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1. Aokage K, Yoshida J, Ishii G, Hishida T, Nishimura M, Nagai K: Subcarinal lymph node in upper lobe non-small cell lung cancer patients: is selective lymph node dissection valid? Lung Cancer; 2010 Nov;70(2):163-7
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  • [Title] Subcarinal lymph node in upper lobe non-small cell lung cancer patients: is selective lymph node dissection valid?
  • Little is known about selective lymph node dissection in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients.
  • We reviewed node metastases distribution according to node region, tumor location, and histology among 1099 patients with upper lobe NSCLC.
  • We paid special attention to subcarinal metastases patients without superior mediastinal node metastases, because their pathological stages would have been underdiagnosed if subcarinal node dissection had been omitted.
  • We also assessed the outcome and the pattern of failure among subcarinal metastases patients.
  • Subcarinal node metastases were found in 20 patients and were least frequent among squamous cell carcinoma patients (0.5%).
  • Two of them were free from superior mediastinal metastases but died of the disease at 1 month and due to an unknown cause at 18 months, respectively.
  • The 5-year survival rate of the 20 patients with subcarinal metastases was 9.0%, which was significantly lower than 32.0% of patients with only superior mediastinal metastases.
  • Clinical diagnosis of node metastases was significantly predictive of subcarinal metastases.
  • Subcarinal node metastases from upper lobe NSCLC were rare and predicted an extremely poor outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / surgery. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / surgery. Lymph Node Excision. Lymph Nodes / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Prognosis. Recurrence. Survival Analysis

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20236727.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-8332
  • [Journal-full-title] Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lung Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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2. Tanaka O, Kanematsu M, Kondo H, Goshima S, Nishibori H, Kato H, Kiryu T, Yokoyama R, Hoshi H, Moriyama N: Solitary mediastinal lymph node metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma: MR imaging findings. Magn Reson Imaging; 2005 Jan;23(1):111-4
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  • [Title] Solitary mediastinal lymph node metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma: MR imaging findings.
  • A 65-year-old man with multiple hepatocellular carcinomas in the liver with type C viral hepatitis had a solitary mediastinal lymph node metastasis in the right paratracheal to tracheobronchial region.
  • Surgical resection for the mediastinal metastasis was undertaken based on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings, suggesting its radicality.
  • We assess the MR imaging findings and presumable pathways of lymphatic metastasis from the liver to mediastinal lymph nodes in this report.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Hepatitis C / complications. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Male. Mediastinum

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  • (PMID = 15733796.001).
  • [ISSN] 0730-725X
  • [Journal-full-title] Magnetic resonance imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Magn Reson Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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3. Hara T, Hirano M, Nozawa H, Nakada K, Hirano Y, Oyama K, Hada T, Takagi T, Kikkawa H: [A case of recurrent esophageal cancer successfully treated with weekly paclitaxel in combination with radiotherapy]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2005 Jun;32(6):829-31
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  • [Title] [A case of recurrent esophageal cancer successfully treated with weekly paclitaxel in combination with radiotherapy].
  • Recurrence was seen 7 months after the operation in right pleura and lower mediastinum.
  • Thereafter, lung and upper mediastinal metastases were found, and weekly administration of paclitaxel (70 mg/m2, day 1, 8, 15, q 4w) was initiated in combination with radiotherapy (40 Gy).
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Esophageal Neoplasms / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Mediastinal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Mediastinal Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Paclitaxel / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 15984525.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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4. Stevens SJ, Zwaan CM, Verkuijlen SA, Middeldorp JM: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) serology for predicting distant metastases in a white juvenile patient with nasopharyngeal carcinoma and no clinical response to EBV lytic induction therapy. Head Neck; 2006 Nov;28(11):1040-5
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  • [Title] Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) serology for predicting distant metastases in a white juvenile patient with nasopharyngeal carcinoma and no clinical response to EBV lytic induction therapy.
  • METHODS.: At diagnosis, the patient had characteristic immunoglobulin (Ig)A and IgG responses to EBNA1, viral capsid antigen (VCA)-p18, and early antigens (EAs), with no detectable EBV DNA in her blood.
  • Five months later, lung metastases were found.
  • She underwent surgical removal of the lung metastases and conventional chemotherapy, but had intraabdominal lymph node metastasis and mediastinal lesions develop.
  • RESULTS: The patient's disease progressed, and the patient declined further cancer treatment and died.
  • CONCLUSION: In contrast to EBV DNA load, EBV serology was useful in predicting distant NPC metastasis after initial complete remission in this patient.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / blood. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / virology. Lymphatic Metastasis. Neoplasm Metastasis. Serologic Tests

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  • (PMID = 16933315.001).
  • [ISSN] 1043-3074
  • [Journal-full-title] Head & neck
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Head Neck
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Viral; 0 / Immunoglobulin A; 0 / Immunoglobulin G
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5. Sakao Y, Miyamoto H, Yamazaki A, Ou S, Shiomi K, Sonobe S, Sakuraba M: The spread of metastatic lymph nodes to the mediastinum from left upper lobe cancer: results of superior mediastinal nodal dissection through a median sternotomy. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg; 2006 Sep;30(3):543-7
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  • [Title] The spread of metastatic lymph nodes to the mediastinum from left upper lobe cancer: results of superior mediastinal nodal dissection through a median sternotomy.
  • BACKGROUND: This study endeavored to clarify the location, frequency, and prognostic value of metastatic lymph nodes in the mediastinum among patients with left upper lung cancer who underwent complete dissection of the superior mediastinal lymph node through a median sternotomy.
  • METHODS: Forty-four patients with left upper lobe cancer underwent extended radical mediastinal nodal dissection (ERD), all of whom were analyzed in this retrospective study.
  • Mediastinal nodal status was assessed according to the systems of Mountain/Dresler 7 and Naruke 8.
  • The clinicopathological records of each patient were examined for prognostic factors, including age, sex, histology, tumor size, c-N number, preoperative serum CEA level, metastatic stations and distribution of metastatic nodes according to Naruke's system 8.
  • The superior mediastinal lymph nodes which cannot be dissected through a left thoracotomy (bilateral #1 and #2, #3, right #3a, and right #4 according to Naruke's map 8 were defined as extra-superior mediastinal nodes for left lung cancer (ESMD).
  • RESULTS: Fourteen patients had one or more metastases to mediastinal lymph nodes, among whom the most common metastatic station was the aortic nodes: 71.4% had metastasis to #5 or #6 (57.1% to #5 and 50% to #6).
  • The next most common metastatic station was the left tracheobronchial nodes (42.8%).
  • Metastasis to the ESMD occurred in 7 of the 44 study subjects (16%), representing a 50% rate of occurrence (7/14) among those with mediastinal nodal involvement.
  • Univariate analysis found that CN factor and aortic nodal involvement (#5, #6) were significant predictive factors for ESMD metastasis.
  • Furthermore, ESMD metastasis was rare (5.8%) in the absence of aortic node metastasis.
  • The overall survival rate at 5 years was 50% among the patients without ESMD metastasis.
  • However, the survival rate was 32% at 3 years and 0% at 5 years among the seven patients with ESMD metastasis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The aortic lymph node is the most common site of metastasis from left upper lobe cancer.
  • Multivariate analysis demonstrated that aortic nodal involvement was a significant predictive factor for ESMD metastasis.
  • Based upon the rates of metastasis and the post-operative prognosis in our study patients, dissection of aortic nodes and left tracheobronchial nodes may be important for patients with left upper lobe cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Mediastinal Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aorta / pathology. Bronchial Neoplasms / pathology. Bronchial Neoplasms / secondary. Dissection / methods. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Mediastinum / pathology. Mediastinum / surgery. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Sternum / surgery. Survival Analysis. Thoracic Surgical Procedures. Tracheal Neoplasms / pathology. Tracheal Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 16870462.001).
  • [ISSN] 1010-7940
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery : official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Cardiothorac Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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6. Li J, Zhang DC, He J, Liu XY, Mu JW, Zhang LZ: [The rule of lymph node metastasis of adenosquamous carcinoma of the lung]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi; 2009 Jul;31(7):524-7
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  • [Title] [The rule of lymph node metastasis of adenosquamous carcinoma of the lung].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the rule of lymph node metastasis of adenosquamous carcinoma of the lung.
  • The route and patterns as well as influencing factors of lymph node metastasis were analyzed by SPSS 10.0 software.
  • RESULTS: The analysis of the route of mediastinal lymph node metastasis in the 361 cases showed that the tumor originated in the left upper lobe firstly metastasized to station 5 (A-P window), tumor in the right upper lobe to the station 4 (lower paratracheal), then secondly to station 7 (subcarinal), lastly to station 3 from the tumor in the left upper lobe or to the station 2 from the tumor in the right upper lobe.
  • It was found that the tumors originated from the lower lobe, firstly metastasized to station 7, secondly to station 9 or 4 from the right lobe; or station 5 from left lower lobe, lastly to station 3 or 2 in the mediastinum.
  • For the tumor in the middle lobe, mainly metastasized to station 7, 4 and 2.
  • The skip mediastinal lymph node metastasis but N1 negative most commonly metastasized to station 7, then to station 4 from the tumor in the right lung and 5 from the tumor in the left lung.
  • The prognosis of patients with a single skipping metastasis to mediastinal lymph node (N1-, SMLN) was better than that in the other patients with mediastinal lymph node metastases.
  • CONCLUSION: The lung cancer growing in a different location has a different route and skipping metastasis to mediastinal lymph nodes.
  • The patterns of lymph node metastasis affect prognosis.
  • The prognosis of patients with single skipping metastasis to mediastinal lymph nodes but negative pulmonary hilar lymph node is better than that in the other patients with multiple station mediastinal lymph node metastases.
  • The "N1-, SMLN" pattern ought to be considered as a special lymph nodal metastasis with better prognosis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Mediastinum. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Pneumonectomy. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 19950701.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-3766
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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7. Fang WT, Chen WH, Chen Y, Jiang Y: Selective three-field lymphadenectomy for thoracic esophageal squamous carcinoma. Dis Esophagus; 2007;20(3):206-11
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The purpose of this study was to examine metastasis in different nodal stations and the extent of lymphadenectomy for esophageal carcinoma.
  • Metastasis to cervical, superior mediastinal, mid-mediastinal, and abdominal nodes were 19.5%, 25.3%, 23%, and 24.1%, respectively.
  • Cervical metastasis was 29.2%, 20.8%, and 10% for upper, middle, and lower thoracic esophageal tumors.
  • Regional lymphadenopathy was found in 48 patients (55.2%) and was significantly related to cervical metastasis (31.3%vs. 5.1%, P=0.002).
  • When cervical metastasis was included into regional lymphadenopathy, the difference was no longer significant (45.8%vs. 63.5%, P=0.135).
  • There was no significant difference between the 2-year survivals for patients with or without cervical metastasis (50.0 vs. 72.0%, P=0.094).
  • We conclude that cervical metastasis is of a similar rate as metastasis to mediastinal or abdominal nodes.
  • Cervical nodes should be taken as regional lymph nodes for thoracic esophageal cancer.

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  • (PMID = 17509116.001).
  • [ISSN] 1120-8694
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the esophagus : official journal of the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Esophagus
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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8. Luo L, Wang H, Ma H, Zou H, Li D, Zhou Y: [TACE with Ar-He cryosurgery combined minimal invasive technique for the treatment of primary NSCLC in 139 cases]. Zhongguo Fei Ai Za Zhi; 2010 Jan;13(1):60-3
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  • BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: TACE, Ar-He target cryosurgery and radioactive seeds implantation are the mainly micro-invasive methods in the treatment of lung cancer.
  • This article summarizes the survival quality after treatment, the clinical efficiency and survival period, and analyzes the advantages and shortcomings of each methods so as to evaluate the clinical effect of non-small cell lung cancer with multiple minimally invasive treatment.
  • METHODS: All the 139 cases were non-small cell lung cancer patients confirmed by pathology and with follow up from July 2006 to July 2009 retrospectively, and all of them lost operative chance by comprehensive evaluation.
  • Among the 139 cases, 102 cases of primary and 37 cases of metastasis to mediastinum, lung and chest wall, 71 cases of abundant blood supply used the combination of superselective target artery chemotherapy, Ar-He target cryoablation and radiochemotherapy with seeds implantation; 48 cases of poor blood supply use single Ar-He target cryoablation; 20 cases of poor blood supply use the combination of Ar-He target cryoablation and radiochemotheraoy with seeds implantation.
  • To non-small cell lung cancer, we can improve the middle and long term clinical effect by using the different combination of multiple minimally invasive treatments according to the patient's condition.

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  • (PMID = 20672706.001).
  • [ISSN] 1009-3419
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhongguo fei ai za zhi = Chinese journal of lung cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhongguo Fei Ai Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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9. Jonas E, Josephson T: Endoscopic ultrasound-guided drainage of a cystic metastasis in the mediastinum that caused tracheal obstruction. Endoscopy; 2005 Mar;37(3):273-4
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  • [Title] Endoscopic ultrasound-guided drainage of a cystic metastasis in the mediastinum that caused tracheal obstruction.
  • [MeSH-major] Drainage / methods. Endosonography. Mediastinal Neoplasms / therapy. Pancreatic Pseudocyst / therapy. Tracheal Stenosis / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Reoperation. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • [CommentIn] Endoscopy. 2006 May;38(5):538-9 [16767595.001]
  • [CommentOn] Endoscopy. 2004 May;36(5):467 [15100970.001]
  • (PMID = 15731946.001).
  • [ISSN] 0013-726X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endoscopy
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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10. Katada E, Nakamura T, Watanabe H, Matsukawa N, Ojika K, Sobue G: [Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome associated with pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma and circulating anti-P/Q-type voltage-gated calcium channel antibody]. Rinsho Shinkeigaku; 2010 Jan;50(1):17-9
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  • At age 61, chest radiograph revealed a tumor shadow in the right upper lung field.
  • This was surgically removed, and a histological diagnosis of moderately differentiated pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma was obtained.
  • After about 1 year, mediastinal metastasis was detected and 5-FU was administered.
  • Eight months later, metastasis was noted in the left frontal hemisphere, and radiosurgical therapy was performed.
  • The brain tumor gradually shrank but generalized fatigue, thirst, and gait disturbance developed after 4 months.
  • A diagnosis of LEMS was made on the basis of neurological findings including proximal muscle weakness and absent tendon reflexes; autonomic symptoms (thirst, constipation, and impotence); characteristic electromyographic findings; and circulating anti-P/Q-type VGCC antibody.


11. Kagel T, Lemburg SP, Müller KM, Laczkovics A, Nicolas V, Heyer CM: [Mediastinal metastasis of a tubal choriocarcinoma following ectopic pregnancy as a rare cause of thoracic pain]. Zentralbl Gynakol; 2006 Apr;128(2):90-4
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  • [Title] [Mediastinal metastasis of a tubal choriocarcinoma following ectopic pregnancy as a rare cause of thoracic pain].
  • [Transliterated title] Mediastinale Metastase eines tubaren Chorionkarzinoms nach ektoper Schwangerschaft als seltene Ursache thorakaler Schmerzen.
  • We report on a 26-year old female patient with thoracic pain and dyspnea, in whom a large tumorous mass in the anterior mediastinum with a pleural effusion was diagnosed by computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging.
  • After rapid progression of tumor growth and detection of malignant cells within the pleural effusion operative intervention including resection of the tumor was performed.
  • Histologic examination of the tumor revealed the typical morphology of a large mediastinal choriocarcinoma.
  • Although primary histologic examination of the tubarian tissue had shown no malignancy, a secondary look revealed a choriocarcinoma with identical histological features compared to the mediastinal tumor.
  • Thus, final diagnosis of a mediastinal metastasis of a tubarian choriocarcinoma in ectopic pregnancy was made.
  • [MeSH-major] Choriocarcinoma / secondary. Fallopian Tube Neoplasms / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Mediastinal Neoplasms / secondary. Pregnancy, Tubal / diagnosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Fallopian Tubes / pathology. Fallopian Tubes / surgery. Female. Humans. Pleural Effusion, Malignant / diagnosis. Pleural Effusion, Malignant / pathology. Pleural Effusion, Malignant / surgery. Pregnancy


