation and the first report of YST differentiation in Krukenberg tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Endodermal Sinus Tumor / pathology. Krukenberg Tumor / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoembryonic Antigen / metabolism. Cell Differentiation. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Keratin-20 / metabolism. Keratin-7 / metabolism. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 18317220.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen; 0 / Keratin-20; 0 / Keratin-7
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73. Takagi T, Nakase Y, Fukumoto K, Miyagaki T, Yamakawa N, Taniike K, Kobayashi Y, Kanemitsu D, Kassai K, Sakamoto K, Takenaka S, Itani K: [A patient with metachronous ovarian metastases of signet-ring cell carcinoma of the transverse colon showing long-term survival after surgery]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2009 Nov;36(12):2260-2
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  • [Title] [A patient with metachronous ovarian metastases of signet-ring cell carcinoma of the transverse colon showing long-term survival after surgery].
  • Since circumferential cancer was detected in the transverse colon by lower digestive tract endoscopy, the patient was hospitalized for surgical treatment.
  • Transverse colectomy (Cur A) was performed, histopathological examination indicated signet-ring cell carcinoma of the transverse colon, and the lesion was diagnosed as type 4, SS, ly3, v0, n1 (+), Stage III a.
  • The patient was periodically followed-up after surgery, but a mass was detected in the left ovary by CT after 1 year and 6 months, and bilateral ovariectomy was performed with a diagnosis of ovarian metastasis.
  • The histopathological diagnosis was signet-ring cell carcinoma, and the ovarian lesions were judged to be metastases of the transverse colon carcinoma.
  • She was admitted with ileus due to peritoneal metastasis 4 years and 10 months after the initial surgery, and, despite of the surgery, she died due to carcinoma 5 years after the initial surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Signet Ring Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Signet Ring Cell / secondary. Colon, Transverse. Colonic Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / secondary. Ovarian Neoplasms / secondary. Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20037389.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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74. Toiyama Y, Inoue Y, Hiro J, Ojima E, Watanabe H, Miki C, Kusunoki M: Alteration of the chemoresistant gene expression during chemotherapy for colon cancer: a molecular case report. Oncol Rep; 2008 Mar;19(3):755-9
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  • [Title] Alteration of the chemoresistant gene expression during chemotherapy for colon cancer: a molecular case report.
  • Chemotherapy remains the main choice of treatment for the management of unresectable or metastatic colorectal cancer.
  • However, drug resistance is a major problem, limiting the effectiveness of the chemotherapies presently used to treat cancer.
  • During treatment, drug resistance can also be acquired by tumors that are initially sensitive to chemotherapy.
  • We present a case of metachronous splenic recurrence after a curative resection of appendical cancer with ovarian metastasis, although the patient had been treated with 5-FU/LV followed by mFOLFOX6 after surgery.
  • Molecular analyses by RT-PCR also showed that the residual tumor after chemotherapy has cancer cells overexpressing 5-FU/l-OHP based chemotherapy-resistant genes.
  • Therefore, it was suggested that a careful assessment of the disease status be undertaken during chemotherapy to ensure that the possibility of surgical resection, especially of the re-growth or partial response tumors, was not missed, since several genes, chemoresistant to the agents used, can be induced in residual tumors during chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Colonic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Combined Modality Therapy. Enzymes / genetics. Enzymes / metabolism. Female. Humans. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Splenic Neoplasms / pathology. Splenic Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 18288412.001).
  • [ISSN] 1021-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Enzymes; 0 / RNA, Messenger
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75. Choi JY, Kim JI, Choi YC, Jun SY: [Two cases of histopathologically advanced (stage IV) early gastric cancer]. Korean J Gastroenterol; 2005 Jan;45(1):64-7
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  • [Title] [Two cases of histopathologically advanced (stage IV) early gastric cancer].
  • Various minimally invasive surgical techniques in some cases of early gastric cancer are becoming common practice.
  • However, there are rare cases of advanced cancer with distant metastasis although the invasion of the gastric wall is limited to the mucosa and/or submucosa (defined as early gastric cancer according to UICC-TNM classification).
  • We report two cases of early gastric cancer with distant metastasis (stage IV).
  • Both tumors were defined as early cancer because they were confined to the submucosa.
  • One was a type IIa early cancer, histologically classifiable as a signet ring cell carcinoma (according to the Japanese Classification of Gastric Carcinoma and UICC-TNM classification); the other was a surface spreading type IIb + IIc, classifiable as a signet ring cell carcinoma, too.
  • Stage IV factors were ovarian metastasis (Krukenberg tumor) in the former and N3 in the latter case.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Signet Ring Cell / pathology. Stomach Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15665570.001).
  • [ISSN] 1598-9992
  • [Journal-full-title] The Korean journal of gastroenterology = Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe chi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Korean J Gastroenterol
  • [Language] kor
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
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76. Colombo P, Tondulli L, Masci G, Muzza A, Rimassa L, Petrella D, Santoro A: Oral ulcer as an exclusive sign of gastric cancer: report of a rare case. BMC Cancer; 2005;5:117
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  • [Title] Oral ulcer as an exclusive sign of gastric cancer: report of a rare case.
  • Oral metastatic lesions have been described in various cancers, particularly lung, breast and kidney carcinoma.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: We here describe an uncommon case of a hard palate mucosa and gingival metastasis from gastric carcinoma that was originally diagnosed as a periodontal disease.
  • Histopathological examination of a biopsy of the lesion revealed a signet-ring cell carcinoma, and a subsequent biopsy of an ulcerated stomach lesion showed a poorly differentiated gastric carcinoma.
  • The patient underwent gastric resection but died of heart failure on the tenth postoperative day; a post-mortem examination revealed a residual bilateral ovarian infiltration by gastric carcinoma (Krukenberg's tumor).
  • CONCLUSION: An occult carcinoma of the stomach may rarely metastasise to the oral cavity even as a first and exclusive manifestation; it is important to bear this possibility in mind because such conditions may mimic a benign disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Signet Ring Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Signet Ring Cell / pathology. Gingival Neoplasms / secondary. Mouth / pathology. Mouth Neoplasms / secondary. Stomach Neoplasms / diagnosis. Stomach Neoplasms / pathology. Ulcer / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy. Carcinoma / pathology. Cell Differentiation. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Mouth Mucosa / pathology. Neoplasm Metastasis. Palate, Hard / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16171522.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1242220
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77. Christopoulos C, Skopeliti M, Rotas E, Mavridis A, Savva S, Papavassiliou E: Non-Hodgkin lymphoma involving stomach and ovary: extending the Krukenberg tumor concept. Ann Hematol; 2010 Jan;89(1):101-2
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Non-Hodgkin lymphoma involving stomach and ovary: extending the Krukenberg tumor concept.
  • [MeSH-major] Krukenberg Tumor / diagnosis. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Stomach Neoplasms / diagnosis