12. Kume H, Kakutani S, Tomita K, Kitamura T: Salvage combination chemotherapy with docetaxel, ifosfamide and cisplatin (DIP): successful treatment of a case with metastatic testicular immature teratoma. Jpn J Clin Oncol; 2008 Feb;38(2):143-5
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  • [Title] Salvage combination chemotherapy with docetaxel, ifosfamide and cisplatin (DIP): successful treatment of a case with metastatic testicular immature teratoma.
  • We present a case of metastatic testicular immature teratoma that was successfully treated despite resistance to standard chemotherapy and unsuccessful salvage surgery.
  • By the time of the referral lung and mediastinal lymph node metastasis had appeared and para-aortic lymph node metastasis had grown larger.
  • We administered the DIP (docetaxel, ifosfamide and cisplatin) regimen as a second line chemotherapy, which was effective with 82% reduction of para-aortic lymph nodes, 88% of mediastinal lymph nodes and 85% of lung metastasis.
  • We performed para-aortic lymph node dissection followed by resection of lung metastasis and mediastinal lymph node dissection.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Humans. Ifosfamide / administration & dosage. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Mediastinum. Taxoids / administration & dosage. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18250203.001).
  • [ISSN] 1465-3621
  • [Journal-full-title] Japanese journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Jpn. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Taxoids; 15H5577CQD / docetaxel; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; UM20QQM95Y / Ifosfamide
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13. Kang CH, Ra YJ, Kim YT, Jheon SH, Sung SW, Kim JH: The impact of multiple metastatic nodal stations on survival in patients with resectable N1 and N2 nonsmall-cell lung cancer. Ann Thorac Surg; 2008 Oct;86(4):1092-7
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  • [Title] The impact of multiple metastatic nodal stations on survival in patients with resectable N1 and N2 nonsmall-cell lung cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to identify common prognostic factors in nonsmall-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with N1 and N2 nodal involvement.
  • The prognostic factors for overall survival in both the N1 and N2 groups were age and the number of metastatic nodal stations; however, N2 metastasis was not a significant prognostic factor in the multivariate analysis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Multiple metastatic nodal stations was the common prognostic factor in resectable NSCLC patients with nodal metastasis, and mediastinal nodal involvement was associated with a higher chance of multiple-station metastasis in this study.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / mortality. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / mortality. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Analysis of Variance. Biopsy, Needle. Cause of Death. Cohort Studies. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Lymph Node Excision / methods. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Neoplasm Staging. Pneumonectomy / methods. Probability. Proportional Hazards Models. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment. Survival Analysis. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18805138.001).
  • [ISSN] 1552-6259
  • [Journal-full-title] The Annals of thoracic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Thorac. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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14. Notting IC, Buijs JT, Que I, Mintardjo RE, van der Horst G, Karperien M, Missotten GS, Jager MJ, Schalij-Delfos NE, Keunen JE, van der Pluijm G: Whole-body bioluminescent imaging of human uveal melanoma in a new mouse model of local tumor growth and metastasis. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci; 2005 May;46(5):1581-7
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  • [Title] Whole-body bioluminescent imaging of human uveal melanoma in a new mouse model of local tumor growth and metastasis.
  • Radiodiagnostic examinations, such as ultrasonic diagnostic resonance imaging and chest radiographs plus liver enzyme studies in blood, are methods used to detect liver and other distant metastases in patients.
  • Nevertheless, the mortality rate is high, because of the frequent occurrence of metastases and the lack of systemic therapy.
  • Therefore, the development of novel anticancer strategies is urgent, and more sensitive and less invasive methods of detecting and monitoring in vivo tumor growth and metastatic disease in cancer models are needed.
  • Tumor cells were inoculated into the anterior chamber of murine eyes for induction of orthotopic growth or into the left heart ventricle to mimic hematogenous micrometastatic spread.
  • Development of metastases and tumor growth was monitored weekly by whole-body bioluminescent reporter imaging (BLI).
  • RESULTS: Injection of cancer cells into the anterior chamber of the eye of mice closely mimicked orthotopic tumor growth of uveal melanoma.
  • Tumor progression could be quantitatively monitored 3 weeks after inoculation of 10(5) OCM-1 FRT/luc cells.
  • Of the mice injected, 83% exhibited a detectable tumor within 5 weeks.
  • Intracardiac injection of tumor cells resulted in metastatic growth, especially in bone.
  • Mice had bone (maxillofacial region and femora) and visceral (lung and mediastinum) metastases after 4 to 6 weeks.
  • CONCLUSIONS: BLI enables continuous quantitative monitoring in the same animal of growth kinetics for each tumor and its metastases.
  • This model will accelerate the understanding of the pathogenesis and treatment of uveal melanoma and metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Diagnostic Imaging / methods. Disease Models, Animal. Melanoma / pathology. Melanoma / secondary. Uveal Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Anterior Chamber / pathology. Female. Heart Neoplasms / pathology. Humans. Luciferases / genetics. Luciferases / metabolism. Luminescent Agents / metabolism. Luminescent Measurements. Mice. Mice, Inbred BALB C. Neoplasm Transplantation. Transfection. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 15851554.001).
  • [ISSN] 0146-0404
  • [Journal-full-title] Investigative ophthalmology & visual science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Luminescent Agents; EC 1.13.12.- / Luciferases
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15. Masi G, Fornaro L, Cupini S, Loupakis F, Vasile E, Baldi GG, Stasi I, Salvatore L, Falcone A: Refractory neuroendocrine tumor-response to liposomal doxorubicin and capecitabine. Nat Rev Clin Oncol; 2009 Nov;6(11):670-4
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  • [Title] Refractory neuroendocrine tumor-response to liposomal doxorubicin and capecitabine.
  • BACKGROUND: A 61-year-old patient with no relevant medical or family history presented with a 2 month history of refractory dry cough that led to the diagnosis of typical carcinoid tumor of the lung metastatic to the mediastinal lymph nodes and liver.
  • DIAGNOSIS: Pulmonary spindle-cell carcinoid tumor with metastases to mediastinal lymph nodes and liver.
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / therapeutic use. Capecitabine. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Deoxycytidine / administration & dosage. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Etoposide / therapeutic use. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Fluorouracil / analogs & derivatives. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Middle Aged. Octreotide / therapeutic use. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19861994.001).
  • [ISSN] 1759-4782
  • [Journal-full-title] Nature reviews. Clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nat Rev Clin Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; 6804DJ8Z9U / Capecitabine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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16. Li LR, Wan DS, Pan ZZ, Zhou ZW, Chen G, Wu XJ, Lu ZH, Ding PR: [Clinical features and treatment of 49 patients with anal canal adenocarcinoma]. Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2006 Sep;9(5):402-4
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  • Local recurrence and inguinal lymph node metastasis were found in 7 cases respectively, lung metastasis in 2, supraclavicular and mediastinal metastasis in 1 respectively.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Anal Canal / pathology. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 17043960.001).
  • [ISSN] 1671-0274
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua wei chang wai ke za zhi = Chinese journal of gastrointestinal surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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17. Wei S, Carroll W, Lazenby A, Bell W, Lopez R, Said-Al-Naief N: Sinonasal teratocarcinosarcoma: report of a case with review of literature and treatment outcome. Ann Diagn Pathol; 2008 Dec;12(6):415-25
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  • Sinonasal teratocarcinosarcoma is a highly malignant, polymorphous neoplasm that combines features of carcinosarcoma and teratoma.
  • The patient underwent a complex procedure for a T3N0 tumor.
  • Postoperatively, the patient had a rapid local recurrence of the tumor and underwent reexcision, and was treated with radiotherapy and chemotherapy.
  • Twelve months after his primary resection, computerized tomography scans revealed an intrathoracic tumor with dominant mass in the left hilum and metastases to the mediastinum, left pleural space, and both lungs.
  • The high rate of local recurrence and metastasis is indicative of its highly aggressive biologic behavior.
  • Almost half of the patients died of tumor within 3 years of diagnosis, despite aggressive therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinosarcoma / diagnosis. Carcinosarcoma / therapy. Nose Neoplasms / diagnosis. Nose Neoplasms / therapy. Teratoma / diagnosis. Teratoma / therapy

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  • (PMID = 18995206.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8198
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 33
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18. Welter S, Jacobs J, Krbek T, Poettgen C, Stamatis G: Prognostic impact of lymph node involvement in pulmonary metastases from colorectal cancer. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg; 2007 Feb;31(2):167-72
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  • [Title] Prognostic impact of lymph node involvement in pulmonary metastases from colorectal cancer.
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to identify the prognostic impact of unexpected lymph node metastases in patients undergoing resection of pulmonary metastases from colorectal cancer and specify the influence of pulmonary and mediastinal nodal involvement according to the modified Narukes lymph node mapping [Mountain CF, Dresler CM.
  • Regional lymph node classification for lung cancer.
  • METHODS: From January 1993 to December 2003, 175 patients were diagnosed and resected for pulmonary metastases of colorectal cancer.
  • Ninety-six men (56.8%) and 73 women (43.2%) with a median age of 62 (range 34-81) were identified, 28 (16.7%) patients were found to have lymph node metastases, five of them were identified during a recurrent procedure.
  • The prognostic influence of lymph node metastases on survival was analyzed with the log-rank test.
  • Ten patients with intrapulmonary nodal involvement had a median survival of 86 months whereas 12 patients with hilar and six patients with mediastinal lymph node metastases had a median survival of 24.5 and 34.7 months.
  • The survival difference between pulmonary and hilar/mediastinal metastases was statistically significant (p=0.008/p=0.07).
  • Five year survival with pulmonary, hilar, and mediastinal metastases was 78.5, 0, and 0%, respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Resection of pulmonary metastases secondary to colorectal cancer is safe and indicated in highly selected patients.
  • Because tumor involvement of lymph nodes has a strong impact on survival; depending on their location, at least a lymph node sampling should always be performed.
  • Adjuvant chemotherapy in case of proven lymph node metastases might be a good option to improve prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Epidemiologic Methods. Female. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Mediastinum. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Pneumonectomy. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 17150367.001).
  • [ISSN] 1010-7940
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery : official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Cardiothorac Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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19. Warwick R, Page R: Resection of pulmonary metastases from colorectal carcinoma. Eur J Surg Oncol; 2007 Dec;33 Suppl 2:S59-63
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  • [Title] Resection of pulmonary metastases from colorectal carcinoma.
  • Although pulmonary metastases from colorectal carcinoma (CRC) often represent systemic and uncontrolled tumour growth, in a number of patients lung disease is limited and the patient remains well.
  • When the metastases can be removed, long term survival is a possibility, with 5- and 10-year survivals in the order of 44% and 25%.
  • Pulmonary metastases which are suitable for resection are usually detected on chest radiography, especially when carried out during monitoring of patients.
  • CT scans supplemented by PET scans usually confirm the diagnosis, but percutaneous biopsy is sometimes necessary to exclude a primary lung cancer.
  • The criteria for resecting CRC pulmonary metastases are (1) the primary tumour is controlled or is controllable;.
  • The majority of patients having resection of pulmonary metastases from CRC recover well with very few post-operative complications.
  • Following resection favourable prognostic factors include a long disease-free interval, small number and small size of metastases, a normal carcinoembryonic antigen level, and an absence of concomitant liver metastases and mediastinal lymph node spread.
  • Surgery for pulmonary metastases of CRC remains the best means of local control and the best way to render the patient disease-free.
  • Patients with complete resection of pulmonary metastases have an improved long-term survival when compared to patients with unresected metastases.
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Humans. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Patient Selection. Survival Analysis. Thoracic Surgery, Video-Assisted. Thoracotomy

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  • (PMID = 18023132.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2157
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of surgical oncology : the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 37
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20. Sugiura Y, Takeuchi K, Kakizaki T, Kaseda S: [Complete response by S-1 with multiple pulmonary metastases 4 years after lung resection-a case report]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2009 Dec;36(13):2611-4
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  • [Title] [Complete response by S-1 with multiple pulmonary metastases 4 years after lung resection-a case report].
  • The patient underwent partial resection of the right upper lobe by video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery in May 2004, frozen sections of which showed poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma, consistent with the tumor size 2.5 x 1.7 cm.
  • Bilateral multiple lung metastases and mediastinal lymph nodes involvement were confirmed by CT.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Drug Combinations. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Pneumonectomy. Remission Induction

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  • (PMID = 20009464.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Drug Combinations; 150863-82-4 / S 1 (combination); 1548R74NSZ / Tegafur; 5VT6420TIG / Oxonic Acid
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21. Xiao YJ, Zheng SB, Tan WL, Chen T, Qi H, Shao ZQ, Jiang YD, Wu P, Zhang HJ: [Nephron-sparing surgery for small renal cell carcinoma: clinical analysis of 21 cases]. Di Yi Jun Yi Da Xue Xue Bao; 2005 Mar;25(3):357-9
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  • METHODS: Nephron-sparing surgery was performed in 21 patients with renal cell carcinoma including 1 with solitary kidney, 3 with unilateral tumor and contralateral renal compromise, and 17 with unilateral tumor and normal contralateral kidney.
  • The tumor diameter in 17 patients with normal contralateral kidney was less than 4 cm (mean 2.5 cm) and the average diameter in 4 patients with contralateral renal compromise was 4.2 cm.
  • Of the 21 patients, 4 underwent tumor enucleation, 10 polar nephrectomy and 7 wedge resection.
  • One patient suffered a right lung and mediastinum metastasis 3 years after the surgery later and 1 with chronic glomerulonephritis required dialysis 27 months after the operation.
  • CONCLUSION: As a safe and effective therapy for early-stage small renal cell carcinoma, nephron-sparing surgery can be considered as the gold-standard therapy for patients with lesions less than 4 cm in T(1) and T(2) stages of localized unilateral tumor with normal contralateral kidney.

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  • (PMID = 15772014.001).
  • [ISSN] 1000-2588
  • [Journal-full-title] Di 1 jun yi da xue xue bao = Academic journal of the first medical college of PLA
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Di Yi Jun Yi Da Xue Xue Bao
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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22. Fukuda A, Sudou S, Kitahara I, Komatsu D, Kobayashi N, Abe T, Fukushima T: [7 fractionated cyberknife radiotherapy for giant skull metastasis: a case report]. No Shinkei Geka; 2010 Nov;38(11):1013-7
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  • [Title] [7 fractionated cyberknife radiotherapy for giant skull metastasis: a case report].
  • This is a report on the experience of using stereotactic radiotherapy for a large symptomatic metastatic skull tumor.
  • Nineteen months after uterine cancer surgery, the patient demonstrated metastasis to the mediastinum lymph node and a tumor at the parietal bone tumor but was still undergoing observation.
  • An increase of the parietal bone tumor became evident and the appearance of right hemiplegia, aphasia, and cognitive dysfunction caused her to consult this hospital.
  • We observed a large 236 cm3 tumor spread over the subcutaneous tissue of the superior sagittal sinus, pressing the brain out of the dura mater and causing bone destruction.
  • At the follow up visit one month after the treatment, the image of the tumor had already decreased, and after three months it was confirmed that the image of the tumor had disappeared.
  • Six months after irradiation, there is no evidence of tumor regrowth or complications such as dermatopathy, cerebral edema, or necrosis.
  • In this case, though the tumor had spread widely in the subcutaneous tissue, the exposure doses were delivered at 2Gy/time and could be limited to under 70Gy.
  • It is thought that Cyberknife radiotherapy will become one of the key treatments to help improve quality of life when treating symptomatic metastatic tumors.

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  • (PMID = 21081813.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-2603
  • [Journal-full-title] No shinkei geka. Neurological surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] No Shinkei Geka
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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23. Lu Y, Goldblatt JC: Multiple mediastinal metastasis of ovarian carcinoma. Heart Lung Circ; 2005 Jun;14(2):118-20
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  • [Title] Multiple mediastinal metastasis of ovarian carcinoma.
  • Secondary mediastinal tumours are rare.
  • We present a case report of multiple mediastinal metastasis of ovarian cancer, a very rare occurrence with only two cases previously reported in the literature.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / secondary. Mediastinal Neoplasms / secondary. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16352267.001).
  • [ISSN] 1443-9506
  • [Journal-full-title] Heart, lung & circulation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Heart Lung Circ
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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24. Hirano S, Nagahara K, Moritani S, Kitamura M, Takagita S: Upper mediastinal node dissection for hypopharyngeal and cervical esophageal carcinomas. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol; 2007 Apr;116(4):290-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Upper mediastinal node dissection for hypopharyngeal and cervical esophageal carcinomas.
  • OBJECTIVES: Hypopharyngeal cancer (HPC) and cervical esophageal cancer (Ce) are aggressive tumors with a poor prognosis.
  • Multiple lymph node metastases often occur in the upper mediastinum, as well as in the neck, and thus upper mediastinal dissection (MD) is crucial to improving the cure rate.
  • In the present retrospective study we aimed to determine the proper extent of upper MD according to tumor site and stage.
  • The incidence and distribution of lymph node metastases in the upper mediastinum were assessed by postoperative histopathologic examination.
  • RESULTS: Upper mediastinal metastases were detected in 7.8% of HPC patients, 33.3% of Ce patients, and 55.6% of Ce/Ut patients.
  • In HPC patients, mediastinal metastases were usually associated with T4 primary tumors (80%), whereas positive nodes in the upper mediastinum were detected regardless of T stage in both Ce and Ce/Ut.
  • Only 1 Ce/Ut patient with a T4 tumor developed late nodal metastasis in the lower mediastinum.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Esophagectomy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Mediastinum. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Pharyngectomy. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17491530.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4894
  • [Journal-full-title] The Annals of otology, rhinology, and laryngology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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25. Cremades A, Tériitéhau C, Grand B, Saint-Blancard P: [Late mediastinal metastasis of Ewing's sarcoma of tibia]. Rev Pneumol Clin; 2008 Jun;64(3):133-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Late mediastinal metastasis of Ewing's sarcoma of tibia].
  • [Transliterated title] Métastase médiastinale tardive d'un sarcome d'Ewing du tibia.
  • Their metastatic potential is high, generally early, and rarely after five years.
  • We report the case of a 45-year-old woman who presented a mediastinal metastasis eight years after the primitive tumor of tibia.
  • The diagnosis was made on small core biopsies obtained by CT punction, and was based on morphologic analysis, immunohistochemistry, and confirmed by molecular biology.
  • The presence of metastasis is the main prognostic factor.
  • Despite therapeutic progress, the global survival rate of metastatic patients is still poor.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / pathology. Mediastinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Mediastinal Neoplasms / secondary. Sarcoma, Ewing / diagnosis. Sarcoma, Ewing / secondary. Tibia
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 18656786.001).
  • [ISSN] 0761-8417
  • [Journal-full-title] Revue de pneumologie clinique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Pneumol Clin
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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26. Fujino H, Kondo K, Ishikura H, Maki H, Kinoshita H, Miyoshi T, Takahashi Y, Sawada N, Takizawa H, Nagao T, Sakiyama S, Monden Y: Matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor MMI-166 inhibits lymphogenous metastasis in an orthotopically implanted model of lung cancer. Mol Cancer Ther; 2005 Sep;4(9):1409-16
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor MMI-166 inhibits lymphogenous metastasis in an orthotopically implanted model of lung cancer.
  • Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) are considered to be critically involved in tumor invasion and the metastasis of various cancers.
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of MMI-166 on both the growth of the implanted tumor and the lymph node metastasis of the mediastinum and prolonging the life span, using an orthotopic implantation model of the Ma44-3 cancer cell line.
  • We examined the anti-invasive effect of MMI-166 in lung cancer cell lines using an in vitro invasion assay.
  • MMI-166 (200 mg/kg body weight) or a vehicle was administered orally to the orthotopically implanted lung cancer model.
  • MMI-166 dose-dependently inhibited the invasion of cancer cell lines with expressions of MMP-2 and/or MMP-9 in vitro.
  • In vivo, MMI-166 significantly inhibited mediastinal lymph node metastasis in this orthotopic model (weight of the mediastinum: control, 0.089 +/- 0.009 versus MMI-166, 0.069 +/- 0.008 mg; P = 0.005; metastatic area: control, 93,495 +/- 55,747 versus MMI-166, 22,747 +/- 17,478 pixels; P = 0.045).
  • These results showed that MMI-166 could possibly inhibit lymph node metastasis and prolong the life span in lung cancer patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / prevention & control. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / secondary. Disease Models, Animal. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Matrix Metalloproteinase Inhibitors. Sulfonamides / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Humans. Injections, Subcutaneous. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Mice. Mice, SCID. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neovascularization, Pathologic / prevention & control. Survival Rate. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 16170033.001).
  • [ISSN] 1535-7163
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular cancer therapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cancer Ther.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Matrix Metalloproteinase Inhibitors; 0 / N-alpha-(4-(2-phenyl-2H- tetrazole-5-yl) phenyl sulfonyl)-D-tryptophan; 0 / Sulfonamides
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27. Sawhney MS, Kratzke RA, Lederle FA, Holmstrom AM, Nelson DB, Kelly RF: Endoscopic ultrasound and positron emission tomography for lung cancer staging. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol; 2006 Jul;4(7):846-51
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  • [Title] Endoscopic ultrasound and positron emission tomography for lung cancer staging.
  • BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Accurate assessment of mediastinal lymph nodes is vital for optimum treatment allocation in lung cancer patients.
  • Currently available strategies fail to identify many patients with advanced mediastinal disease, resulting in unnecessary surgery.
  • We prospectively compared 2 promising new modalities, positron emission tomography (PET) and endoscopic ultrasound (EUS), for staging mediastinal lymph nodes.
  • METHODS: Consenting patients with lung cancer who also were suitable candidates for surgery were enrolled in the study.
  • The final diagnosis was based on tissue analysis in 59 patients and 1-year radiologic follow-up evaluation in 6 patients.
  • PET correctly diagnosed mediastinal lymph node status in 77% of patients, and EUS fine-needle aspiration was correct in 94% of patients (P = .012).
  • We estimated that EUS obviated a surgical procedure in 55% (95% confidence interval, 40%-69%) of patients with radiologic evidence of mediastinal metastasis, and in 22% (95% confidence interval, 10%-41%) of patients without radiologic evidence of mediastinal metastasis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: EUS fine-needle aspiration was more accurate than PET in staging mediastinal lymph nodes in lung cancer patients, and resulted in a substantial reduction in mediastinoscopy and thoracotomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Endosonography. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Lymph Nodes / radionuclide imaging. Lymph Nodes / ultrasonography. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Positron-Emission Tomography
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Female. Humans. Male. Mediastinum. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests. Prospective Studies. Reproducibility of Results

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  • (PMID = 16682256.001).
  • [ISSN] 1542-3565
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology : the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
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28. Cicenas S, Zaliene A, Atkocius V: [Treatment outcome of locally advanced stage IIIA/B lung cancer]. Medicina (Kaunas); 2009;45(6):452-9
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  • [Title] [Treatment outcome of locally advanced stage IIIA/B lung cancer].
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine survival of patients with stage IIIA/B non-small cell lung cancer considering disease stage and treatment methods.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 304 patients with non-small cell lung cancer were treated at the Department of Thoracic Surgery and Oncology, Institute of Oncology, Vilnius University, in 2000-2004.
  • Stage IIIA (T3N1-2M0) cancer was diagnosed for 193 (63.5%) patients and stage IIIB (T4N0-1M0) cancer was diagnosed for 111 (36.5%) patients.
  • According to morphology, there were 219 (72%) patients with squamous cell lung cancer, 80 (26.3%) with adenocarcinoma, and 5 (1.7%) patients with large cell carcinoma.
  • The median and mean survival of patients with stage IIIA cancer was 8.3 months and 10.4 months, respectively, and that of patients with stage IIIB cancer - 6.4 months and 9.0 months, respectively (P < or =0.05).
  • The median survival of the patients with stage IIIA cancer who received a combination of operation, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy with a total dose of >40 Gy was 14.4 months (mean, 14.7 months), and the median survival of those who received operation, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy with a total dose of < or =40 Gy was 9.7 months (mean, 14.1 months); the median survival of the patients who underwent surgery alone was 4.9 months (mean, 6.7 months) (P=0.004 and P=0.007), respectively.
  • There was a significant difference in the median survival comparing the patients with stage IIIB cancer who underwent surgery alone and those who received a combination of radiation therapy and chemotherapy (median survival of 5.0 months [mean, 8.1 months] versus 16.8 months [mean, 17.6 months], respectively; P < or =0.05).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Disease stage had an influence on the survival of patients with non-small cell lung cancer: patients with stage IIIA (T3N0-1M0) cancer without metastases to mediastinal lymph nodes (N factor) survived longer than patients with stage IIIB (T4N1-2M0) cancer, where not only N factor had an impact but T factor as well.
  • Better treatment outcomes, i.e. longer survival, can be achieved when a combination of three treatment types - surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy - is applied to patients with stage IIIA or IIIB non-small cell lung cancer.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Aged. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Large Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Lung / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. Palliative Care. Radiotherapy Dosage. Thoracotomy. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19605965.001).
  • [ISSN] 1648-9144
  • [Journal-full-title] Medicina (Kaunas, Lithuania)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Medicina (Kaunas)
  • [Language] lit
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Lithuania
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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29. Morikawa M, Demura Y, Ishizaki T, Ameshima S, Miyamori I, Sasaki M, Tsuchida T, Kimura H, Fujibayashi Y, Okazawa H: The effectiveness of 18F-FDG PET/CT combined with STIR MRI for diagnosing nodal involvement in the thorax. J Nucl Med; 2009 Jan;50(1):81-7
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  • The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of short-tau inversion-recovery (STIR) MRI and 18F-FDG PET/CT for the detection of metastasis in mediastinal and hilar lymph nodes in patients with lung cancer.
  • METHODS: Ninety-three patients with known or suspected lung cancer with mediastinal and hilar lymph node swelling underwent STIR MRI and 18F-FDG PET/CT examinations.
  • RESULTS: A total of 137 lymph nodes (82 malignant lesions, 55 benign lesions) were analyzed.
  • [MeSH-major] Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis / radiography. Lymphatic Metastasis / radionuclide imaging. Radiography, Thoracic. Thorax / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Mediastinal Neoplasms / radiography. Mediastinal Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Mediastinal Neoplasms / secondary. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Phantoms, Imaging. Positron-Emission Tomography. Sensitivity and Specificity. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19091887.001).
  • [ISSN] 0161-5505
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of nuclear medicine : official publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Nucl. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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30. Lai ML, Faa G, Serra S, Senes G, Daniele GM, Boi F, Mariotti S, Beauchemin M, Asa SL: Rhabdoid tumor of the thyroid gland: a variant of anaplastic carcinoma. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2005 Mar;129(3):e55-7
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  • [Title] Rhabdoid tumor of the thyroid gland: a variant of anaplastic carcinoma.
  • Rhabdoid tumor of the thyroid gland is a very rare neoplasm, characterized by significant metastatic potential.
  • Histologic examination showed a highly cellular neoplasm with a solid infiltrative growth pattern.
  • Immunohistochemistry identified vimentin, sarcomeric actin, myoglobin, and cytokeratin expression in the tumor cells; they were negative for desmin, thyroglobulin, and calcitonin.
  • Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction using specific primers for RET/PTC1 and RET/PTC3 fusion genes identified a RET/PTC3 gene rearrangement in the rhabdoid tumor.
  • Despite radiotherapy, the neoplasm rapidly progressed, with massive local and mediastinal metastasis leading to death 5 months after presentation.
  • The hypothesis that rhabdoid tumor is a variant of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma is supported by the identification of a RET/PTC gene rearrangement, a feature of carcinomas of follicular cell derivation.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / diagnosis. Rhabdoid Tumor / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 15737050.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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31. Okubo K, Bando T, Miyahara R, Sakai H, Shoji T, Sonobe M, Fujinaga T, Sato K, Wada H, Tanaka T: Resection of pulmonary metastasis of non-small cell lung cancer. J Thorac Oncol; 2009 Feb;4(2):203-7
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  • [Title] Resection of pulmonary metastasis of non-small cell lung cancer.
  • INTRODUCTION: Management of pulmonary metastasis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains controversial.
  • We reviewed our surgical treatment for pulmonary metastasis of NSCLC.
  • METHODS: Seventy-six patients with pulmonary metastasis of NSCLC underwent pulmonary resections in two institutes during the past 10 years.
  • Eighteen patients with simultaneous same lobe metastasis as the primary lesion underwent mostly lobectomies.
  • Sixteen patients with simultaneous different lobe metastasis underwent combined margin-free resections.
  • Forty-nine pulmonary metastasectomies were performed in 42 patients with recurrent lung cancer.
  • RESULTS: In the patients with the same lobe metastasis 5-year survival was 79.6%, and median and 5-year disease-free survivals were 39.1 months and 41.3%.
  • In the patients with simultaneous different lobe metastasis median survival and 5-year survival were 37.7 months and 30.7%, and median and 5-year disease-free survivals were 13.3 months and 12.5%, respectively.
  • Multiple pulmonary metastasis and mediastinal node metastasis were identified as significant factors affecting survivals.
  • In the patients with recurrent pulmonary metastasis median survival and 5-year survival were 40.0 months and 34.8%, and median and 5-year disease-free survivals were 23.7 months and 14.4%, respectively.
  • Node metastasis, higher age, and shorter interval from the prior resection were identified as significant factors affecting survivals.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the simultaneous same lobe metastasis is under the same indication for the primary lesion, and that the simultaneous different lobe metastasis and recurrent pulmonary metastasis should be removed in selected patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / surgery. Lung Neoplasms / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Pneumonectomy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19179897.001).
  • [ISSN] 1556-1380
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of thoracic oncology : official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Thorac Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
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32. Oleksy P, Pogrzebielski A, Karska-Basta I, Romanowska-Dixon B: A case of choroidal metastasis in a male breast cancer. Klin Oczna; 2010;112(10-12):311-3
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  • [Title] A case of choroidal metastasis in a male breast cancer.
  • PURPOSE: We present a case of male patient under therapy due to breast cancer with choroid metastasis and exudative retinal detachment in right eye.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: A 59 years old male patient was referred with diagnosis of intraocular tumor in right eye Three years ago radical right-side mastectomy was performed (T2N1M0).
  • The medical history revealed that the patient was under chemo- and hormontherapy due to right breast cancer with lungs, liver and mediastinum metastases.
  • Based on the ophthalmological examination the diagnosis of intraocular tumor was established--choroidal metastasis with exudative retinal detachment.
  • Due to tumor size and general dissemination external beam irradiation of tumor was performed.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The majority of choroidal metastases in males are secondary to lung carcinoma, however in differential diagnosis it is necessary to consider also rare cases of breast carcinoma metastases.
  • Treatment strategy should be considered individual depending on size, localization, presence of metastases to other organs and general condition of the patient.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms, Male / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / secondary. Choroid Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Choroid Neoplasms / secondary


33. Chen TM, Donington J, Mak G, Berry GJ, Ruoss SJ, Rosen GD, Upadhyay D: Recurrence of pulmonary intravascular bronchoalveolar tumor with mediastinal metastasis 20 years later. Respir Med; 2006 Feb;100(2):367-70
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  • [Title] Recurrence of pulmonary intravascular bronchoalveolar tumor with mediastinal metastasis 20 years later.
  • Pulmonary intravascular bronchoalveolar tumor (IVBAT) also recognized as pulmonary epithelioid hemangioendothelioma, is a rare malignant vascular tumor of unknown etiology.
  • IVBAT is a tumor of multicentric origin and the lungs are rarely involved, with only about 60 cases of pulmonary IVBAT described in the literature.
  • We report an unusual case of pulmonary IVBAT that recurred in the lung with metastasis to the mediastinum.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioendothelioma, Epithelioid / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Mediastinal Neoplasms / secondary. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local

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  • (PMID = 15990286.001).
  • [ISSN] 0954-6111
  • [Journal-full-title] Respiratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Respir Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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34. Satoh E, Maruyama M, Uehira D, Koike T, Mitsuhashi Y, Ebana K, Ohinata R, Koide A, Sanada T, Maruyama S, Sakoma T: [Two case reports of metastatic liver carcinoma with the effective treatment of radiofrequency ablation and intraarterial chemotherapy]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2009 Nov;36(12):2196-7
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  • [Title] [Two case reports of metastatic liver carcinoma with the effective treatment of radiofrequency ablation and intraarterial chemotherapy].
  • We report two cases of metastatic liver carcinoma with the treatment of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and intraarterial chemotherapy.
  • The 57-year-old man of Case 1 had resectable multiple liver metastases of rectal carcinoma in November 2007.
  • The 66-year-old man of Case 2 had unresectable multiple liver metastases of locally-advanced esophageal carcinoma in July 2006.
  • After this treatment, solitary brain metastasis and lymph node metastasis of mediastinum were found and treated, and now he has been alive with systemic chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Catheter Ablation. Esophageal Neoplasms / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / therapy. Rectal Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20037368.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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35. Ma Q, Liu D, Guo Y, Shi B, Song Z, Tian Y: Surgical therapeutic strategy for non-small cell lung cancer with mediastinal lymph node metastasis (N2). Zhongguo Fei Ai Za Zhi; 2010 Apr;13(4):342-8
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  • [Title] Surgical therapeutic strategy for non-small cell lung cancer with mediastinal lymph node metastasis (N2).
  • BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Approximately 30% of patients who are diagnosed with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are classified as N2 on the basis of metastasis to the mediastinal lymph nodes.
  • The database covers the patients' complete medical history including the information of their age, sex, location and size of tumor, date of operation, surgical methods, histologic diagnosis, clinical stage, post-operative TNM stage, neoadjuvant treatment and chemoradiotherapy.
  • The pathological classification was based on the international standard for lung cancer (UICC 1997).
  • In all N2 subtypes, 5-year survival rate is remarkably higher for unexpected N2 discovered at thoractomy and proven N2 stage before preoperative work-up and receive a mediastinal down-staging after induction therapy (P < 0.01), reaching 30.4% and 27.3% respectively.
  • 5-year survival rate for single station lymph node metastasis were 27.8%, much higher compared with 9.3% for multiple stations (P < 0.001).
  • CONCLUSION: It is suggested that surgery (lobectomy preferentially) is the best solution for T1 and T2 with primary tumor have not invaded pleura or the distance to carina of trachea no less than 2 cm, unexpected N2 discovered at thoractomy when a complete resection can be applied, and proven N2 discovered during preoperative work-up and is down-staged after induction therapy.
  • Patients' survival time will not benefit from surgery if they are with lymph nodes metastasis of multiple stations (Bulky N2 included) and T4 which can be partially removed.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / surgery. Lung Neoplasms / surgery. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Thoracic Surgical Procedures / methods

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  • (PMID = 20677562.001).
  • [ISSN] 1009-3419
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhongguo fei ai za zhi = Chinese journal of lung cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhongguo Fei Ai Za Zhi
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
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36. Ichiki Y, Sugio K, Baba T, Mizukami M, Oga T, Takenoyama M, Hanagiri T, Okamoto K, Yamaguchi K, Katagiri S, Yamamoto M, Yasumoto K: Mediastinal metastasis from a fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma: Report of a case. Surg Today; 2010 Apr;40(4):360-4
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  • [Title] Mediastinal metastasis from a fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma: Report of a case.
  • This report presents a case of a rare mediastinal metastasis from FL-HCC in a patient who had undergone a previous resection for retroperitoneal metastasis after the initial hepatic operation.
  • This patient also had a mediastinal neurogenic tumor, and these mediastinal tumors were concurrently resected.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / pathology. Mediastinal Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Humans. Male. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 20339991.001).
  • [ISSN] 1436-2813
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery today
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Today
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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37. Kesler KA, Wilson JL, Cosgrove JA, Brooks JA, Messiha A, Fineberg NS, Einhorn LH, Brown JW: Surgical salvage therapy for malignant intrathoracic metastases from nonseminomatous germ cell cancer of testicular origin: analysis of a single-institution experience. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg; 2005 Aug;130(2):408-15
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  • [Title] Surgical salvage therapy for malignant intrathoracic metastases from nonseminomatous germ cell cancer of testicular origin: analysis of a single-institution experience.
  • BACKGROUND: Cisplatin-based chemotherapy followed by surgical extirpation of residual benign disease represents the usual sequence of curative therapy for metastatic nonseminomatous germ cell cancer of testicular origin.
  • Occasionally, residual disease is malignant in the form of either a persistent nonseminomatous germ cell cancer tumor or degeneration into non-germ cell cancer.
  • We reviewed our institution's experience with patients undergoing salvage operations to remove malignant intrathoracic metastases.
  • METHODS: From 1981 through 2001, 438 patients with nonseminomatous germ cell cancer had operations to remove residual intrathoracic disease after cisplatin-based chemotherapy at Indiana University Hospital.
  • A subset of 134 patients who underwent 186 surgical procedures to remove malignant metastases is the basis of this review.
  • Fifty-nine patients had removal of pulmonary metastases, 49 had removal of mediastinal metastases, and 26 had removal of both pulmonary and mediastinal metastases.
  • Surgical pathology demonstrated 84 patients with persistent nonseminomatous germ cell cancer tumors, 38 with degeneration into non-germ cell cancer, and 12 with both malignant pathologic categories.
  • Of these, older age, pulmonary metastases (vs mediastinal metastases), and 4 or more (vs 1) total intrathoracic metastases were significantly (P < or = .01) predictive of inferior long-term survival.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Salvage thoracic surgery to remove malignant metastases from nonseminomatous germ cell cancer tumors of testicular origin can result in long-term survival in select patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Lung Neoplasms / therapy. Mediastinal Neoplasms / therapy. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / therapy. Testicular Neoplasms / therapy. Thoracic Surgical Procedures / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome


38. Annema JT, Bohoslavsky R, Burgers S, Smits M, Taal B, Venmans B, Nabers H, van de Borne B, van Balkom R, Haitjema T, Welling A, Staaks G, Dekkers OM, van Tinteren H, Rabe KF: Implementation of endoscopic ultrasound for lung cancer staging. Gastrointest Endosc; 2010 Jan;71(1):64-70, 70.e1
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  • [Title] Implementation of endoscopic ultrasound for lung cancer staging.
  • BACKGROUND: EUS-guided FNA is currently advocated in lung cancer staging guidelines as an alternative for surgical staging to prove mediastinal metastases.
  • To date, training requirements for chest physicians to obtain competency in EUS for lung cancer staging are unknown.
  • OBJECTIVE: To test a training and implementation strategy for EUS for the diagnosis and staging of lung cancer.
  • Nine (chest) physicians from 5 hospitals participated in a dedicated EUS educational program (investigation of 50 patients) for the diagnosis and staging of lung cancer.
  • SETTING: Four general hospitals, the national cancer center (implementation centers), and a tertiary referral center (expert center).
  • PATIENTS: This study involved 551 consecutive patients with (suspected) lung cancer, all candidates for surgical staging, who underwent EUS in 1 of the 5 implementation centers (n = 346) or the single expert center (n = 205).
  • Surgical-pathological staging was the reference standard in case no mediastinal metastases were found.
  • RESULTS: EUS had a sensitivity of 83% versus 82% and accuracy of 89% versus 88% for mediastinal nodal staging (implementation center vs expert center).
  • LIMITATION: Surgical-pathological verification of mediastinal nodes was not available in all patients staged negative at EUS.
  • CONCLUSION: Chest physicians who participate in a dedicated training and implementation program for EUS in lung cancer staging can obtain results similar to those of experts for mediastinal nodal staging.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / ultrasonography. Endosonography / methods. Lung Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Neoplasm Staging / methods