78. Delotte J, Ferron G, Kuei TL, Mery E, Gladieff L, Querleu D: Laparoscopic management of an isolated ovarian metastasis on a transposed ovary in a patient treated for stage IB1 adenocarcinoma of the cervix. J Minim Invasive Gynecol; 2009 Jan-Feb;16(1):106-8
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  • [Title] Laparoscopic management of an isolated ovarian metastasis on a transposed ovary in a patient treated for stage IB1 adenocarcinoma of the cervix.
  • Transposition of the ovaries is performed frequently in young women with early-stage cervical cancer.
  • However, this must be balanced with the risks of ovarian metastases especially in patients with adenocarcinomas.
  • We report the first case of laparoscopic management of an isolated metastasis to a transposed ovary that occurred 2 years after primary laparoscopic treatment of a stage IB1 adenocarcinoma of the cervix.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Laparoscopy / methods. Lymph Node Excision. Ovarian Neoplasms / secondary. Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery. Ovariectomy / methods. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology


79. Kiyokawa T, Young RH, Scully RE: Krukenberg tumors of the ovary: a clinicopathologic analysis of 120 cases with emphasis on their variable pathologic manifestations. Am J Surg Pathol; 2006 Mar;30(3):277-99
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  • [Title] Krukenberg tumors of the ovary: a clinicopathologic analysis of 120 cases with emphasis on their variable pathologic manifestations.
  • 120 Krukenberg tumors were analyzed with emphasis on their wide microscopic spectrum and resultant problems in differential diagnosis.
  • Sixty-three percent of the tumors were documented to be bilateral, but both ovaries were not always removed or rigorously examined microscopically.
  • The mean diameter of the tumors was 10.4 cm, and they typically had intact, bosselated external surfaces without adhesions.
  • The sectioned surfaces were typically solid and firm to edematous to gelatinous; one third of the tumors also had cysts.
  • The tumors were often more cellular at their periphery and edematous to gelatinous centrally.
  • The overall morphology varied according to the prominence of signet-ring cells, extracellular mucin, edema, and various epithelial patterns.
  • Signet-ring cells were numerous in most neoplasms (and by definition occupied at least 10% of the neoplasm) but were often absent or inconspicuous in significant areas of them.
  • The signet-ring cells typically had modest but sometimes copious amounts of pale to basophilic cytoplasm; occasionally, it was eosinophilic.
  • The signet-ring cells varied widely in their arrangement, growing singly, in clusters, forming confluent masses or pseudo-tubular arrays or lining part of all of a true tubule.
  • Stromal luteinization was present in the tumors of the 8 pregnant patients and was seen in 14% of the nonpregnant patients.
  • Two thirds of the primary carcinomas were detected synchronously with, or subsequent to, detection of the Krukenberg tumor compounding the diagnostic difficulty posed by the cases.
  • Two thirds of the primary tumors were in the stomach; other primary sites in order of frequency were appendix, colon, breast, small intestine, rectum, gallbladder, and urinary bladder.
  • Our observations emphasize that the microscopic spectrum of the Krukenberg tumor is broader that often presented in the literature, in particular tubules, glands, and cysts often being present, and the wide pathologic differential diagnosis is discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Krukenberg Tumor / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. History, 17th Century. Humans. Pregnancy