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  • [Copyright] 2010 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19906368.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6779
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastrointestinal endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastrointest. Endosc.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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39. Lyons G, Quadrelli S, Silva C, Vera K, Iotti A, Venditti J, Chertcoff J, Chimondeguy D: Analysis of survival in 400 surgically resected non-small cell lung carcinomas: towards a redefinition of the T factor. J Thorac Oncol; 2008 Sep;3(9):989-93
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  • INTRODUCTION: The tumor, node, metastasis (TNM) system has been recognized internationally as the standard for staging disease extension, but despite the improvements of the 1997/2002 international staging system, there may be marked differences in postoperative 5-year survival rates within each stage.
  • There is controversy about the impact of tumor size itself as a variable unrelated to stage.The objective of this study was to analyze the influence of tumor size on the survival in patients with surgically resected non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC).
  • The clinicopathological records of each patient were examined for prognostic factors such as age, sex, right or left side cancer, histology, tumor location, tumor size, clinical nodal stage number, and distribution of metastatic nodes.
  • When only patients without neoplastic hilar or mediastinal metastases (pN0) were included, the difference in survival was significantly different in terms of tumor size (log rank 28.46, p < 0.0001).
  • In the multivariate analysis, tumor size and the T factor were found to have maintained its independent prognostic effects on overall survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / mortality. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / mortality. Lung Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Pneumonectomy / mortality. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18758301.001).
  • [ISSN] 1556-1380
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of thoracic oncology : official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Thorac Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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40. Sakao Y, Miyamoto H, Oh S, Takahashi N, Sakuraba M: Clinicopathological factors associated with unexpected N3 in patients with mediastinal lymph node involvement. J Thorac Oncol; 2007 Dec;2(12):1107-11
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  • [Title] Clinicopathological factors associated with unexpected N3 in patients with mediastinal lymph node involvement.
  • INTRODUCTION: We have already shown that postoperative survival was poor in p-N3 patients from the experience of extended radical nodal dissection (ERD: cervical and bilateral mediastinal nodal dissection) for lung cancer.
  • In this retrospective study, we aimed to clarify the clinicopathological factors associated with p-N3 in patients with mediastinal lymph node involvement (excluding c-N3) who underwent ERD, and we studied their impact on prognosis.
  • METHODS: Between 1996 and April 2006, in patients with lung cancer in the right upper lobe, we performed ERD after obtaining informed consent from the patients.
  • The clinicopathological records of each patient were examined for prognostic factors associated with p-N3, including age, gender, histology, c-N number, preoperative serum CEA level, number of metastatic stations, and distribution of metastatic nodes according to the system of Naruke et al.
  • RESULTS: Of the 37 study subjects, 19 (51.4%) had one or more metastases to the mediastinal lymph nodes.
  • Of these 19 patients, 10 (52.6%) had metastases to cervical and/or contralateral mediastinal lymph nodes (unexpected N3; 5-year survival was 0%).
  • C-N factor (c-N2), nonskip N2, multistation mediastinal lymph node metastasis, highest mediastinal nodal involvement, and pT status were significantly associated with unexpected N3.
  • In particular, multistation mediastinal lymph node metastasis and highest mediastinal nodal involvement were significant prognostic factors in multivariate analyses.
  • On the other hand, because true N2 patients showed a good outcome after surgery, surgical resection may be considered an important therapeutic modality even for N2 patients, given that they show single-station mediastinal nodal involvement or c-N0-1.
  • [MeSH-major] Lung Neoplasms / mortality. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Mediastinal Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Analysis of Variance. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Lymph Node Excision / methods. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Neoplasm Staging. Probability. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment. Sex Factors. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 18090583.001).
  • [ISSN] 1556-1380
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of thoracic oncology : official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Thorac Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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41. Celikoglu F, Celikoglu SI, Goldberg EP: Intratumoural chemotherapy of lung cancer for diagnosis and treatment of draining lymph node metastasis. J Pharm Pharmacol; 2010 Mar;62(3):287-95
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  • [Title] Intratumoural chemotherapy of lung cancer for diagnosis and treatment of draining lymph node metastasis.
  • OBJECTIVES: Reviewed here is the potential effectiveness of cytotoxic drugs delivered by intratumoural injection into endobronchial tumours through a bronchoscope for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer and the diagnosis of occult or obvious cancer cell metastasis to mediastinal lymph nodes.
  • KEY FINDINGS: Intratumoural lymphatic treatment may be achieved by injection of cisplatin or other cytotoxic drugs into the malignant tissue located in the lumen of the airways or in the peribronchial structures using a needle catheter through a flexible bronchoscope.
  • This procedure is termed endobronchial intratumoural chemotherapy and its use before systemic chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy or surgery may provide a prophylactic or therapeutic treatment for eradication of micrometastases or occult metastases that migrate to the regional lymph nodes draining the tumour area.
  • In this light, the potential efficacy of intratumoural chemotherapy for prophylaxis and locoregional therapy of cancer metastasis via the sentinel and regional lymph nodes is indicated.
  • Randomized multicenter clinical studies are needed to evaluate this new and safe procedure designed to improve the condition of non-small cell lung cancer patients and prolong their survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Bronchoscopes. Early Detection of Cancer / methods. Humans. Injections, Intralesional / methods. Lymphatic Metastasis / diagnosis. Lymphatic Metastasis / radionuclide imaging. Lymphatic System / physiology. Lymphatic System / physiopathology. Lymphoscintigraphy

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  • (PMID = 20487210.001).
  • [ISSN] 2042-7158
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of pharmacy and pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pharm. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 61
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42. Annema JT, Versteegh MI, Veseliç M, Welker L, Mauad T, Sont JK, Willems LN, Rabe KF: Endoscopic ultrasound added to mediastinoscopy for preoperative staging of patients with lung cancer. JAMA; 2005 Aug 24;294(8):931-6
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  • [Title] Endoscopic ultrasound added to mediastinoscopy for preoperative staging of patients with lung cancer.
  • CONTEXT: Up to 40% of thoracotomies performed for non-small cell lung cancer are unnecessary, predominantly due to inaccurate preoperative detection of lymph node metastases and mediastinal tumor invasion (T4).
  • Mediastinoscopy and the novel, minimally invasive technique of transesophageal ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) target different mediastinal lymph node stations.
  • In addition, EUS can identify tumor invasion in neighboring organs if tumors are located adjacent to the esophagus.
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the additional value of EUS-FNA to mediastinoscopy in the preoperative staging of patients with non-small cell lung cancer.
  • During a 3-year period (2000-2003), 107 consecutive patients with potential resectable non-small cell lung cancer underwent preoperative staging by both EUS-FNA and mediastinoscopy.
  • Patients underwent thoracotomy with tumor resection if mediastinoscopy was negative.
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Detection of mediastinal tumor invasion (T4) and lymph node metastases (N2/N3) comparing the combined staging by both EUS-FNA and mediastinoscopy with staging by mediastinoscopy alone.
  • RESULTS: The combination of EUS-FNA and mediastinoscopy identified more patients with tumor invasion or lymph node metastases (36%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 27%-46%) compared with either mediastinoscopy alone (20%; 95% CI, 13%-29%) or EUS-FNA (28%; 95% CI, 19%-38%) alone.
  • CONCLUSION: These preliminary findings suggest that EUS-FNA, when added to mediastinoscopy, improves the preoperative staging of lung cancer due to the complementary reach of EUS-FNA in detecting mediastinal lymph node metastases and the ability to assess mediastinal tumor invasion.

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  • (PMID = 16118383.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-3598
  • [Journal-full-title] JAMA
  • [ISO-abbreviation] JAMA
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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43. Lee WJ, Lee DW, Chang SE, Lee MW, Choi JH, Moon KC, Koh JK: Cutaneous metastasis of extraskeletal osteosarcoma arising in the mediastinum. Am J Dermatopathol; 2008 Dec;30(6):629-31
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  • [Title] Cutaneous metastasis of extraskeletal osteosarcoma arising in the mediastinum.
  • Cutaneous metastases have been reported in 5%-10% of patients with internal malignancy.
  • The most frequent metastatic site of extraskeletal osteosarcoma (ESOS) is the lungs.
  • Cutaneous metastasis of ESOS is rare.
  • To our knowledge, only one case of ESOS has been reported with skin metastasis, histopathologically classified as the osteoblastic subtype.
  • Here, we describe a case of chondroblastic ESOS arising in the mediastinum with metastasis to the skin.
  • Our patient presented with a scalp nodule after diagnosis of primary ESOS at the mediastinum.
  • [MeSH-major] Mediastinal Neoplasms / pathology. Osteosarcoma / diagnosis. Osteosarcoma / secondary. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 19033945.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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44. Wallace MB, Block MI, Gillanders W, Ravenel J, Hoffman BJ, Reed CE, Fraig M, Cole D, Mitas M: Accurate molecular detection of non-small cell lung cancer metastases in mediastinal lymph nodes sampled by endoscopic ultrasound-guided needle aspiration. Chest; 2005 Feb;127(2):430-7
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  • [Title] Accurate molecular detection of non-small cell lung cancer metastases in mediastinal lymph nodes sampled by endoscopic ultrasound-guided needle aspiration.
  • OBJECTIVES: The recurrence of disease after the complete resection of early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) indicates that undetected metastases were present at the time of surgery.
  • Quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is a highly sensitive technique for detecting rare gene transcripts that may indicate the presence of cancer cells, and endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided fine-needle aspiration (FNA) is a minimally invasive technique for the nonoperative sampling of mediastinal lymph nodes.
  • The aim of this study was to determine whether these two techniques could enhance the preoperative detection of occult metastases.
  • Those patients without evidence of metastases (87 patients) underwent EUS-guided FNA.
  • Normal control FNA specimens were obtained from patients without cancer who were undergoing EUS for benign disease (17 control specimens).
  • For each sample, messenger RNA was extracted and real-time RT-PCR was used to quantitate the expression of six lung cancer-associated genes (ie, CEA, CK19, KS1/4, lunx, muc1, and PDEF) relative to the expression of an internal control gene (beta(2)-microglobulin).
  • Of the cytology-positive lymph nodes (27 lymph nodes), the expression of the KS1/4 gene was above its respective clinical threshold in 25 of 27 samples (93%), making this the most sensitive marker for the detection of metastatic NSCLC.
  • At least one of the six lung cancer-associated genes was overexpressed in 18 of 61 cytology-negative patients (30%), of which KS1/4 was overexpressed in 15 of 61 patients (25%).
  • Among the genes used in our marker panel, KS1/4 appears particularly useful for the detection of overt or occult metastatic disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / genetics. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / pathology. Endosonography. Lung Neoplasms / genetics. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Transcription Factors / genetics


45. Zakowski MF, Huang J, Bramlage MP: The role of fine needle aspiration cytology in the diagnosis and management of thymic neoplasia. J Thorac Oncol; 2010 Oct;5(10 Suppl 4):S281-5
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  • [Title] The role of fine needle aspiration cytology in the diagnosis and management of thymic neoplasia.
  • BACKGROUND: Fine needle aspiration biopsy is commonly used to document the metastasis to the mediastinum.
  • It is less often used to make the primary diagnosis of tumors, particularly thymic neoplasms.
  • This is due to fear of sampling error, rarity of thymic tumors, multiplicity of lesions in the mediastinum, and inexperience on the part of the cytopathologist.
  • We show that needle aspiration sampling of thymic tumors, both thymoma and thymic carcinoma, is an accurate method of diagnosis.
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: In our series of 22 thymic tumors aspirated preoperatively and compared with the subsequent surgical resection, the accuracy of a diagnosis of thymoma was 100%, and the accuracy of a diagnosis of carcinoma was 100%.
  • [MeSH-major] Thymoma / diagnosis. Thymus Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 20859120.001).
  • [ISSN] 1556-1380
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of thoracic oncology : official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Thorac Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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46. Vilmann P, Krasnik M, Larsen SS, Jacobsen GK, Clementsen P: Transesophageal endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) and endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) biopsy: a combined approach in the evaluation of mediastinal lesions. Endoscopy; 2005 Sep;37(9):833-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Transesophageal endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) and endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) biopsy: a combined approach in the evaluation of mediastinal lesions.
  • BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: It would be desirable to develop minimally invasive methods of tissue diagnosis from lymph nodes as well as solid lesions in the mediastinum.
  • The aim of the present study was to test the combined method of transesophageal endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) and endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) in the evaluation of mediastinal lesions.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: EUS-FNA and EBUS-TBNA were compared in 33 patients, for the staging of lung cancer in patients with an established diagnosis of non-small-cell lung cancer (n = 20) or for diagnosis of a suspicious mediastinal lesion in patients with suspected lung cancer (n = 13).
  • EUS-FNA and EBUS-TBNA demonstrated cancer in 26 and 28 lesions, respectively, and benign cytology in 30 and 28 lesions, respectively.
  • When the 60 EBUS-TBNA samples were compared with the 59 EUS-FNA samples, 11 additional cancer diagnoses and three samples with suspicious cells were obtained by EBUS-TBNA that had not been obtained by EUS-FNA.
  • Conversely, EUS-FNA diagnosed 12 additional cancer diagnoses, one suspicious and one specific benign diagnosis (sarcoidosis) in addition to EBUS-TBNA.
  • With a combined approach (EUS-FNA + EBUS-TBNA) in 28 of the 31 patients in whom a final diagnosis was obtained in the evaluation of mediastinal cancer, 20 patients were found to have mediastinal involvement, whereas no mediastinal metastases were found in eight patients.
  • The accuracy of EUS-FNA and EBUS-TBNA, in combination, for the diagnosis of mediastinal cancer was 100 % (95 % CI, 83 - 100 %).
  • A combined approach with both EUS-FNA and EBUS-TBNA may be able to replace more invasive methods for evaluating lung cancer patients with suspected hilar or mediastinal metastases, as well as for evaluating unclear mediastinal or hilar lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle / methods. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / pathology. Endosonography. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Mediastinal Neoplasms / pathology. Mediastinal Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Bronchi. Esophagus. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging / methods

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  • (PMID = 16116534.001).
  • [ISSN] 0013-726X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endoscopy
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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47. Talebian M, von Bartheld MB, Braun J, Versteegh MI, Dekkers OM, Rabe KF, Annema JT: EUS-FNA in the preoperative staging of non-small cell lung cancer. Lung Cancer; 2010 Jul;69(1):60-5
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  • [Title] EUS-FNA in the preoperative staging of non-small cell lung cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: According to current guidelines, transesophageal ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) can be performed as an alternative for surgical staging to confirm mediastinal metastases in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
  • (1) To evaluate the diagnostic value of EUS-FNA in consecutive, patients with NSCLC regardless of nodal size at CT. (2) To determine the impact of EUS-FNA on the prevention of surgical staging procedures. (3) To assess the accuracy of mediastinal staging by combining EUS-FNA and mediastinoscopy. (4) To investigate whether a subgroup of patients exists that can be accurately staged by EUS-FNA alone.
  • In the absence of mediastinal metastases, mediastinoscopy and/or thoracotomy with lymph node dissection was performed.
  • RESULTS: The prevalence of mediastinal metastases was 49%.
  • Additional surgical staging in patients without nodal metastases at EUS-FNA reduces the false negative EUS-FNA findings considerably regardless of the location of the primary lung tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / ultrasonography. Lung / ultrasonography. Lung Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Mediastinal Neoplasms / ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Fine-Needle / methods. Esophagostomy / methods. Feasibility Studies. Humans. Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted. Neoplasm Staging. Predictive Value of Tests. Preoperative Care. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19758723.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-8332
  • [Journal-full-title] Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lung Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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48. Peccatori J, Barkholt L, Demirer T, Sormani MP, Bruzzi P, Ciceri F, Zambelli A, Da Prada GA, Pedrazzoli P, Siena S, Massenkeil G, Martino R, Lenhoff S, Corradini P, Rosti G, Ringden O, Bregni M, Niederwieser D, European Bone Marrow Transplantation Solid Tumor Working Party: Prognostic factors for survival in patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma undergoing nonmyeloablative allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Cancer; 2005 Nov 15;104(10):2099-103
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  • RESULTS: Factors that were found to be associated significantly with limited survival were performance status, the number of metastatic sites, the presence of mediastinal metastasis, hemoglobin level, C-reactive protein (CRP) level, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level, and neutrophil counts.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2005 American Cancer Society
  • (PMID = 16220555.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9007-41-4 / C-Reactive Protein; EC 1.1.1.27 / L-Lactate Dehydrogenase
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49. Brichkov I, Keller SM: Intraoperative staging and surgical management of stage IIIA/N2 non-small cell lung cancer. Thorac Surg Clin; 2008 Nov;18(4):381-91
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  • [Title] Intraoperative staging and surgical management of stage IIIA/N2 non-small cell lung cancer.
  • Staging of the mediastinum is an integral component of the operative treatment of NSCLC.
  • During surgery for a right lung cancer, at least mediastinal lymph node levels 4 should be sampled or dissected.
  • When removing a left lung cancer, at least nodal levels 5 and 7 should be assessed.
  • Although every effort should be made to identify N2 disease before surgery, if intraoperative metastases to mediastinal lymph nodes are discovered, the planned operation should proceed.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / secondary. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / surgery. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / surgery. Pneumonectomy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Intraoperative Period. Lymphatic Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging


50. Dose-Schwarz J, Mahner S, Schirrmacher S, Jenicke L, Müller V, Habermann CR, Brenner W: [Detection of metastases in breast cancer patients: comparison of FDG PET with chest X-ray, bone scintigraphy and ultrasound of the abdomen]. Nuklearmedizin; 2008;47(3):97-103
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  • [Title] [Detection of metastases in breast cancer patients: comparison of FDG PET with chest X-ray, bone scintigraphy and ultrasound of the abdomen].
  • Distant metastases at primary diagnosis are a prognostic key factor in breast cancer patients and play a central role in therapeutic decisions.
  • Although FDG PET detects metastatic disease with high accuracy, its diagnostic value in breast cancer still needs to be defined.
  • PATIENTS, METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 119 breast cancer patients who presented for staging was performed.
  • Each imaging modality was independently assessed and classified for metastasis (negative, equivocal and positive.
  • RESULTS: FDG-PET detected distant metastases with a sensitivity of 87.3% and a specificity of 83.3%.
  • Regarding different locations of metastases the sensitivity of FDG PET was superior in the detection of pulmonary metastases and lymph node metastases of the mediastinum in comparison to chest x-ray, whereas the sensitivity of FDG PET in the detection of bone and liver metastases was comparable with bone scintigraphy and ultrasound of the abdomen.
  • CONCLUSIONS: FDG-PET is more sensitive than conventional imaging procedures for detection of distant breast cancer metastases and should be considered for additional staging especially in patients with high risk primary breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Abdomen / ultrasonography. Breast Neoplasms / radiography. Breast Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Breast Neoplasms / secondary. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis / radiography. Neoplasm Metastasis / radionuclide imaging. Radiography, Thoracic. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 18493688.001).
  • [ISSN] 0029-5566
  • [Journal-full-title] Nuklearmedizin. Nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nuklearmedizin
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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51. Steele NP, Wenig BM, Sessions RB: A case of pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid gland metastasizing to a mediastinal lymph node. Am J Otolaryngol; 2007 Mar-Apr;28(2):130-3
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  • [Title] A case of pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid gland metastasizing to a mediastinal lymph node.
  • We present a case of a patient who presented, 27 years after excision of a parotid pleomorphic adenoma, with a recurrence in the parotid bed and a mediastinal metastasis.
  • The patient's presentation, workup, and final diagnosis of benign metastasizing pleomorphic adenoma will be discussed, along with a pertinent review of the literature.
  • RESULTS: A diagnosis of recurrent pleomorphic adenoma was made from a fine needle aspiration biopsy of the right parotid mass.
  • On subsequent computed tomographic scan, chest images revealed an incidental left mediastinal mass, which also proved to be a pleomorphic adenoma on computed tomography-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy.
  • The patient underwent a completion parotidectomy and sternotomy with excision of the mediastinal mass.
  • Examination of the pathology specimens confirmed a diagnosis of pleomorphic adenoma in both the parotid bed and the mediastinum.
  • No histologic characteristics of malignancy were seen in either specimen; therefore, a diagnosis of benign metastasizing mixed tumor was rendered.
  • Although the definition of the term benign precludes metastatic disease, these tumors do not demonstrate any malignant features yet metastasize to distant sites.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Mediastinum / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17362821.001).
  • [ISSN] 0196-0709
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of otolaryngology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Otolaryngol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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52. Kusaba H, Fujihara M, Nagashima R, Kaji Y, Baba E, Nakano S: Systemic chemotherapy of TS-1 and cisplatin for gastric signet-ring cell carcinoma presenting as cardiac tamponade. Med Oncol; 2008;25(2):241-4
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  • An endoscopic study revealed gastric cancer in the lesser curvature wall of the middle body of the stomach, and signet-ring cell carcinoma was confirmed histologically.
  • The gastric cancer was complicated by malignant pericardial effusion, and metastasis to the mediastinal lymph nodes.
  • After 5 months, pericardial effusion disappeared and the primary gastric tumor decreased in size.
  • Our experience suggests that the systemic chemotherapy of TS-1 and CDDP may be effective for controlling advanced gastric signet-cell carcinoma accompanied by malignant pericardial effusion.

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  • (PMID = 18488163.001).
  • [ISSN] 1357-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical oncology (Northwood, London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Drug Combinations; 150863-82-4 / S 1 (combination); 1548R74NSZ / Tegafur; 5VT6420TIG / Oxonic Acid; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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53. Szöke T, Kortner A, Neu R, Grosser C, Sziklavari Z, Wiebe K, Hofmann HS: Is the mediastinal lymphadenectomy during pulmonary metastasectomy of colorectal cancer necessary? Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg; 2010 May;10(5):694-8
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  • [Title] Is the mediastinal lymphadenectomy during pulmonary metastasectomy of colorectal cancer necessary?
  • The aim of study was to investigate the pattern of mediastinal lymph node metastases in patients with colorectal cancer metastasis.
  • Twenty-four pulmonary metastasectomies with mediastinal lymphadenectomies were performed on 19 patients (14 unilateral and five bilateral operations).
  • The metastases were centrally localised in eight cases; the primary tumour was colon cancer in 15 patients and rectal cancer in nine cases.
  • The number and the localisation of metastases were recorded, as the clinico-pathological data of the primary tumours.
  • The results were compared with the pattern of metastases in mediastinal lymph nodes.
  • Mediastinal lymph node metastases were confirmed in eight cases (33.3%).
  • The proportion of positive lymph nodes was significantly higher for central metastases (62.5% vs. 18.8%, P=0.032).
  • When the pathological stage of the primary tumour was more advanced, the proportion of lymph node metastases displayed a statistically not significant increase.
  • The pattern of lymph node metastases did not correlate with the localisation of the lung metastases, disease-free interval and the diameter of the greatest pulmonary metastasis.
  • The frequency of lymph node metastasis is relatively high, therefore, mediastinal lymphadenectomy during the resection of colorectal cancer metastases is necessary.
  • [MeSH-major] Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / surgery. Lymph Node Excision / methods. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Mediastinal Neoplasms / secondary. Unnecessary Procedures
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biopsy, Needle. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Positron-Emission Tomography. Registries. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment. Statistics, Nonparametric. Survival Analysis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] 2010 Published by European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.
  • [CommentIn] Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg. 2010 May;10(5):698 [20403982.001]
  • [CommentIn] Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg. 2010 May;10(5):698 [20403983.001]
  • (PMID = 20172908.001).
  • [ISSN] 1569-9285
  • [Journal-full-title] Interactive cardiovascular and thoracic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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54. Ishikawa M, Kitayama J, Kaizaki S, Sako A, Nakao K, Sugawara M, Nagawa H: Diagnosis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma metastatic to mediastinal lymph nodes by endoscopic ultrasonography-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy. Acta Otolaryngol; 2005 Sep;125(9):1014-7
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  • [Title] Diagnosis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma metastatic to mediastinal lymph nodes by endoscopic ultrasonography-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy.
  • We report the case of a patient with nasopharyngeal carcinoma who was diagnosed as having metastasis in mediastinal lymph nodes and successfully underwent systemic chemotherapy without surgery.
  • Cytological findings were compatible with metastatic squamous cell carcinoma from a nasopharyngeal tumor, and the clinical stage was determined as T3N2bM1 (stage IVC) because of mediastinal lymph node metastasis.
  • We thus determined the nodal status of a head and neck tumor by means of EUS-FNA.
  • In conclusion, EUS-FNA is a safe and reliable technique for evaluation of mediastinal lymphadenopathy, and is especially valuable for head and neck tumors with suspected metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Needle. Carcinoma / secondary. Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cytodiagnosis. Endosonography. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Mediastinum. Middle Aged. Ultrasonography, Interventional

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  • (PMID = 16193595.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6489
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta oto-laryngologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Otolaryngol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Norway
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55. Hwangbo B, Lee GK, Lee HS, Lim KY, Lee SH, Kim HY, Lee HS, Kim MS, Lee JM, Nam BH, Zo JI: Transbronchial and transesophageal fine-needle aspiration using an ultrasound bronchoscope in mediastinal staging of potentially operable lung cancer. Chest; 2010 Oct;138(4):795-802
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  • [Title] Transbronchial and transesophageal fine-needle aspiration using an ultrasound bronchoscope in mediastinal staging of potentially operable lung cancer.
  • OBJECTIVE: We performed this study to evaluate the role of transesophageal endoscopic ultrasound with bronchoscope-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-B-FNA) following endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) in the mediastinal staging of lung cancer.
  • METHODS: In this prospective study, we applied transbronchial and transesophageal ultrasonography using an ultrasound bronchoscope on patients with confirmed or strongly suspected potentially operable non-small cell lung cancer.
  • Following EBUS-TBNA, EUS-B-FNA was used for mediastinal nodes that were inaccessible or difficult to access by EBUS-TBNA.
  • The accessibility by EBUS-TBNA and EUS-B-FNA to mediastinal nodal stations having at least one node ≥ 5 mm was also checked.
  • RESULTS: In 150 patients, we performed EBUS-TBNA and EUS-B-FNA on 299 and 64 mediastinal nodal stations, respectively.
  • Among 143 evaluable patients, EBUS-TBNA diagnosed mediastinal metastasis in 38 patients.
  • EUS-B-FNA identified mediastinal metastasis in three additional patients.
  • Surgery diagnosed mediastinal metastasis in four more patients.
  • The sensitivity, negative predictive value, and diagnostic accuracy of EBUS-TBNA in the detection of mediastinal metastasis were 84.4%, 93.3%, and 95.1%, respectively.
  • Among 473 mediastinal nodal stations having at least one node ≥ 5 mm that were evaluated, the proportion of accessible mediastinal nodal stations by EBUS-TBNA was 78.6%, and the proportion increased to 84.8% by combining EUS-B-FNA with EBUS-TBNA (P = .015).
  • CONCLUSION: Following EBUS-TBNA in the mediastinal staging of potentially operable lung cancer, the accessibility to mediastinal nodal stations increased by adding EUS-B-FNA and an additional diagnostic gain might be obtained by EUS-B-FNA.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle / methods. Bronchoscopy. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / pathology. Endosonography. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Ultrasonography, Interventional
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Male. Mediastinum. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Predictive Value of Tests. Prospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy

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  • [CommentIn] Chest. 2010 Oct;138(4):765-7 [20923792.001]
  • [CommentIn] Chest. 2011 Jul;140(1):271-2; author reply 272-3 [21729906.001]
  • (PMID = 20348194.001).
  • [ISSN] 1931-3543
  • [Journal-full-title] Chest
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chest
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] ClinicalTrials.gov/ NCT00741247
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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56. Wang SY, Ye X, Ou W, Lin YB, Zhang BB, Yang H: Risk of cerebral metastases for postoperative locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. Lung Cancer; 2009 May;64(2):238-43
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  • [Title] Risk of cerebral metastases for postoperative locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Cerebral metastases are the main determining factor in the failure of locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) management.
  • Our study assessed the risk factors of brain metastases in patients with postoperative, locally advanced NSCLC.
  • METHODS: Two hundred twenty-three patients treated with surgical resection for stage III-N2 NSCLC were retrospective analyzed to elucidate risk factors for development of brain metastases, and to establish a mathematical model.
  • Frequency of brain metastases in the entire patient population was 38.1% (85/223).
  • Frequency of brain metastases in patients with single mediastinal lymph-node region with metastases at 1, 2, and 3 years was 5.6%, 14.0%, and 19.0%, respectively.
  • The frequency of brain metastases in patients with multiple mediastinal lymph-node regions with metastases was 31.8%, 60.3%, 68.0%, respectively (P<0.001).
  • The frequency of brain metastases among patients with mediastinal metastasis number less than 4, 4-6, and more than 6 was significantly different (P<0.001).
  • There were also significant differences in brain metastases frequency between patients with complete versus incomplete resection (P=0.001), and patients with non-squmous versus squamous (P=0.029), and patients administered adjuvant chemotherapy versus none (P=0.032).
  • CONCLUSION: A mathematical model to predict brain metastases risk was developed.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Models, Theoretical
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Pneumonectomy. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Sensitivity and Specificity


57. Krdzalic G, Mesic D, Iljazovic E, Brkic S, Krdzalic A, Ramic N, Aljic Z, Musanovic N: Mediastinal lymph node metastasis pattern in clinically N0 non-small-cell lung cancer patients who underwent surgical resection. Med Arh; 2010;64(6):332-4
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  • [Title] Mediastinal lymph node metastasis pattern in clinically N0 non-small-cell lung cancer patients who underwent surgical resection.
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence, clinical data and patterns of mediastinal lymph node metastasis (pN2) in non-small-cell lung cancer patients who underwent systematic mediastinal lymph node dissection (SMLND).
  • We retrospectively studied 140 consecutive patients [125 male and 15 female, mean ages 54.61 +/- 9.23 years (range, 21-75)], underwent SMLND and major lung resections due to non-small lung cancer (NSCLC), from January 2005 till December 2009.
  • Preoperative clinical staging for mediastinal lymph node metastasis was negative (cN0) in all patients.
  • SMLND was defined as a complete removal of mediastinal lymph nodes.
  • Lymph node metastasis to the mediastinum was confirmed in 13 (9.28%) patients.
  • In squamous cell cancer pN2 were in 8 (5.71%) cases out of 82 cases with cN0.
  • Unvaried analysis revealed central tumor site as predictive factor for mediastinal lymph node involvement.
  • The upper mediastinal compartment was infiltrated in 12 (8.57%) cases, middle in 8 (5.71%) and lower in 3 (2.14%) cases.
  • We concluded that SMLND improves pTNM staging in lung cancer patients who underwent major lung resections with central location of the tumour.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Mediastinum. Middle Aged. Pneumonectomy. Young Adult


58. Ikeda K, Nomori H, Mori T, Kobayashi H, Iwatani K, Yoshimoto K: Size of metastatic and nonmetastatic mediastinal lymph nodes in non-small cell lung cancer. J Thorac Oncol; 2006 Nov;1(9):949-52
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  • [Title] Size of metastatic and nonmetastatic mediastinal lymph nodes in non-small cell lung cancer.
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine the optimum selection of mediastinal lymph nodes for biopsy in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), lymph nodes with or without metastasis at each mediastinal station were ranked in size in patients with pathological N2 disease.
  • METHODS: Twenty-five NSCLC patients with pathological N2 disease who underwent pulmonary resection with complete mediastinal lymph node clearance were examined.
  • Of 114 mediastinal lymph node stations dissected, 47 had metastases and 67 did not.
  • Of these 259 nodes, 137 had metastases and 122 did not.
  • RESULTS: Mean short- and long-axis diameters of lymph nodes with metastases were significantly greater than those without (p < 0.001).
  • In 47 metastatic lymph node stations, the short- and long-axis diameters were greatest in a metastatic node in 44 (94%) and 42 (89%) respectively, whereas in the remaining 3 (6%) and 5 (11%), the second largest but not the largest node was positive.
  • None of the largest lymph nodes with metastasis were smaller than the second largest lymph node at each station.
  • Four of the 10 patients with adenocarcinoma (40%) had metastasis in the second largest but not in the largest node measured by long-axis diameter, a significant difference from one in eight (12.5%) among the squamous cell carcinoma cases (p = 0.04).
  • CONCLUSION: For mediastinal lymph node biopsy, both the largest and the second largest node at each station should be sampled, especially in adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Neoplasm Staging / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biopsy, Needle. Case-Control Studies. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lymph Node Excision / methods. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Male. Mediastinum. Middle Aged. Pneumonectomy / methods. Positron-Emission Tomography. Probability. Prognosis. Reference Values. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment. Survival Analysis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed


59. Watanabe S, Asamura H, Suzuki K, Tsuchiya R: The new strategy of selective nodal dissection for lung cancer based on segment-specific patterns of nodal spread. Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg; 2005 Apr;4(2):106-9
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  • [Title] The new strategy of selective nodal dissection for lung cancer based on segment-specific patterns of nodal spread.
  • A new strategy for selective nodal dissection in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients according to the segment of primary tumor was explored.
  • In right upper lobe (RUL) tumor, when the pretracheal node was negative, the incidence of subcarinal involvement was 3.8%.
  • In lower lobe tumor, superior segment (RLL-Superior and LLL-Superior) tumor showed a significantly higher incidence of superior mediastinal involvement than basal segment (RLL-Basal and LLL-Basal) tumor (right, P=0.0036; left, P=0.0499).
  • When the subcarinal node was negative, the incidence of superior mediastinal metastasis in RLL-basal and LLL-Basal tumor was 11% and 8%, respectively.
  • In left upper lobe tumor, superior segment (LUL-Superior) tumor showed a significantly lower incidence of subcarinal involvement than lingular segment (LUL-Lingular) tumor (P=0.0381).
  • When aortic nodes were negative in LUL-Superior tumor, the incidence of subcarinal metastasis was 6%.
  • Collectively, in RUL and LUL-Superior tumors, subcarinal dissection may be unnecessary if superior mediastinal node is negative.
  • In RLL-Basal and LLL-Basal tumors, superior mediastinal dissection may be unnecessary if subcarinal node is negative.

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  • (PMID = 17670367.001).
  • [ISSN] 1569-9285
  • [Journal-full-title] Interactive cardiovascular and thoracic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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60. Hwangbo B, Kim SK, Lee HS, Lee HS, Kim MS, Lee JM, Kim HY, Lee GK, Nam BH, Zo JI: Application of endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration following integrated PET/CT in mediastinal staging of potentially operable non-small cell lung cancer. Chest; 2009 May;135(5):1280-1287
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  • [Title] Application of endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration following integrated PET/CT in mediastinal staging of potentially operable non-small cell lung cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: The role of endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) following integrated PET/CT scanning in mediastinal staging of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has not been assessed.
  • METHODS: We prospectively evaluated the diagnostic values of PET/CT scanning and EBUS-TBNA for mediastinal staging in 117 patients with potentially operable NSCLC with accessible mediastinal lymph nodes (diameter range, 5 to 20 mm) by EBUS-TBNA.
  • RESULTS: Of 30 cases of mediastinal metastasis, 27 were confirmed by EBUS-TBNA and 3 were confirmed by surgery.
  • The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value (NPV), and accuracy of EBUS-TBNA in the detection of mediastinal metastasis were 90.0%, 100%, 100%, 96.7%, and 97.4%, respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: EBUS-TBNA was an effective invasive method following PET/CT scanning in the mediastinal staging of potentially operable NSCLC.
  • In mediastinal PET/CT scan-positive cases, EBUS-TBNA was an excellent tool for detecting mediastinal metastasis.
  • Even in mediastinal PET/CT scan-negative cases, EBUS-TBNA can be useful for confirming mediastinal metastases, especially in adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / diagnostic imaging. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Mediastinal Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Mediastinal Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / diagnostic imaging. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy, Needle / methods. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnostic imaging. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Endosonography. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Positron-Emission Tomography. Prospective Studies. Thoracoscopy / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed


61. Chen X, Sievers E, Hou Y, Park R, Tohme M, Bart R, Bremner R, Bading JR, Conti PS: Integrin alpha v beta 3-targeted imaging of lung cancer. Neoplasia; 2005 Mar;7(3):271-9
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  • [Title] Integrin alpha v beta 3-targeted imaging of lung cancer.
  • A series of radiolabeled cyclic arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) peptide ligands for cell adhesion molecule integrin alpha v beta 3-targeted tumor angiogenesis targeting are being developed in our laboratory.
  • In this study, this effort continues by applying a positron emitter 64Cu-labeled PEGylated dimeric RGD peptide radiotracer 64Cu-DOTA-PEG-E[c(RGDyK)]2 for lung cancer imaging.
  • The minimum nonspecific activity accumulation in normal lung tissue and heart rendered high-quality orthotopic lung cancer tumor images, enabling clear demarcation of both the primary tumor at the upper lobe of the left lung, as well as metastases in the mediastinum, contralateral lung, and diaphragm.
  • As a comparison, fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) scans on the same mice were only able to identify the primary tumor, with the metastatic lesions masked by intense cardiac uptake and high lung background.
  • 64Cu-DOTA-PEG-E[c(RGDyK)]2 is an excellent position emission tomography (PET) tracer for integrin-positive tumor imaging.
  • Further studies to improve the receptor binding affinity of the tracer and subsequently to increase the magnitude of tumor uptake without comprising the favorable in vivo kinetics are currently in progress.