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  • (PMID = 16538048.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Historical Article; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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80. Shan Y, Che X, Zhao DB, Bi JJ, Zhou ZX, Shao YF: [Surgical management of ovarian metastasis from colorectal cancer]. Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2007 Mar;10(2):146-8
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  • [Title] [Surgical management of ovarian metastasis from colorectal cancer].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the surgical treatment of ovarian metastasis from colorectal cancer.
  • METHODS: The clinical data of 62 cases suffering from ovarian metastasis from colorectal cancer, collected from Jan.
  • RESULTS: The median survival time of 62 colorectal cancer patients with ovarian metastasis was 23 months.
  • The median survival time of 19 patients with simple ovary metastasis was 31 months, while that of 43 patients with ovary and other organ metastasis was 21 months.
  • Fifty-one patients (82.3%) were treated with double-sided ovarian resection, and 42 of them (17.7%) received hysterectomies at the same time.
  • Eleven patients received one-sided ovarian resection, and 8 of them were resected the metastatic ovaries on the other side in 3 to 10 months.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The patients with ovarian metastases from colorectal cancer need double-sided ovarian resection, and radical resection is able to prolong the survival time.
  • [MeSH-major] Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology. Colorectal Neoplasms / surgery. Ovarian Neoplasms / secondary. Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery


81. Cetin B, Aslan S, Akinci M, Atalay C, Cetin A: A long surviving case of Pseudomeigs' syndrome caused by Krukenberg tumor of the stomach. Jpn J Clin Oncol; 2005 Apr;35(4):221-3
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  • [Title] A long surviving case of Pseudomeigs' syndrome caused by Krukenberg tumor of the stomach.
  • Meigs syndrome is defined as the triad of benign ovarian tumor with ascites and pleural effusion that resolve after resection of the tumor.
  • Pseudomeigs' syndrome is a serious disease characterized by malignant ovarian tumor, but ascites and hydrothorax usually reveal no malignant cells.
  • Here, we report a 47-year-old pre-menapausal female patient with cardia cancer.
  • Nearly 14 months after D3 dissection, she developed Krukenberg tumors on both ovaries causing a Pseudomeigs' syndrome with benign ascites and right hydrothorax, which resolved dramatically after resection of the tumors and rectouterine pouch peritonectomy.
  • The present case suggests that Pseudomeigs' syndrome should be considered in patients with Krukenberg tumors, ascites and hydrothorax and that resection of the tumors may bring long-term palliation.
  • [MeSH-major] Krukenberg Tumor / complications. Meigs Syndrome / etiology. Stomach Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Cardia. Female. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Middle Aged. Survivors

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  • (PMID = 15845573.001).
  • [ISSN] 0368-2811
  • [Journal-full-title] Japanese journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Jpn. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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82. Zaman S, Majid S, Hussain M, Chughtai O, Mahboob J, Chughtai S: A retrospective study of ovarian tumours and tumour-like lesions. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad; 2010 Jan-Mar;22(1):104-8
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  • [Title] A retrospective study of ovarian tumours and tumour-like lesions.
  • Objective of the study was to determine the nature of various ovarian lesions and to ascertain the frequency and distribution of the various non-neoplastic and neoplastic lesions.
  • METHODS: The study was a retrospective review of all cases of ovarian cancer, benign ovarian neoplasm and functional ovarian cysts received during Jan-Dec 2008 at Chughtai's Lahore Laboratory.
  • Non-neoplastic cysts were more common (343, 68.87%) than neoplastic tumours (155, 31.12%).
  • Among the neoplastic tumours 78.70% were benign and 21.29% were malignant.
  • Benign serous cysts were the commonest benign tumour followed by mature cystic teratoma and mucinous cyst.
  • Serous cystadenocarcinoma was the commonest malignant tumour followed closely by endometrioid carcinoma and granulosa cell tumour.
  • Krukenberg tumour, tumour metastatic to ovaries and non-Hodgkins lymphoma was also diagnosed during this period.
  • Malignant germ cell tumours were seen in much younger age group followed by sex cord stromal tumours.
  • Epithelial tumours were seen in much older age group.
  • CONCLUSION: The morphologic diversity of ovarian masses poses many challenges.
  • A specific diagnosis can usually be made by evaluating routinely stained slides but sometimes immunohistochemistry is required in difficult cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Ovarian Cysts / epidemiology. Ovarian Cysts / pathology. Pakistan / epidemiology. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 21409917.001).
  • [ISSN] 1025-9589
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad : JAMC
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Pakistan
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83. Vignancour S, Narducci F, Collinet P, Vinatier D, Castelain B, Leblanc E: [Laparoscopic management of occult cervical cancer discovered after simple hysterectomy]. Gynecol Obstet Fertil; 2007 Apr;35(4):297-302
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  • [Title] [Laparoscopic management of occult cervical cancer discovered after simple hysterectomy].
  • [Transliterated title] Prise en charge chirurgicale par voie d'abord coelioscopique du cancer du col utérin occulte découvert après hystérectomie simple.
  • OBJECTIVES: To assess the feasibility and morbidity of surgical management by combined laparoscopic and vaginal approach after cervical cancer diagnosed at the time of simple hysterectomy.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: From 2000 to 2005, 10 patients were referred with occult cervical cancer discovered after simple hysterectomy.
  • Residual disease was present in 2 cases: 1 parametrial and vaginal involvement, 1 ovarian metastasis.
  • Two on ten patients needed a laparoconversion, one for ovarian involvement and one for technical failure.
  • DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Surgical staging of occult cervical cancer discovered after simple hysterectomy is necessary for indication of adjuvant treatment.
  • The realization of a radical parametrectomy seems to offer a local control of the disease and a decrease in the risk of recurrence, which need to be confirmed by conducting a study with more patients.
  • This emphasize the necessity of creating a national record to register all women managed for occult cervical cancer.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Hysterectomy. Length of Stay. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Treatment Outcome


84. Wiwanitkit V: Ovarian metastasis of a lymphoma. Onkologie; 2010;33(8-9):480
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  • [Title] Ovarian metastasis of a lymphoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged

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  • [CommentOn] Onkologie. 2009 Dec;32(12):752-3 [20016237.001]
  • (PMID = 20838066.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0240
  • [Journal-full-title] Onkologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Onkologie
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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85. Pamo Reyna OG, Loza Oropeza D, Sáenz Rodríguez M, Chian García C, Verona Rubio R, Freundt Serpa N, Barrós Baertl N: [Sclerosing peritonitis: presentation of three cases]. Rev Gastroenterol Peru; 2010 Jan-Mar;30(1):65-72
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  • [Transliterated title] Peritonitis esclerosante: presentación de tres casos.
  • It is shown three cases of sclerosing peritonitis, two of them related to gastric adenocarcinoma and the other one associated to thecoma.
  • Key words: Sclerosing Peritonitis, Adenocarcinoma, Stomach, Signet Ring Cells, Krukenberg's Tumor, Thecoma, Intestinal Occlusion.

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  • (PMID = 20445728.001).
  • [ISSN] 1022-5129
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista de gastroenterología del Perú : órgano oficial de la Sociedad de Gastroenterología del Perú
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Gastroenterol Peru
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Peru
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86. Schaefer IM, Sauer U, Liwocha M, Schorn H, Loertzer H, Füzesi L: Occult gastric signet ring cell carcinoma presenting as spermatic cord and testicular metastases: "Krukenberg tumor" in a male patient. Pathol Res Pract; 2010 Jul 15;206(7):519-21
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  • [Title] Occult gastric signet ring cell carcinoma presenting as spermatic cord and testicular metastases: "Krukenberg tumor" in a male patient.
  • Krukenberg tumor is a well-known ovarian metastasis, usually of gastric signet ring cell carcinoma in female patients.
  • Although gastric carcinoma is more frequent in men, to our knowledge, only few cases of counterpart testicular metastases have been described as yet.
  • Right-sided orchiectomy was performed, and metastatic signet ring cell carcinoma of spermatic cord and testis was diagnosed through histological examination and immunohistochemistry.
  • The following stomach biopsy confirmed the primary signet ring cell carcinoma in the stomach.
  • This extremely rare form of metastatic dissemination resembles the Krukenberg tumor of ovaries.
  • Immunohistochemical staining plays an important role in the differential diagnosis of spermatic cord enlargement.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Signet Ring Cell / secondary. Spermatic Cord / pathology. Stomach Neoplasms / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Anxiety Disorders / complications. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Cerebrovascular Disorders / complications. Cholecystolithiasis / complications. Coronary Artery Disease / complications. Cryptorchidism / complications. Depression / complications. Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / complications. Diagnosis, Differential. Fatty Liver / complications. Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Head and Neck Neoplasms / surgery. Humans. Hypertension / complications. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasms, Second Primary / metabolism. Neoplasms, Second Primary / pathology. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary. Obesity / complications. Prostatic Hyperplasia / complications. Vocal Cords / pathology


87. Shimada M, Kigawa J, Nishimura R, Yamaguchi S, Kuzuya K, Nakanishi T, Suzuki M, Kita T, Iwasaka T, Terakawa N: Ovarian metastasis in carcinoma of the uterine cervix. Gynecol Oncol; 2006 May;101(2):234-7
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  • [Title] Ovarian metastasis in carcinoma of the uterine cervix.
  • BACKGROUND: The present study was conducted to determine the frequency and clinicopathological features of ovarian metastasis in a large population of patients with stage Ib-IIb cervical cancer.
  • METHODS: The study population consisted of 3471 patients with stage Ib to IIb cervical cancer who underwent radical hysterectomy, including pelvic lymphadenectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, at our six institutions between 1981 and 2000.
  • To our knowledge, this study is the largest review of patients with ovarian metastasis from cervical cancer.
  • RESULTS: Fifty-two patients (1.50%) had ovarian metastases: 6 in stage Ib1, 12 in stage Ib2, 5 in stage IIa, and 29 in stage IIb.
  • The mean age of patients with ovarian metastasis was 49.9 years (range: 29-73 years).
  • The incidence of ovarian metastasis in patients with cervical cancer was 0.22% for stage Ib, 0.75% for stage IIa, and 2.17% for stage IIb with squamous cell carcinoma, and 3.72%, 5.26%, and 9.85%, respectively, in adenocarcinoma.
  • Ovarian metastasis occurred more frequently among patients with adenocarcinoma than among those with squamous cell carcinoma (5.31% vs. 0.79%).
  • Outcome for patients with ovarian metastasis was very poor and not related to FIGO stage and histological type.
  • The presence of ovarian metastasis did not correlate with lymph node involvement or parametrial invasion.
  • CONCLUSION: Study results indicate that ovaries can be preserved in patients with stage Ib-IIa squamous cell carcinoma but removed in all patients with adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Ovarian Neoplasms / secondary. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Hysterectomy. Lymph Node Excision. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Ovariectomy