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  • (PMID = 15799827.001).
  • [ISSN] 1522-8002
  • [Journal-full-title] Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neoplasia
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIBIB NIH HHS / EB / R21 EB001785; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P20 CA86532
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Integrin alphaVbeta3; 0 / Oligopeptides; 0 / Peptides; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18; 30IQX730WE / Polyethylene Glycols; 789U1901C5 / Copper; 99896-85-2 / arginyl-glycyl-aspartic acid
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1501139
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62. Alifano M, Parri SN, Arab WA, Bonfanti B, Lacava N, Porrello C, Boaron M: Limited upper sternotomy in general thoracic surgery. Surg Today; 2008;38(4):300-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Thyroid surgery constituted the second main indication for upper sternal split (n = 32) for benign retrosternal goiter in 18 patients, for mediastinal nodal metastasis of thyroid cancer in 11, and for malignant retrosternal goiter in 3.
  • The remaining indications were as follows: to assess residual disease following chemotherapy for Hodgkin's disease in 7 patients and for non-Hodgkin lymphoma in 1; for tracheal surgery in 7; and for excision of nodal mediastinal metastasis of non-thyroid cancer in 2.
  • CONCLUSION: The upper sternal split provides a satisfactory access to perform a surgical procedure in the superior mediastinum in most diseases.

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  • (PMID = 18368317.001).
  • [ISSN] 0941-1291
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery today
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Today
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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63. Subiger L, Breton JL, Poulin G: [Iris metastasis of bronchial carcinoma: a case report]. J Fr Ophtalmol; 2008 May;31(5):527-32
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  • [Title] [Iris metastasis of bronchial carcinoma: a case report].
  • [Transliterated title] Métastase de l'iris d'un adénocarcinome bronchique: à propos d'un cas.
  • The patient presented a left iridal metastasis of bronchial carcinoma, a left frontal cerebral metastasis, and mediastinal evolutionary recovery.
  • The patient died 10 months after the ocular metastasis diagnosis.
  • In the event of iridal metastasis, it is necessary to carry out a complete examination of both eyes, to question the patient, to search for a primary tumor and other metastases, and to rapidly implement radiotherapy of the entire ocular sphere (30 Gy in ten fractions).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Bronchial Neoplasms / pathology. Iris Neoplasms / secondary. Neoplasm Metastasis / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18641587.001).
  • [ISSN] 1773-0597
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal français d'ophtalmologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Fr Ophtalmol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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64. Tsutsui M, Yoshino S, Sakamoto K, Oka M: [Long-term survival after surgery and adjuvant imatinib in a patient with rectal GIST, local recurrence, liver metastases and mediastinal pleural metastasis]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2009 Nov;36(12):2351-3
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  • [Title] [Long-term survival after surgery and adjuvant imatinib in a patient with rectal GIST, local recurrence, liver metastases and mediastinal pleural metastasis].
  • Imatinib is a standard treatment for metastatic GIST.
  • Surgery is an optional treatment for local recurrence and resectable liver metastasis.
  • We report a case of high risk group rectal GIST with local recurrence, liver metastases and mediastinal pleural metastasis.
  • A 63-year-old man underwent a surgery for undifferentiated esophageal cancer and simultaneously was diagnosed a rectal submucosal tumor of 3 cm by digital examination in 2001.
  • After 2 years, he underwent Miles' operation because of an increase of the rectal submucosal tumor.
  • PET-CT and CT pointed out a local recurrence and liver metastases that were resected in 2004.
  • In 2008, he received a resection of mediastinal pleural metastasis.
  • Combined modality therapy with surgery and chemotherapy for the metastatic GIST may contribute to a long-term survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors / therapy. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Piperazines / therapeutic use. Pleural Neoplasms / secondary. Pyrimidines / therapeutic use. Rectal Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Benzamides. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Humans. Imatinib Mesylate. Male. Mediastinum. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local

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  • (PMID = 20037419.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Benzamides; 0 / Piperazines; 0 / Pyrimidines; 8A1O1M485B / Imatinib Mesylate
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65. Herth FJ, Rabe KF, Gasparini S, Annema JT: Transbronchial and transoesophageal (ultrasound-guided) needle aspirations for the analysis of mediastinal lesions. Eur Respir J; 2006 Dec;28(6):1264-75
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  • [Title] Transbronchial and transoesophageal (ultrasound-guided) needle aspirations for the analysis of mediastinal lesions.
  • A tissue diagnosis of mediastinal nodes is frequently needed for accurate lung cancer staging as well as the assessment of mediastinal masses.
  • Provided mediastinal metastases are confirmed, TBNA has a high impact on patient management.
  • Mediastinal lymph nodes located adjacent to the oesophagus can be assessed by transoesophageal ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA).
  • Owing to the complementary reach of EBUS-TBNA and EUS-FNA in assessing different regions of the mediastinum, recent studies suggest that complete and accurate mediastinal staging can be achieved by the combination of both procedures.
  • It is expected that implementation of minimally invasive endoscopic methods of endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration and transoesophageal ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration will reduce the need for surgical staging of lung cancer significantly.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Bronchoscopy. Endosonography. Mediastinal Diseases / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17138681.001).
  • [ISSN] 0903-1936
  • [Journal-full-title] The European respiratory journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. Respir. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Meta-Analysis
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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66. Duran I, Riveros L, Berthold DR, Sweet J, Moore MJ: Eyelid metastasis from mediastinal teratoma with malignant transformation. Acta Oncol; 2007;46(8):1200-1
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  • [Title] Eyelid metastasis from mediastinal teratoma with malignant transformation.
  • [MeSH-major] Eyelid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Eyelid Neoplasms / secondary. Mediastinal Neoplasms / pathology. Teratoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17851848.001).
  • [ISSN] 0284-186X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta oncologica (Stockholm, Sweden)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Norway
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67. Castillo O, Frisancho O, Palomino A: [Cecal amelanotic melanoma]. Rev Gastroenterol Peru; 2010 Oct-Dec;30(4):368-71
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  • [Transliterated title] Melanoma amelanótico en ciego.
  • Physical examination revealed no malignant skin lesions.
  • The tomography scan showed metastases in mediastinum and surgical implants were found in liver metastases and small intestine.
  • We report this case, because gastrointestinal bleeding is an unusual clinical presentation of malignant melanoma.

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  • (PMID = 21263766.001).
  • [ISSN] 1022-5129
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista de gastroenterología del Perú : órgano oficial de la Sociedad de Gastroenterología del Perú
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Gastroenterol Peru
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Peru
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68. Shafazand S, Gould MK: A clinical prediction rule to estimate the probability of mediastinal metastasis in patients with non-small cell lung cancer. J Thorac Oncol; 2006 Nov;1(9):953-9
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  • [Title] A clinical prediction rule to estimate the probability of mediastinal metastasis in patients with non-small cell lung cancer.
  • INTRODUCTION: Estimating the clinical probability of mediastinal metastasis in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) can facilitate the selection and interpretation of staging tests.
  • PURPOSE: We sought to identify independent clinical predictors of mediastinal metastasis and to develop a prediction rule to estimate the pretest probability of nodal metastasis in patients with NSCLC.
  • Independent predictors of positive nodes included adenocarcinoma or large cell histology (OR 2.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.8-3.9), apparent metastatic disease on chest radiography (OR 2.4, 95% CI = 1.2-4.7), central location of the primary tumor (OR 2.1, 95% CI = 1.4-3.3), symptoms from the primary tumor (OR 1.6, 95% CI = 1.1-2.4), tumor diameter > or =3.6 cm (OR 1.5, 95% CI = 1.0-2.3), and age less than 65 years (OR 1.5, 95% CI = 1.0-2.2).
  • Model accuracy and calibration were good, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.70 (95% CI = 0.66-0.75) and good agreement between observed and predicted probabilities of mediastinal metastasis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our prediction rule can be used to estimate the pretest probability of mediastinal metastasis in patients with NSCLC.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Mediastinal Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Factors. Aged. Biopsy, Needle. Confidence Intervals. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Mediastinoscopy. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Odds Ratio. Predictive Value of Tests. Probability. Prognosis. Risk Assessment. Sex Factors. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17409978.001).
  • [ISSN] 1556-1380
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of thoracic oncology : official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Thorac Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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69. Mitsuyama S, Anan K, Ono M: [A case of recurrent breast cancer successfully treated with capecitabine monotherapy]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2005 Aug;32(8):1153-7
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  • [Title] [A case of recurrent breast cancer successfully treated with capecitabine monotherapy].
  • A 51-year-old woman underwent pectoralis-preserving mastectomy for right breast cancer (squamous cell cancer, f, T1c, ly0, v0, N2 (18/33), p53 (3+), HER2 (2+), ER (-), PgR (-), T1cN2M0 (Stage IIIA) in March 2001, and received systemic chemotherapy using doxorubicin combined with cyclophosphamide, followed by paclitaxel.
  • In March 2002 (disease-free interval of one year), liver metastasis was revealed.
  • Since June 2003, capecitabine monotherapy (2,400 mg/day) was initiated for the liver and lymph node metastases in the mediastinum and retroperitoneum.
  • After 3 cycles, all metastases responded and a marked response has been maintained for 15 months.
  • Capecitabine monotherapy is safe and very useful for recurrent breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
  • [MeSH-minor] Capecitabine. Female. Fluorouracil / analogs & derivatives. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Mastectomy, Modified Radical. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16121919.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; 6804DJ8Z9U / Capecitabine; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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70. Watanabe S, Suzuki K, Asamura H: Superior and basal segment lung cancers in the lower lobe have different lymph node metastatic pathways and prognosis. Ann Thorac Surg; 2008 Mar;85(3):1026-31
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  • [Title] Superior and basal segment lung cancers in the lower lobe have different lymph node metastatic pathways and prognosis.
  • BACKGROUND: Although the lower lobe is a large entity that occupies half of the hemithorax, all tumors located within the lower lobe have been treated uniformly regardless of tumor location.
  • The aim of this study was to reveal differences in the metastatic pathway to the mediastinum and in prognosis of N2 disease between lung cancers originating from superior and basal segment of the lower lobe.
  • METHODS: Data on 139 patients who underwent pulmonary resection with systematic nodal dissection for pN2 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) originating from the lower lobe between 1980 and 2001 were retrospectively reviewed.
  • RESULTS: The superior segment group showed a significantly higher incidence of superior mediastinal metastasis than the basal segment group (64% vs 36%, p = 0.0012).
  • When superior mediastinal metastasis existed, the basal segment group showed a significantly higher incidence of synchronous subcarinal metastasis than the superior segment group (81% vs 39%, p = 0.0006).
  • The basal segment origin tumors with only subcarinal metastasis showed significantly better prognosis than other lower lobe N2 tumors (5-year survival, 43% vs 18%; p = 0.0155).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Basal segment tumor metastasizes to the superior mediastinum mostly through the subcarinal node, whereas superior segment tumors often metastasize directly to the superior mediastinum without concomitant metastasis to the subcarinal node.
  • Superior mediastinal dissection will be mandatory for accurate staging of superior segment tumors even when the subcarinal node is negative on frozen section.
  • As for the prognosis among lower lobe N2 tumors, only in cases with basal segment tumor without superior mediastinal metastasis may long-term survival be expected.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / pathology. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 18291191.001).
  • [ISSN] 1552-6259
  • [Journal-full-title] The Annals of thoracic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Thorac. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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71. Hayashi K, Abe K, Yano F, Watanabe S, Iwasaki Y, Kosuda S: Should mediastinoscopy actually be incorporated into the FDG PET strategy for patients with non-small cell lung carcinoma? Ann Nucl Med; 2005 Jul;19(5):393-8
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  • One-way sensitivity analyses were performed to determine the influences of mediastinal metastasis prevalence on LE, QALY and ICER.
  • RESULTS: The LE and QALY per patient in the CT only strategy, PET + CT strategy and PET + CT + MS strategy were 4.79 and 4.35, 5.33 and 4.93 and 5.68 and 5.33 years, respectively, with a 20% prevalence of mediastinal metastasis.
  • The ICERs were 906.6 yen x 10(3) (7555 US dollars)/QALY/patient at a 20% mediastinal metastasis prevalence, and 2194 yen x 10(3) (18,282 US dollars)/QALY/patient at a 50% prevalence, but exceeded 5280 yen x 10(3) (44,000 US dollars)/QALY/ patient at 80%.
  • MS should be incorporated into the PET + CT strategy for NSCLC patients except in those highly suspected of having mediastinal disease on chest CT or PET.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / economics. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 / economics. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / economics. Mediastinoscopy / economics. Positron-Emission Tomography / economics
  • [MeSH-minor] Cost-Benefit Analysis. Health Care Costs. Humans. Japan / epidemiology. Lymphatic Metastasis. Mediastinum / pathology. Mediastinum / radionuclide imaging. Models, Economic. Reproducibility of Results. Risk Assessment / methods. Risk Factors. Sensitivity and Specificity. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / economics. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / statistics & numerical data

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  • (PMID = 16164196.001).
  • [ISSN] 0914-7187
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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72. Pozo-Rodríguez F, Martín de Nicolás JL, Sánchez-Nistal MA, Maldonado A, García de Barajas S, Calero-García R, Pozo MA, Martín-Escribano P, Martín-García I, García-Lujan R, Lopez-Encuentra A, Arenas de Pablo A: Accuracy of helical computed tomography and [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography for identifying lymph node mediastinal metastases in potentially resectable non-small-cell lung cancer. J Clin Oncol; 2005 Nov 20;23(33):8348-56
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  • [Title] Accuracy of helical computed tomography and [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography for identifying lymph node mediastinal metastases in potentially resectable non-small-cell lung cancer.
  • PURPOSE: Computed tomography (CT) and [18F] Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) are considered suitable methods for the noninvasive staging of the mediastinum.
  • Our study was intended to estimate the efficacy of contrast-enhanced helical CT (hCT) and FDG-PET, alone and combined, in the diagnosis of lymph node mediastinal metastases.
  • METHODS: This study was a prospective and blind comparison of the efficacy of hCT and FDG-PET with two alternative reference standards, mediastinoscopy, and mediastinoscopy plus thoracotomy plus a 6-month follow-up to diagnose lymph node mediastinal metastases in 132 consecutive patients with potentially resectable non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
  • The metastatic disease was assessed histopathologically.
  • CONCLUSION: hCT and PET perform similarly in the mediastinal staging of NSCLC, both tests are conditionally dependent and provide complementary information, and their diagnostic value mainly resides on the negative results.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Female. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Mediastinum. Observer Variation. Predictive Value of Tests. Prospective Studies. Radiopharmaceuticals. Sensitivity and Specificity. Single-Blind Method

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  • [CommentIn] J Clin Oncol. 2005 Nov 20;23(33):8283-5 [16219928.001]
  • (PMID = 16219937.001).
  • [ISSN] 0732-183X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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73. Iida S, Furukawa K, Yokoyama T, Yanagihara K, Iwasaki R, Noguchi T, Tsuchiya S, Sugisaki Y, Naito Z, Tajiri T: [A case of elderly metastatic breast cancer with a complete response to treatment with capecitabine and cyclophosphamide]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2007 Oct;34(10):1697-700
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  • [Title] [A case of elderly metastatic breast cancer with a complete response to treatment with capecitabine and cyclophosphamide].
  • We report a case of elderly metastatic breast cancer with a complete response to the treatment with XC (X: capecitabine and C: cyclophosphamide).
  • A 78-year-old woman, who presented with left breast cancer, underwent pectoralis-preserving mastectomy when she was 76 years old.
  • After one year and a half, a left supraclavicular lymph node metastasis, a left interpectoral lymph node metastasis, and mediastinal lymph nodes metastasis were noted.
  • After 8 cycles, all metastases responded, and this therapy is now being continued (19 cycles) on an outpatient basis.
  • XC therapy can be the first-line chemotherapy for elderly metastatic breast cancer patients since it has been effective and no serious side effects have been encountered while maintaining quality of life.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / administration & dosage. Capecitabine. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Neoplasm Metastasis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17940394.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; 6804DJ8Z9U / Capecitabine; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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74. Wang X, Zheng L, Zhang SY, Xie ZM, Yu H, Su XD, Wang JY, Huang ZF, Yang MT, Rong TH: [Risk factor analysis of mediastinal lymph node metastasis in non-small cell lung cancer patients and the strategy of mediastinoscopy prior to surgery]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi; 2009 Jun;31(6):456-9
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  • [Title] [Risk factor analysis of mediastinal lymph node metastasis in non-small cell lung cancer patients and the strategy of mediastinoscopy prior to surgery].
  • OBJECTIVE: To discuss the strategy of mediastinoscopy for the evaluation of mediastinal lymph node status (metastasis or not) of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) prior to surgery.
  • All cases underwent CT and mediastinoscopy for the evaluation of mediastinal lymph node status prior to surgery.
  • Compared with the results of final pathology, the positive rate of mediastinoscopy and the prevalence of mediastinal lymph node metastasis were calculated in the NSCLC patients with negative mediastinal or hilar lymph nodes on CT scan (the shortest axis of mediastinal or hilar lymph nodes <1 cm).
  • Clinical characteristics used as predictive factor including sex, age, cancer location, type of pathology, T status, cancer type (central or peripheral), size of mediastinal lymph nodes (the shortest axis <1 cm or >1 cm) on CT scan and serum CEA level were analyzed by univariate and multivariate analysis with Binary logistic regression model to identify risk factors of mediastinal metastasis.
  • RESULTS: The positive rate of mediastinoscopy was 11.6% (8/69) and the prevalence of mediastinal metastasis was 20.1% (14/69) in NSCLC with negative mediastinal or hilar lymph nodes on CT scan respectively.
  • In clinical stage I (cT1-2N0M0) NSCLC the positive rate of mediastinoscopy was 11.3% (7/62), N2 accounting for 6.5% (4/62) and N3 4.8% (3/62), respectively; and the prevalence of mediastinal lymph node metastasis was 19.4% (12/62), N2 ccounting for 14.6% (9/62) and N3 4.8% (3/62), respectively.
  • In the whole group both univariate and multivariate analysis showed that adenocarcinoma or mediastinal lymph nodes > or =1 cm in the shortest axis on CT scan was an independent risk factor to predict mediastinal lymph node metastasis.
  • In NSCLC with negative mediastinal or hilar lymph nodes on CT scan both univariate and multivariate analysis showed that adenocarcinoma was a predictor of mediastinal lymph node metastasis.
  • Conclusion We recommend the policy of routine mediastinoscopy in NSCLC prior to surgery if the mediastinal staging was only based on CT scan.
  • Mediastinal lymph nodes > or =1 cm in the shortest axis on CT scan mandates preoperative mediastinoscopy.
  • Adenocarcinoma also indicates mandatory mediastinoscopy even with negative mediastinal or hilar lymph nodes on CT scan.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Mediastinoscopy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / radiography. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Adult. Aged. Carcinoembryonic Antigen / blood. Female. Humans. Logistic Models. Male. Mediastinum. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Preoperative Period. Risk Factors. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19950559.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-3766
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen
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75. Pitoia F, Tamer EE, Schere DB, Passerieu M, Bruno OD, Niepomniszcze H: Usefulness of recombinant human TSH aided radioiodine doses administered in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Medicina (B Aires); 2006;66(2):125-30
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  • Patients were divided into two groups: GI (n=17), with previous thyroid bed uptake and undetectable thyroglobulin (Tg) levels under levothyroxine treatment and GII (n=11), with proven metastatic local or distant disease.
  • In GII, the post therapy whole body scan showed pathological uptakes in all cases: in four patients in lungs, in four in mediastinum and in three in lateral neck.
  • In two patients with mediastinum uptake, Tg levels were undetectable after rhTSH.
  • In the follow-up, two patients with lateral neck uptake were rendered disease free, four patients died (three due to thyroid cancer) and five out of the remaining patients have persistent disease.
  • rhTSH stimulated Tg was undetectable in two patients with mediastinal metastasis.