88. Ishii M, Ishibashi K, Sobajima J, Ohsawa T, Okada N, Kumamoto K, Haga N, Yokoyama M, Ishida H: [Pseudo-Meigs' syndrome caused by ovarium metastasis from colorectal cancer]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2010 Nov;37(12):2591-3
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  • [Title] [Pseudo-Meigs' syndrome caused by ovarium metastasis from colorectal cancer].
  • Pseudo-Meigs' syndrome caused by ovarian metastasis from colorectal cancer is extremely rare.
  • The clinical symptoms of pleural effusion and ascites that are characteristics of pseudo-Meigs' syndrome are quite similar to those of terminal-stage colon cancer.
  • We investigated the prognosis and clinicopathological factors including age, location of the primary cancer, histology, wall depth, curative degree, synchronous/metachronous, unilateral/bilateral, lymph node metastasis, peritoneal dissemination, serum CEA level, venous invasion, and lymphatic invasion, in 5 cases of pseudo-Meigs' syndrome (PM group) and compared these findings with those of 10 cases with ovarian metastasis from colorectal cancer (control group) without pseudo-Meigs' syndrome.
  • However, we found that the surgical resection of ovarian metastasis in patients with pseudo-Meigs' syndrome improved the prognosis, similar to the situation for ovarian metastasis from colorectal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology. Meigs Syndrome / diagnosis. Meigs Syndrome / etiology. Ovarian Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 21224649.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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89. Young RH: From Krukenberg to today: the ever present problems posed by metastatic tumors in the ovary. Part II. Adv Anat Pathol; 2007 May;14(3):149-77
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  • [Title] From Krukenberg to today: the ever present problems posed by metastatic tumors in the ovary. Part II.
  • This is the second of a two-part consideration of metastatic tumors to the ovary.
  • The first tumor discussed is gastric carcinoma of intestinal-type whose ovarian manifestations have been the subject of a recent paper which emphasized its differences from the Krukenberg tumor.
  • Coverage of intestinal adenocarcinoma emphasizes the landmark 1987 paper of RH Lash and WR Hart.
  • The section on pancreatic neoplasms reemphasizes the problems caused by metastatic ductal carcinoma, considered primarily in Part I, and discusses less common issues such as spread of neuroendocrine and acinar cell carcinomas.
  • The limited information on spread of tumors of the gallbladder and extrahepatic bile ducts is then reviewed before more detailed consideration of hepatic neoplasms, prompted by recent contributions on hepatocellular carcinoma and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, the latter based on significant experience with this problem in Thailand.
  • The section on appendiceal neoplasms highlights ovarian spread of diverse tumors ranging from typical intestinal-type adenocarcinoma to signet-ring cell carcinomas with various patterns which in the ovary may prompt diagnoses such as a goblet cell (mucinous) carcinoid tumor, but whose ovarian features place them in the category of a Krukenberg tumor.
  • The diverse problems in differential diagnosis of carcinoid tumor (provoked by nested, acinar, and other patterns, including folliclelike spaces) are then reviewed.
  • The section on breast cancer emphasizes that, although usually a manifestation of late stage disease and often not bulky in the ovaries, metastatic breast cancer may form large masses which can represent the clinical presentation.
  • That patients with breast cancer have an increased risk of primary ovarian cancer and that the latter is more common than secondary spread of breast cancer is noted.
  • The section on lung tumors largely reflects information in a recent paper that small cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma are the lung cancers that spread to the ovary most commonly.
  • The extremely broad differential diagnosis posed by metastatic malignant melanoma ranging from that of an oxyphilic tumor, to a small cell tumor, to a follicle-forming neoplasm, is then considered.
  • The sections on renal cell carcinoma and other urinary tract neoplasms emphasize the differential diagnosis of metastatic clear cell carcinoma and primary clear cell carcinoma, an issue usually resolvable by an awareness of the various features of the ovarian variant, rarely or never seen in the renal variant.
  • The section on metastatic sarcomas discusses endometrial stromal sarcomas, gastrointestinal stromal neoplasms, and miscellaneous other sarcomas.
  • The endometrial stromal tumors are problematic largely because the history of a primary tumor may be remote, in the ovaries the typical growth and vascular pattern of endometrial stromal neoplasms is not always conspicuous, and some endometrial stromal sarcomas in the ovary show sex cordlike patterns of growth.
  • Recent information has indicated that gastrointestinal stromal tumors may rarely have significant ovarian manifestations and if the primary neoplasm is overlooked, the ovarian tumor may be misdiagnosed, usually as an ovarian fibromatous tumor, but potentially as another primary neoplasm.
  • The sections on ovarian spread of uterine carcinomas emphasize the problems owing to cervical adenocarcinomas, which have a greater tendency to involve the ovaries than squamous cell carcinomas and can simulate primary mucinous or endometrioid cancers.
  • The final neoplasms considered are malignant mesothelioma and the desmoplastic small round cell tumor.
  • The microscopic features of malignant mesothelioma are so different from those of primary ovarian carcinoma in most instances that the diagnosis should be readily established on routine microscopic evaluation.
  • The differential diagnosis of the desmoplastic small round cell tumor is more complex because of the greater overlap with the many other small cell malignant tumors that may involve the ovaries primarily or secondarily.
  • Nonetheless, differences exist in most cases and awareness of the entity should lead to consideration of the desmoplastic neoplasm, particularly in a young female.
  • However, as pointed out in brief concluding remarks, despite the aid of that modality, as in surgical pathology overall, careful consideration of the clinical background, distribution of disease, gross characteristics and spectrum of routine microscopic findings, will lead to the correct diagnosis in the majority of cases and at the very least lead to formulation of a considered differential diagnosis such that use of special techniques may be judicious and those results placed in context of the time-honored clinical and pathologic features.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / secondary. Krukenberg Tumor / secondary. Ovarian Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. History, 19th Century. History, 20th Century. Humans