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  • (PMID = 16715760.001).
  • [ISSN] 0025-7680
  • [Journal-full-title] Medicina
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Medicina (B Aires)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Argentina
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin
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76. Mohan V, Jones RC, Drake AJ 3rd, Daly PL, Shakir KM: Littoral cell angioma presenting as metastatic thyroid carcinoma to the spleen. Thyroid; 2005 Feb;15(2):170-5
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  • [Title] Littoral cell angioma presenting as metastatic thyroid carcinoma to the spleen.
  • Distant metastases are unusual with the lungs most frequently involved.
  • Well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma very rarely presents with metastases to the spleen.
  • This is the case of a 25-year-old man with a history of PTC (1.4 cm primary; no capsular invasion and negative lymph node metastases).
  • Whole body scan (WBS) following a therapeutic ablation dose of 150 mCi I(131) revealed mediastinal metastases.
  • Computerized axial tomography (CT) of the chest one year later showed no gross mediastinal or pulmonary disease.
  • Following treatment with 192 mCi I(131), WBS demonstrated increased activity in the mediastinum as well as in the spleen suggesting mediastinal and splenic metastases.
  • Despite the serum thyroglobulin of only 9.4 ng/mL, the finding of I(131) accumulation within solid splenic masses led to a preoperative diagnosis of thyroid carcinoma metastases.
  • To establish the diagnosis and to remove the risk for splenic rupture, a laparoscopic splenectomy was performed.
  • To our knowledge, this is the first case that describes multiple angiomas mimicking metastatic thyroid carcinoma to the spleen.
  • In one-third of all cases reported, LCA co-exists with various visceral organ cancers or malignant lymphoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / secondary. Hemangioma / pathology. Splenic Neoplasms / secondary. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. False Positive Reactions. Female. Humans. Iodine Radioisotopes. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Ultrasonography, Doppler

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  • (PMID = 15753678.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-7256
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes
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77. Gassiamis A, Tsakonas G, Soukouli G, Mylonakis N, Karabelis A, Kosmas C: Diffuse calcification of metastases after intensive multiagent chemotherapy in widespread osteosarcoma leading to death in a 18-year-old male: report of a case and literature review. Med Oncol; 2006;23(4):455-62
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  • [Title] Diffuse calcification of metastases after intensive multiagent chemotherapy in widespread osteosarcoma leading to death in a 18-year-old male: report of a case and literature review.
  • Despite a multidisciplinary approach, overall survival remains poor and disease progresses, leading to death within 1 yr of diagnosis.
  • Here we report a case of an 18-yr-old patient with extensively metastatic osteosarcoma developing diffuse calcification in lung, pleural, diaphragm, pericardial, subcutaneous metastases, and mediastinal lymph nodes after intensive multiagent chemotherapy.
  • We provide an extensive review of the literature together with presentation of different aspects regarding the debate on the multicentric versus metastatic hypotheses for multifocal osteosarcoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bone Neoplasms / drug therapy. Bone Neoplasms / pathology. Calcinosis. Osteosarcoma / drug therapy. Osteosarcoma / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Combined Modality Therapy. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / classification. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17303903.001).
  • [ISSN] 1357-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical oncology (Northwood, London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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78. Lee BE, von Haag D, Lown T, Lau D, Calhoun R, Follette D: Advances in positron emission tomography technology have increased the need for surgical staging in non-small cell lung cancer. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg; 2007 Mar;133(3):746-52
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  • [Title] Advances in positron emission tomography technology have increased the need for surgical staging in non-small cell lung cancer.
  • OBJECTIVES: Pretreatment staging of patients with non-small cell lung cancer is critically important in determining an appropriate treatment plan.
  • We tested the hypothesis that improvements in PET technology have not increased the sensitivity or specificity of PET in the staging of non-small cell lung cancer to an extent that surgical staging is no longer required.
  • METHODS: This is a retrospective, single-institution review of 336 patients from 1995 to 2005 with biopsy-proven non-small cell lung cancer who underwent [18F] fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose-PET before mediastinal lymph node sampling by cervical mediastinoscopy or thoracotomy.
  • For detecting mediastinal metastases the sensitivities of PET versus integrated PET/CT were 61.1% versus 85.7% (P < .05), specificities were 94.3% versus 80.6% (P < .001), positive predictive values were 68.8% versus 55.8%, negative predictive values were 92.1% versus 95.2%, and overall accuracy was 88.6% versus 81.7%.
  • Although it may appear that integrated PET/CT incurs fewer false negative results, the dramatic increase in false positive results reinforces the notion that integrated PET/CT should be used only as an adjunct to clinical staging and that surgical staging remains the gold standard in non-small cell lung cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / pathology. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / radionuclide imaging. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Positron-Emission Tomography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy, Needle. Cohort Studies. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Mediastinoscopy. Middle Aged. Needs Assessment. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Predictive Value of Tests. Probability. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity. Thoracotomy / methods


79. Shen-Tu Y, Zhao T, Ding Z, Zhou Y: [The prognostic value of detection of serum VEGF-C level and lymphangiogenesis in mediastinal lymph nodes in the patients with lung cancer.]. Zhongguo Fei Ai Za Zhi; 2008 Dec 20;11(6):769-74
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  • [Title] [The prognostic value of detection of serum VEGF-C level and lymphangiogenesis in mediastinal lymph nodes in the patients with lung cancer.].
  • BACKGROUND: There is still lack of special prognostic factor on lung cancer, this study will explore the prognostic value of serum VEGF-C level and lymphangiogenesis of primary cancer and mediastinal lymph nodes in the patients with lung cancer.
  • The VEGF-C and LYVE-1 expression in the mediastinal lymph nodes were put in practice between two groups.
  • The relationship was analyzed for the serum VEGF-C level, VEGF-C and LYVE-1 expression of primary cancer and mediastinal lymph nodes, mediastinal lymph nodes metastasis and the 3-year survival rate of the patients.
  • RESULTS: (1)In new group, the serum VEGF-C level of N2 patients was significantly higher than that of non-N2 patients. (2)In new group, the serum VEGF-C level was closely correlated with VEGF-C expression of primary cancer. (3)In two groups, the primary cancer and mediastinal metastasis lymph nodes had high VEGF-C expression. (4)VEGF-C expression of primary cancer and mediastinal lymph nodes was closely correlated with LYVE-1 expression between the two groups. (5)VEGF-C and LYVE-1 expression of N2 patients was significantly higher than that of non-N2 patients between two groups. (6)The patients' 3-year-survival rate was closely correlated with VEGF-C expression of primary cancer and mediastinal lymph nodes metastasis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Serum VEGF-C level has close correlation with VEGF-C expression of primary cancer, lymphangiogenesis of primary cancer/mediastinal lymph nodes, mediastinal lymph nodes metastasis status and patient's survival rate.
  • Serum VEGF-C level is possible to be used as prognostic factor on lung cancer.

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  • (PMID = 20797326.001).
  • [ISSN] 1999-6187
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhongguo fei ai za zhi = Chinese journal of lung cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhongguo Fei Ai Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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80. Satoh H, Ishikawa H, Kagohashi K, Kurishima K, Sekizawa K: Axillary lymph node metastasis in lung cancer. Med Oncol; 2009;26(2):147-50
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  • [Title] Axillary lymph node metastasis in lung cancer.
  • STUDY OBJECTIVES: Axillary lymph node metastasis (ALNM) from lung cancer is rare.
  • To evaluate clinicopatholgical characteristics of such lung cancer patients, we performed a retrospective study of them, who had ALNM at the time of initial presentation or developed ALNM in their clinical courses.
  • METHODS: We reviewed the medical records and pathological reports of all patients at our division who had a diagnosis of primary lung cancer from January 1985 through August 2007.
  • In eight of them, ALNM was detected at the time of initial diagnosis, and two patients developed ALNM in their clinical courses.
  • Lymphatic metastasis to mediastinum was evident in all patients.
  • Three patients had distant metastases other than axillary or cervical lymph nodes.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The most likely mechanism for axillary node involvement is intercostal lymphatics via spread from mediastinal lymph node metastasis.
  • Routine palpation of the axillae is recommended if chest wall invasion, mediastinal and/or supraclavicular lymph nodes are found either at initial presentation or at follow-up of patients.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Axilla. Humans. Lymph Nodes / diagnostic imaging. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Radiography. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 18821066.001).
  • [ISSN] 1357-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical oncology (Northwood, London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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81. Wang X, Zheng L, Ling L, Zhang SY, Xie ZM, Yu H, Su XD, Wang JY, Huang ZF, Yang MT, Rong TH: [Prospective comparison of CT versus mediastinoscopy in preoperative evaluation of mediastinal lymph node status in patients with non-small cell lung cancer]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi; 2009 Jan;31(1):42-4
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  • [Title] [Prospective comparison of CT versus mediastinoscopy in preoperative evaluation of mediastinal lymph node status in patients with non-small cell lung cancer].
  • OBJECTIVE: To compare the value of CT and mediastinoscopy in assessment of mediastinal lymph node status in potentially operable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
  • Compared with the final pathology, the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values and accuracy of CT and mediastinoscopy for preoperative evaluation of mediastinal lymph node status were calculated, respectively.
  • RESULTS: The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy of detection of mediastinal metastasis was 73.8%, 70.1%, 64.9%, 78.2% and 71.7% by CT, respectively, versus 83.1%, 100.0%, 100.0%, 88.8% and 92.8% by mediastinoscopy, respectively.
  • CONCLUSION: Mediastinoscopy is safe and effective in preoperative assessment of mediastinal lymph node status in potentially operable NSCLC, while CT alone is inadequate.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Mediastinoscopy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. False Negative Reactions. Female. Humans. Male. Mediastinum. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies. ROC Curve. Sensitivity and Specificity. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Young Adult


82. Luketich JD, Land SR, Sullivan EA, Alvelo-Rivera M, Ward J, Buenaventura PO, Landreneau RJ, Hart LA, Fernando HC: Thoracic epidural versus intercostal nerve catheter plus patient-controlled analgesia: a randomized study. Ann Thorac Surg; 2005 Jun;79(6):1845-9; discussion 1849-50
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  • Another 20 patients were excluded (no difference between groups) due to unsuspected mediastinal metastases precluding thoracotomy (n = 13), and other miscellaneous factors precluding follow-up (n = 7).

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  • (PMID = 15919269.001).
  • [ISSN] 1552-6259
  • [Journal-full-title] The Annals of thoracic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Thorac. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anesthetics, Local; 98PI200987 / Lidocaine; Y8335394RO / Bupivacaine
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83. Dagli AF, Pehlivan S, Cihangiroglu G, Ozercan MR: Cytology of mixed germ cell tumor with mediastinal metastasis. J Cytol; 2009 Jul;26(3):120-2
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  • [Title] Cytology of mixed germ cell tumor with mediastinal metastasis.
  • Nonseminomatous germ cell tumors of the testis are common and are very aggressive malignant tumors.
  • Most of the cases have metastases at the time of diagnosis, and involvement of the posterior mediastinum in particular is well known.
  • His thoracic computed tomography (CT) showed a 1.5 cm lymph node on the anterior mediastinum and a mass of about 11 × 10 × 8 cm extending from the right lung apex to the right hilus, with regular contours and without contrast enhancement.
  • The patient, who was given the preliminary diagnosis of a mixture metastatic bronchial tumor plus lymphoma, was subjected to transthoracic fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC).
  • The patient, who could not be typed in his cytopathological examination, was diagnosed with malignant epithelial tumor and was recommended to undergo a genitourinary system examination.
  • Histopathological examination of the orchiectomy material resulted in the diagnosis of mixed germ cell tumor (60% mature teratoma and 40% yolk sac tumor).
  • Even though metastatic lesions are mostly seen in the posterior mediastinum, our findings reveal that specimens obtained with FNAC from the anterior mediastinum bear discohesive, pleomorphic, small nuclei in epithelial cells with microvacoules in the cytoplasm.
  • These cytopathological alterations in specimens from the anterior mediastinum might promote germ cell and yolk sac tumors.

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  • [Cites] Ann Thorac Surg. 2000 Jun;69(6):1717-21 [10892913.001]
  • [Cites] Diagn Cytopathol. 2002 Aug;27(2):69-74 [12203871.001]
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  • (PMID = 21938171.001).
  • [ISSN] 0970-9371
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cytology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Cytol
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3168014
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Nonseminomatous germ cell tumor / fine needle aspiration cytology / mixed germ cell tumor / testis
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84. Kuzdzał J, Zieliński M, Papla B, Szlubowski A, Hauer Ł, Nabiałek T, Sośnicki W, Pankowski J: Transcervical extended mediastinal lymphadenectomy--the new operative technique and early results in lung cancer staging. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg; 2005 Mar;27(3):384-90; discussion 390
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Transcervical extended mediastinal lymphadenectomy--the new operative technique and early results in lung cancer staging.
  • OBJECTIVE: Mediastinal staging is one of the most important problems in thoracic surgery.
  • Although the pathological examination is a generally accepted standard, none of the currently used techniques enables complete removal of all lymph node stations of the mediastinum.
  • The aim of the study is to present a new technique of transcervical extended mediastinal lymphadenctomy (TEMLA) and to analyze its value in lung cancer staging.
  • METHODS: In the prospective study of consecutive group of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients, operated on between January and August 2004, we evaluated the usefulness of this original technique of bilateral mediastinal lymphadenectomy, assessing its accuracy and safety.
  • In patients without mediastinal metastases thoracotomy with pulmonary resection was performed and mediastinum searched for any missed lymph nodes.
  • The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the presented method in detecting mediastinal node metastases were: 90, 100, and 96%, respectively, whereas the positive and negative predictive values were: 100 and 95%, respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The TEMLA technique is a safe and highly accurate method of mediastinal staging in NSCLC.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / secondary. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / surgery. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Lymph Node Excision / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Epidemiologic Methods. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Mediastinoscopy / methods. Mediastinum. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Thoracic Surgery, Video-Assisted / adverse effects. Thoracic Surgery, Video-Assisted / methods

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  • [CommentIn] Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2010 Apr;37(4):780-1 [20036137.001]
  • (PMID = 15740943.001).
  • [ISSN] 1010-7940
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery : official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Cardiothorac Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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85. Hwangbo B, Lee HS, Lee GK, Lim KY, Lee SH, Kim HY, Lee JY, Zo JI: Transoesophageal needle aspiration using a convex probe ultrasonic bronchoscope. Respirology; 2009 Aug;14(6):843-9
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  • Of the 89 lesions, 39 malignant lesions were confirmed by EUS-B-FNA.
  • EUS-B-FNA provided additional diagnostic gain to bronchoscopic procedures in 16 patients (19.0%): 3 lung cancers were upstaged, 11 lung cancers were pathologically confirmed, and 2 patients were diagnosed with mediastinal metastasis from an extrathoracic malignancy.
  • This gain was obtained by the sampling of inaccessible (n = 4) or difficult lesions by endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (n = 2) or when bronchoscopy was difficult due to dyspnoea, cough, brain metastasis or other conditions (n = 10).