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  • (PMID = 17452813.001).
  • [ISSN] 1072-4109
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in anatomic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv Anat Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Historical Article; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 67
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90. McCormick CC, Giuntoli RL 2nd, Gardner GJ, Schulick RD, Judson K, Ronnett BM, Vang R, Bristow RE: The role of cytoreductive surgery for colon cancer metastatic to the ovary. Gynecol Oncol; 2007 Jun;105(3):791-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The role of cytoreductive surgery for colon cancer metastatic to the ovary.
  • OBJECTIVE: We sought to further elucidate the survival impact of cytoreductive surgery among patients with colon cancer metastatic to the ovary.
  • METHODS: All women diagnosed with primary colon cancer metastatic to the ovary at a single institution from 1980 to 2005 were retrospectively identified.
  • RESULTS: A total of 39 patients with 40 cases of colon cancer metastatic to the ovary were identified.
  • Patients with metastatic disease confined to the ovaries (n=11) had a median overall survival (OS) time of 61 months (range 15-120) compared to 17 months (range 0.5-73) for those with more extensive metastases (n=24) (p=0.0428).
  • All major complications occurred in women with diffuse disease who underwent extensive cytoreductive surgery.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The observation that optimal cytoreduction was associated with prolonged PFS and OS in both patients with localized ovarian and widespread metastases of colon cancer suggests a role for surgical management of metastatic colon cancer in women.
  • [MeSH-major] Colonic Neoplasms / pathology. Colonic Neoplasms / surgery. Ovarian Neoplasms / secondary. Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / surgery. Neoplasms, Second Primary / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Second Primary / pathology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / surgery. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 17408727.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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91. Onuigbo WI: Early descriptions of Krukenberg tumors. J Am Coll Surg; 2005 Jan;200(1):111-2
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  • [Title] Early descriptions of Krukenberg tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Krukenberg Tumor / history. Ovarian Neoplasms / history

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  • (PMID = 15631927.001).
  • [ISSN] 1072-7515
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American College of Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Coll. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Historical Article; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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92. Nishimura T, Maeda Y, Okada T, Nakamura M, Sakata K, Setoguchi M, Kawasaki N: [Ovarian metastasis after complete response of colon cancer]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2009 Nov;36(12):2263-5
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  • [Title] [Ovarian metastasis after complete response of colon cancer].
  • We report a case of ovarian metastasis after complete response of colon cancer.
  • A 55-year-old woman underwent a sigmoidectomy for sigmoid colon cancer with hepatic metastasis and para-aorta lymph node metastasis.
  • Thirteen months after the operation, right ovarian tumor was found and bilateral oophrectomy, hysterectomy and omentectomy were performed.
  • Histopathologically the ovarian tumor was metastasized from colonic cancer.
  • At present, the patient remains disease-free for 6 months after the ovarian operation.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Colonic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 20037390.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Organoplatinum Compounds; 2S9ZZM9Q9V / Bevacizumab; Q573I9DVLP / Leucovorin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil; XT3Z54Z28A / Camptothecin; Folfox protocol; IFL protocol
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93. Yamagishi Y, Akiba Y, Izumiya M, Higuchi H, Iizuka H, Takaishi H, Nagata H, Hibi T: [A case of advanced gastric cancer with lymphangitis carcinomatosa after operation of Krukenberg tumor treated by TS-1 plus CPT-11 as third-line chemotherapy]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2005 Aug;32(8):1167-70
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  • [Title] [A case of advanced gastric cancer with lymphangitis carcinomatosa after operation of Krukenberg tumor treated by TS-1 plus CPT-11 as third-line chemotherapy].
  • Chemotherapies for recurrent gastric cancer have not yet been established.
  • Here we report a case of type 4 gastric cancer associated with lymphangitis carcinomatosis which became refractory to the previous chemotherapies.
  • She had been diagnosed with gastric cancer after a Krukenberg tumor operation.
  • Disease activity has been well controlled until this time.
  • TS-1 plus CPT-11 combination chemotherapy would be effective for lymphangitis carcinomatosis and also useful as third-line chemotherapy for recurrent gastric cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Krukenberg Tumor / surgery. Lymphangitis / complications. Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery. Stomach Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 16121922.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / Drug Combinations; 0 / Pyridines; 150863-82-4 / S 1 (combination); 1548R74NSZ / Tegafur; 5VT6420TIG / Oxonic Acid; 7673326042 / irinotecan; XT3Z54Z28A / Camptothecin
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94. Saji H, Kurose K, Sugiura K, Miyagi E, Onose R, Kato H, Nakayama H: Endometrial aspiration cytology for diagnosis of peritoneal lesions in extrauterine malignancies. Acta Cytol; 2007 Jul-Aug;51(4):533-40
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Endometrial aspiration cytology for diagnosis of peritoneal lesions in extrauterine malignancies.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the usefulness of endometrial aspiration cytology for assessing malignant cells of extrauterine origin.
  • STUDY DESIGN: Endometrial cytology was performed on 224 patients with primary ovarian cancer, 10 with fallopian tube cancer and 45 with peritoneal tumors.
  • RESULTS: Of 224 patients with ovarian cancer, 53 (23.7%) had positive endometrial cytology.
  • Histologic positive rates were: serous, 28.7%; mucinous, 11.4%; clear cell, 23.1%; endometrioid and unclassifiable adenocarcinomas, 28.0%.
  • Of 5 patients with ovarian cancer, 2 were asymptomatic, but aspiration cytology was positive.
  • Of 10 patients with fallopian tube cancer, 9 (90.0%) had positive endometrial cytology.
  • The positive rate on endometrial cytology was 56.7% in stomach cancer, 60.0% in breast cancer and 20.0% in colon cancer.
  • Of 1,209 women with stomach cancer, 30 (2.4%) displayed ovarian metastasis.
  • Of these, 7 (23.3%) had Krukenberg's tumor; endometrial cytology was positive in 1 (14.3%).
  • In 7 of 17 patients with positive endometrial cytology, clinical diagnosis was made before stomach cancer therapy.
  • CONCLUSION: Endometrial aspiration cytology is useful for identifying nongynecologic malignant cells, diagnosing ovarian and fallopian tube cancers, and determining peritoneal dissemination and metastasis originating from gastrointestinal and breast cancers.
  • [MeSH-major] Endometrium / pathology. Neoplasms / diagnosis. Peritoneum / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17718117.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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95. Ishii M, Ishibashi K, Ishiguro T, Kuwabara K, Ohsawa T, Okada N, Miyazaki T, Yokoyama M, Inokuma S, Ishida H: [Analysis of ovarian metastasis of colorectal cancer--a comparison between ovarian metastasis and peritoneal metastasis without involving ovaries]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2009 Nov;36(12):2257-9
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  • [Title] [Analysis of ovarian metastasis of colorectal cancer--a comparison between ovarian metastasis and peritoneal metastasis without involving ovaries].
  • This retrospective study was performed to clarify whether or not ovarian metastasis from colorectal cancer should be classified into peritoneal metastasis.
  • We compared patient background data and prognosis between patients with ovarian metastasis (ovarian group, n=16) and female patients with peritoneal metastasis without involving ovaries (peritoneal group, n=22) treated between 1998 and 2008.
  • The median overall survival period was 13.8 months for the ovarian group and 16.7 months for the peritoneal group (p=0.96).
  • The 3-year overall survival rate was 48.6%, 46.9%, and 11.5% for patients with ovarian metastasis only (P2), those with minute peritoneal metastasis without involving ovaries (P1), and those with multiple (numerous) peritoneal metastasis without involving ovaries (P3) (p=0.13), respectively.
  • These results suggest that it is valid to classify ovarian metastasis as peritoneal metastasis.
  • However, further collection of data may be needed to conclude that solitary ovarian lesion(s) would be classified into P2.
  • [MeSH-major] Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / secondary. Peritoneal Neoplasms / secondary


96. Sanchez Lihón J: [Metastasis of carcinoma of stomach cancer simulating primary ovarian tumor. Importance of frozen biopsies]. Rev Gastroenterol Peru; 2010 Oct-Dec;30(4):363-7
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  • [Title] [Metastasis of carcinoma of stomach cancer simulating primary ovarian tumor. Importance of frozen biopsies].
  • [Transliterated title] Metástasis de carcinoma de estómago que simula cancer primario de ovario. Importancia de la biopsia por congelación.
  • OBJECTIVE: The importance of frozen section in the Diagnosis and management of patients with ovarian tumors.
  • RESULTS: We report 9 cases of patients with ovary tumors.
  • The primary carcinoma was found during an operation for the ovarian tumor.
  • In these cases the diagnosis of krukenberg tumor was made intraoperatively by frozen section evaluation and the primary carcinoma were found in the stomach.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The results of the study of 9 patients with metastasis from gastric carcinoma simulating primary carcinoma of the ovary show us the importance of frozen section and the communication with the surgeon intraoperatively.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / secondary. Stomach Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Frozen Sections. Humans. Middle Aged


97. Watanabe Y, Satou T, Nakai H, Etoh T, Dote K, Fujinami N, Hoshiai H: Evaluation of parametrial spread in endometrial carcinoma. Obstet Gynecol; 2010 Nov;116(5):1027-34
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  • [Title] Evaluation of parametrial spread in endometrial carcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the detailed clinicopathologic characteristics of parametrial spread in uterine endometrial cancer.
  • METHODS: We retrospectively identified 334 individuals with uterine endometrial cancer who had undergone radical hysterectomy between 1988 and 2007.
  • RESULTS: Twenty-eight (8.4%) individuals had histopathologically confirmed parametrial spread, and lymphatic or blood vessel invasion (22 cases) was the most frequently observed type of parametrial spread; direct invasion to parametrial connective tissue (five cases) or cardinal lymph node metastasis (four cases) were less frequently observed.
  • Parametrial spread occurred not only in individuals with cervical involvement but also in individuals with more than half myometrial invasion, retroperitoneal (pelvic, paraaortic, or both), lymph node metastasis, ovarian metastasis, positive peritoneal cytology results, and lymphovascular space invasion.
  • Although the long-term prognosis for those with parametrial spread was significantly poorer than that of those without parametrial spread, both among all individuals (P<.001) and among individuals with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage III (P<.05), multivariate analysis showed that parametrial spread was not an independent prognostic factor for uterine endometrial cancer.
  • Further, parametrial spread may not be an independent prognostic factor in individuals with uterine endometrial cancer.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Ovarian Neoplasms / secondary. Treatment Outcome

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  • [CommentIn] Obstet Gynecol. 2010 Nov;116(5):1016-7 [20966681.001]
  • (PMID = 20966685.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-233X
  • [Journal-full-title] Obstetrics and gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Obstet Gynecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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98. McCluggage WG, Young RH: Primary ovarian mucinous tumors with signet ring cells: report of 3 cases with discussion of so-called primary Krukenberg tumor. Am J Surg Pathol; 2008 Sep;32(9):1373-9
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  • [Title] Primary ovarian mucinous tumors with signet ring cells: report of 3 cases with discussion of so-called primary Krukenberg tumor.
  • The distinction between a primary ovarian mucinous carcinoma or even a borderline mucinous tumor and a metastatic mucinous carcinoma may be difficult.
  • One of the most important morphologic features suggesting a metastatic mucinous carcinoma in the ovary is the presence of signet ring cells; these are considered rare in primary ovarian mucinous tumors.
  • In this study, we report 3 primary ovarian mucinous tumors with a component of signet ring cells.
  • The tumors arose in patients aged 27, 55, and 60, were unilateral, confined to the ovary and stage IA.
  • In one case, the neoplasm had the architecture of a mucinous adenofibroma but had frankly malignant cells lining glands and forming solid aggregates of cells.
  • A second tumor also had the background of an adenofibroma.
  • In one case, endometriosis was present in the same ovary; teratomatous elements were not identified in any case.
  • Immunohistochemistry, performed in 2 cases, showed both to be diffusely positive with CK7 and CA19.9, including the signet ring cells.
  • Investigations to exclude a gastrointestinal neoplasm in 2 cases were negative.
  • Features favoring a primary rather than a metastatic neoplasm are unilateral tumor, low stage, background of adenofibroma or cystadenoma, associated endometriosis in 1 case and an absence of features which are characteristic of secondary mucinous carcinomas in the ovary, such as surface tumor deposits, a nodular growth pattern, and lymphovascular permeation.
  • Immunohistochemistry is of limited value because of overlapping immunophenotype between a primary ovarian mucinous tumor and a metastasis from the stomach, pancreas, biliary tree, appendix, or colorectum, the most likely primary sites for a secondary exhibiting similar features.
  • Our study illustrates that signet ring cells occur rarely in a primary ovarian mucinous tumor; even when conspicuous the features differ from those of the usual Krukenberg tumor.
  • At least some cases of so-called primary Krukenberg tumor may be similar to our cases.
  • However, the designation primary Krukenberg tumor should not be used as, apart from the signet ring cells, a resemblance to a "true" Krukenberg tumor of the secondary type is limited.
  • The tumors should be classified according to the underlying background neoplasm with a notation concerning the signet ring cell component.
  • [MeSH-major] Cystadenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Krukenberg Tumor / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18670351.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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99. Testa AC, Licameli A, Di Legge A, Mascilini F, Petruzziello L, Pelagalli M, Scambia G, Ferrandina G: Color Doppler sonographic features of a Krukenberg tumor in pregnancy. J Ultrasound Med; 2009 May;28(5):695-8
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  • [Title] Color Doppler sonographic features of a Krukenberg tumor in pregnancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / ultrasonography. Ovarian Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / ultrasonography. Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color / methods

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  • (PMID = 19389911.001).
  • [ISSN] 1550-9613
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of ultrasound in medicine : official journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Ultrasound Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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100. Jain V, Gupta K, Kudva R, Rodrigues GS: A case of ovarian metastasis of gall bladder carcinoma simulating primary ovarian neoplasm: diagnostic pitfalls and review of literature. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2006 Jan-Feb;16 Suppl 1:319-21
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  • [Title] A case of ovarian metastasis of gall bladder carcinoma simulating primary ovarian neoplasm: diagnostic pitfalls and review of literature.
  • The ovary is a relatively frequent site of metastases from malignant neoplasia arising elsewhere in the body, the majority of these originating from the gastrointestinal tract.
  • The best-known tumor of this type is signet ring cell adenocarcinoma (Krukenberg tumor) of gastric origin and large bowel.
  • While clinical and imaging results suggested a primary ovarian carcinoma with incidental cholelithiasis and choledocholithiasis, the final diagnosis was obtained on the basis of histopathologic findings of resected specimen.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Gallbladder Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16515613.001).
  • [ISSN] 1048-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; Q573I9DVLP / Leucovorin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
  • [Number-of-references] 17
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