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  • (PMID = 19659830.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-1843
  • [Journal-full-title] Respirology (Carlton, Vic.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Respirology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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86. Pan TC, Zheng Z, Li J, Chen T, Liu LG, Wei X: [Appropriate extent of lymph node dissection for clinical I a stage non-small cell lung cancer]. Ai Zheng; 2007 Mar;26(3):303-6
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  • [Title] [Appropriate extent of lymph node dissection for clinical I a stage non-small cell lung cancer].
  • BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: There is no agreement on the appropriate extent of lymph node dissection for lung cancer, especially for early non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
  • This study was to explore the appropriate extent of lymph node dissection for early NSCLC by investigating the metastasis regulations of hilar and mediastinal lymph nodes.
  • METHODS: Forty-one clinical Ia stage NSCLC patients received lobectomy and systematic mediastinal lymphadenectomy in Tongji Hospital from Jan.
  • The metastasis regulations of hilar and mediastinal lymph nodes were investigated.
  • Among them, 42 (14.2%) groups had metastasis, including 33 groups of hilar lymph nodes and 9 of mediastinal lymph nodes.
  • Four patients had mediastinal lymph node metastasis in the 7th station, 2 in the 5th station, 2 in the 9th station, and 1 in the 4th station.
  • The patients with tumors in the upper lobe had metastasis in the 5th or 7th station lymph nodes; the patients with tumors in the middle or lower lobe had metastasis in the 4th, 7th, or 9th station.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The metastasis regulations of hilar and mediastinal lymph nodes in Ia stage NSCLC is accordant to regional lymph node drainage regulations.
  • Selective regional lymph node dissection might be applied in these patients, that is, upper mediastinal lymph node, not lower mediastinal lymph node, should be removed when the tumor is in the upper lobe without hilar or subcarinal lymph node metastasis, while all mediastinal lymph nodes should be removed when the tumor is in the middle or lower lobe.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Adult. Aged. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lung / pathology. Lymph Nodes / surgery. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Mediastinum / pathology. Mediastinum / surgery. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Pneumonectomy / methods. Survival Rate


87. Zhi XY, Liu BD, Xu QS, Zhang Y, Su L, Wang HR, Hu M: [Clinical value of computed tomography and fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron remission tomography in diagnosis of mediastinal metastasis of non small cell lung cancer]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi; 2005 Aug 3;85(29):2026-9
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  • [Title] [Clinical value of computed tomography and fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron remission tomography in diagnosis of mediastinal metastasis of non small cell lung cancer].
  • OBJECTIVE: To compare the clinical values of computed tomography (CT) and fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron remission tomography (FDG-PET) in diagnosis of mediastinal metastasis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
  • METHODS: Sixty patients with respectable NSCLC underwent CT and FDG-PET with an interval of 2 weeks and then underwent thoracotomy for clearance of the lymph nodes or biopsy of the mediastinal lymph nodes via mediastinoscopy.
  • The specimens of mediastinal lymph node underwent HE staining and PCNA/Ki67 immunohistochemical staining.
  • The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive prediction value, and negative prediction value in diagnosis of metastasis of mediastinal lymph nodes of these 2 procedures were compared.
  • RESULTS: The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive prediction value, and negative prediction value in diagnosis of metastasis of mediastinal lymph nodes were 92.3%, 87.5%, 91.2%, 96.0%, and 77.7% respectively for FDG-PET, and were 76.9%, 50.0%, 70.6%, 83.3%, and 40.0% respectively for CT.
  • CONCLUSION: PET is superior to CT in diagnosis of metastasis of NSCLC to mediastinal lymph nodes.
  • PET + CT significantly increases the sensitivity in diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / diagnosis. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Positron-Emission Tomography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Mediastinum. Middle Aged


88. Gotohda N, Nishimura M, Yoshida J, Nagai K, Tanaka N: The pattern of lymphatic metastases in superficial squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus. Hepatogastroenterology; 2005 Jan-Feb;52(61):105-7
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  • [Title] The pattern of lymphatic metastases in superficial squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus.
  • We therefore analyzed patterns of lymph node metastasis in these patients.
  • RESULTS: Lymph node involvement was found in 0% (0/13) and 44% (23/52) of patients whose tumor invaded the muscularis mucosa and submucosal layer, respectively.
  • None of the patients with upper thoracic esophageal cancer had metastasis to the mediastinal and abdominal nodes.
  • Patients with lower thoracic esophageal tumors (Lt) had no metastasis to the cervical nodes.
  • Patients with middle thoracic esophageal tumors (Mt) and Lt patients rarely had metastasis (2-5%) in the lower mediasinal nodes (Nos. 108-112).
  • No patient with superficial thoracic esophageal cancer had metastasis to the subcarinal nodes in this study.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In our series, no patient with intramucosal carcinoma had lymphatic metastases.
  • In Mt and Lt patients, metastases to the mediastinal nodes were infrequent (2-7%).
  • Mediastinal nodes other than #107 can easily be sampled through cervical and abdominal incisions.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Esophageal Neoplasms / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Abdomen / pathology. Adult. Aged. Esophagectomy. Female. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Male. Mediastinum / pathology. Middle Aged. Neck / pathology. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 15783006.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-6390
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepato-gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hepatogastroenterology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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89. Liu J, Xu ZG, Wang XL, Liu SY, Qi YF, Tang PZ: [Surgical treatment of thyroid carcinoma with the upper mediastinal metastasis]. Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2007 Apr;42(4):277-80
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Surgical treatment of thyroid carcinoma with the upper mediastinal metastasis].
  • OBJECTIVE: To study the clinical characteristics and management of thyroid cancer with the upper mediastinal metastasis.
  • METHODS: A retrospective study was performed to analysis the clinical characteristics, treatment and prognosis of 122 cases who underwent mediastinal dissection for thyroid cancer invasion in Cancer Hospital of Chinese Academy of Medical Science from Jan.
  • RESULTS: According to postoperative pathological diagnosis, upper mediastinal(2R/2L) were the most common areas invaded, 98.4%.
  • The incidence rate of lower mediastinal invasion was 20.5%, which often occurred in the area of lower paratracheal (4R/4L).
  • The complication rate of the sternotomy group (38.2%)was higher than the other (28.4%), but complications associated with mediastinal operation were rare, including pleural effusion (3 cases), mediastinal infection (1 case) and superior vena cava rupture (1 case), which were all cured.
  • Three-year and 5-year mediastinal recurrence rate of sternotomy group were 3.8%, 12.2%, while transcervical operation group 7.9%, 14.2%.
  • CONCLUSIONS: It is noticed that there is a big percentage of patients with lower mediastinal invasion as well as upper area lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Mediastinal Neoplasms / secondary. Mediastinal Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. Female. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 17628978.001).
  • [ISSN] 1673-0860
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua er bi yan hou tou jing wai ke za zhi = Chinese journal of otorhinolaryngology head and neck surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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90. Koga R, Noriyuki T, Kimura A, Okumichi T, Takeshima Y: [Pulmonary pleomorphic carcinoma]. Kyobu Geka; 2005 Nov;58(12):1043-8
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  • Chest computed tomography (CT) showed a rapidly growing tumor with irregular density.
  • Transbronchial lung biopsy revealed the tumor to be malignant.
  • Pathological diagnosis was pleomorphic carcinoma (pT2N2M0, stage IIIA).
  • He died 8 months after surgery due to brain metastasis and mediastinal lymph node metastasis.
  • Chest CT showed a tumor with cavity in the right middle lobe.
  • Pathological diagnosis was also pleomorphic carcinoma (pT2N0M0, stage IB).
  • He has no findings of recurrence nor metastasis 15 months after the operation.

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  • (PMID = 16281853.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-5252
  • [Journal-full-title] Kyobu geka. The Japanese journal of thoracic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Kyobu Geka
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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91. Whitson BA, Groth SS, Andrade RS, Garrett L, Dudek AZ, Jessurun J, Maddaus MA: Extension of survival by resection of asynchronous renal cell carcinoma metastases to mediastinal lymph nodes. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg; 2008 May;135(5):1022-8
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  • [Title] Extension of survival by resection of asynchronous renal cell carcinoma metastases to mediastinal lymph nodes.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine whether or not resection of isolated mediastinal lymph node renal cell carcinoma metastases confers a survival advantage, as compared with patients with stage IV disease.
  • Using Kaplan-Meier estimates, we compared the survival of patients who underwent resection of asynchronous mediastinal lymph node metastases with that of patients with stage IV disease.
  • RESULTS: During the 7-year study period, of the 386 patients with renal cell carcinoma who were evaluated at our institution, 9 underwent resection of asynchronous mediastinal lymph node metastases.
  • After primary tumor resection and before diagnosis of asynchronous mediastinal lymph node metastases, all patients completed chemotherapy, cytokine therapy, or tumor vaccination; 3 underwent radiotherapy.
  • The median age at resection of mediastinal lymph nodes was 57.7 years (range, 39.7-81.2).
  • The median time from primary tumor resection to mediastinal lymph node resection was 2.8 years (range, 0.5-23.3).
  • In all, 4 patients underwent resection of metastases via thoracotomy and 5, via thoracoscopy.
  • The median number of mediastinal lymph nodes pathologically evaluated was 7 (range, 2-28); the median number of positive mediastinal lymph nodes per patient was 1.5 (range, 1-3).
  • The median survival after resection of metastases (3.2 years) was significantly longer (P = .021) than for other patients with stage IV disease at our institution (1.1 years).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Resection of renal cell carcinoma mediastinal lymph node metastases is safe, appears to extend survival, and should be considered an important component of treating patients with renal cell carcinoma who have asynchronous mediastinal lymph node metastases.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Mediastinum. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 18455579.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-685X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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92. Martorell M, Ortiz CM, Garcia JA: Testicular fusocellular rhabdomyosarcoma as a metastasis of elbow sclerosing rhabdomyosarcoma: A clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical and molecular study of one case. Diagn Pathol; 2010;5:52
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  • [Title] Testicular fusocellular rhabdomyosarcoma as a metastasis of elbow sclerosing rhabdomyosarcoma: A clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical and molecular study of one case.
  • Histologically, the tumor showed an abundant extracellular hyaline matrix with extratumoral vascular emboli and microscopic foci of fusocellular embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (FRMS) separated by a fibrotic band from the sclerosing areas.
  • One year later the patient presented with a right intratesticular tumor of 1.2 x 0.8 cm, which was reported as pure FRMS.
  • Both the elbow emboli with the extratumoral foci of FRMS and the intratesticular tumor were positive for Myogenin, MyoD1, Vimentin and Desmin.
  • Using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), the SRMS and the FRMS tumor cells of the elbow and the FRMS tumor cells of the testis were found to be negative for FOXO1A translocation in chromosome 13.
  • Six months following testicular resection, the patient died of multiple metastases in the mediastinum, lung and right thigh.
  • [MeSH-major] Rhabdomyosarcoma, Embryonal / secondary. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 13. Elbow. Fatal Outcome. Fibrosis. Forkhead Transcription Factors / genetics. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Male. Orchiectomy. Sclerosis. Time Factors. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Translocation, Genetic. Treatment Outcome. Whole Body Imaging

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  • (PMID = 20701800.001).
  • [ISSN] 1746-1596
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / FOXO1 protein, human; 0 / Forkhead Transcription Factors
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3224966
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93. Washino S, Terauchi F, Matsuzaki A, Kobayashi Y: [Two cases of squamous cell carcinoma of upper urinary tract with hypercalcemia]. Nihon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi; 2008 Sep;99(6):703-8
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  • Case 2; a 54 year old male of primary SCC of right renal pelvis with local lymphadenopathy and anterior mediastinal metastases showed marked hypercalcemia.
  • Although the patient was administered UFT with palliative radiotherapy to the anterior mediastinum, he died 2 months after the initiation of therapy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Fatal Outcome. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor / biosynthesis. Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor / blood. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein / biosynthesis. Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein / blood. Radiotherapy. Tegafur / administration & dosage. Uracil / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 18939454.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-5287
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Hinyōkika Gakkai zasshi. The japanese journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein; 143011-72-7 / Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor; 1548R74NSZ / Tegafur; 56HH86ZVCT / Uracil; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil; 1-UFT protocol
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94. Hod N, Hagag P, Baumer M, Sandbank J, Horne T: Differentiated thyroid carcinoma in children and young adults: evaluation of response to treatment. Clin Nucl Med; 2005 Jun;30(6):387-90
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • RESULTS: Age range at diagnosis was 12 to 25 years (median, 21 years).
  • Multifocal carcinoma was found in 9 (29%) patients and neck lymph node metastases in 19 (61%) patients.
  • Fifteen (48%) patients had pulmonary or mediastinal metastases at the time of diagnosis, and 1 developed bone metastases.
  • Lung metastases demonstrated a pattern of diffuse radioiodine uptake in 7 patients and focal uptake in 8.
  • Fourteen (45%) patients were disease-free, including 1 patient with pulmonary metastases who achieved complete remission.
  • Three (10%) patients had persistent metastases in neck lymph nodes.
  • Nine (29%) patients with pulmonary metastases showed good response, 4 (13%) had stable persistent disease, and 1 had progression of the disease and died after 11.5 years of follow up.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Children and young adults with DTC had a high incidence of multifocal disease, lymph node involvement, and pulmonary metastases.
  • Although complete remission of pulmonary metastases after radioiodine therapy was difficult to achieve, a partial response with reduction of metastatic disease was possible.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / epidemiology. Carcinoma / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / epidemiology. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Risk Assessment / methods. Thyroid Neoplasms / epidemiology. Thyroid Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Distribution. Child. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Israel / epidemiology. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Prevalence. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Thyroidectomy. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15891289.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-9762
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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95. Nakayama J, Miyasaka K, Omatsu T, Onodera Y, Terae S, Matsuno Y, Cho Y, Hida Y, Kaga K, Shirato H: Metastases in mediastinal and hilar lymph nodes in patients with non-small cell lung cancer: quantitative assessment with diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and apparent diffusion coefficient. J Comput Assist Tomogr; 2010 Jan;34(1):1-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Metastases in mediastinal and hilar lymph nodes in patients with non-small cell lung cancer: quantitative assessment with diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and apparent diffusion coefficient.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance (DW-MR) imaging for detection of metastases in lymph nodes by using quantitative analysis.
  • METHODS: Seventy patients with non-small cell lung cancer were examined with DW and short inversion time inversion recovery (STIR) turbo-spin-echo MR imaging.
  • Apparent diffusion coefficient of each lung cancer and lymph node was calculated from DW-MR images.
  • Difference of the apparent diffusion coefficient in a lung cancer and a lymph node was calculated (D1).
  • For quantitative analysis, the threshold value for a positive test was determined on a per node basis and tested for ability to enable a correct diagnosis on a per patient basis.
  • RESULTS: Mean D1 in the lymph node group with metastases was lower than that in the group without metastases (P < 0.001).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Quantitative analysis of DW-MR images enables differentiation of lymph nodes with metastasis from those without.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / pathology. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / secondary. Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Mediastinum / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Lymph Node Excision / methods. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Phantoms, Imaging. ROC Curve. Reproducibility of Results. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 20118713.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-3145
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of computer assisted tomography
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Comput Assist Tomogr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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96. Fang WT, Chen WH, Chen Y, Shen YZ, Jiang Y: [Selective three-field lymphadenectomy for thoracic esophageal squamous carcinoma]. Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2006 Sep;9(5):388-91
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the lymph node metastasis and the rational lymphadenectomy in thoracic esophageal carcinoma.
  • Regional and cervical lymph node metastasis were found in 48(55.2% ) and 17(19.5% ) patients respectively.
  • The regional lymph node metastatic rates were 37.5% (9/24), 62.3% (33/53) and 60.0% (6/10) respectively in the patients with upper, middle, and lower thoracic esophageal carcinoma.
  • The cervical lymph node metastatic rates in the patients with or without regional lymph node metastasis were 31.3% (15/48) and 5.1% (2/39) respectively(P=0.002).
  • The rates of upper, mid, lower mediastinal and upper abdominal lymph node metastasis were 25.3%, 23.0%, 5.7%, and 24.1% respectively.
  • Cervical lymph node metastasis was significantly correlated with upper and mid mediastinal metastasis (both P< 0.01), but not with lower mediastinal and upper abdominal lymph node metastasis.
  • CONCLUSION: Selective 3-field lymphadenectomy based on cervical ultrasonography should be performed in thoracic esophageal carcinoma, especially with upper and mid mediastinal lymph node metastasis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neck / pathology. Thorax / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17043956.001).
  • [ISSN] 1671-0274
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua wei chang wai ke za zhi = Chinese journal of gastrointestinal surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
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97. Katakura H, Sato M, Tanaka F, Sakai H, Bando T, Hasegawa S, Nakashima Y, Wada H: Pulmonary sclerosing hemangioma with metastasis to the mediastinal lymph node. Ann Thorac Surg; 2005 Dec;80(6):2351-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pulmonary sclerosing hemangioma with metastasis to the mediastinal lymph node.
  • Bronchoscopy revealed obstruction of the left B6c bronchus by a tumor, for which biopsy was done but no definitive histologic diagnosis could be made.
  • Then, left lower lobectomy was performed, and the tumor was diagnosed as a pulmonary sclerosing hemangioma.
  • A mediastinal lymph node (no. 7) showed some metastatic tumor cells.
  • As lymph node metastasis from pulmonary sclerosing hemangioma is very rare, we herein report the details of our case.
  • [MeSH-major] Pulmonary Sclerosing Hemangioma / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Mediastinum

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  • (PMID = 16305908.001).
  • [ISSN] 1552-6259
  • [Journal-full-title] The Annals of thoracic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Thorac. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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98. Hicks RJ, Lau E, Alam NZ, Chen RY: Imaging in the diagnosis and treatment of non-small cell lung cancer. Respirology; 2007 Mar;12(2):165-72
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Imaging in the diagnosis and treatment of non-small cell lung cancer.
  • The available tools for diagnosing and staging lung cancer patients can be broadly categorized into non-invasive, minimally invasive and invasive (surgical) modalities.
  • Application of Bayesian principles indicates that tests with a high sensitivity and specificity for detection of both systemic metastases and mediastinal nodal involvement are required for treatment selection and planning in patients with non-small cell lung cancer who would be considered for treatment with curative intent.
  • Combined PET/CT using the glucose analogue fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose currently provides the best diagnostic performance for this purpose and should now be considered the standard of care for staging non-small cell lung cancer.
  • Diagnostic CT has an important role in defining tumour relations for patients deemed suitable for surgical resection and as the initial investigation for patients with potential symptoms of lung cancer or proven lung cancer that would not be considered for curative treatment on medical grounds.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / diagnosis. Endosonography. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Positron-Emission Tomography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Mediastinum. Neoplasm Staging / methods


99. Kim MS, Lee HS, Lee JM, Zo JI, Lee GK, Nam BH: Prognostic value of single nodal zone metastasis in non-small-cell lung cancer. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg; 2010 Oct;38(4):491-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Prognostic value of single nodal zone metastasis in non-small-cell lung cancer.
  • OBJECTIVE: Mediastinal nodal metastasis is related to poor prognosis in surgically resected non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and the prognosis becomes worse with an increasing number of nodal stations involved.
  • The new concept of a 'nodal zone' was proposed by the IASLC lung cancer staging project (IALC, International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer), and we investigated the impact of the 'nodal zone' on the survival of pathological N2 patients.
  • METHODS: From a total of 1186 patients with NSCLC, who underwent surgical resection with curative intent, we analysed the survival data of 217 patients with ipsilateral mediastinal metastasis retrospectively.
  • Overall and disease-free survival were better in the single-zone metastasis group than in the multiple zone group (median: 48.5 vs 33.4 months, p=0.001, CI: 32.05-46.62, and 20.4 vs 10.6 months, p<0.001, CI: 13.84-21.03).
  • Among those of the single nodal zone metastasis group, no differences were found between the single and multiple nodal station metastasis groups in overall and disease-free survival.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Patients with single nodal zone metastasis showed favourable outcomes compared with the multiple zone metastasis group.
  • In conclusion, patients with single nodal zone metastasis can benefit from surgical resection.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / secondary. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / surgery. Lung Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Epidemiologic Methods. Female. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Mediastinum. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Pneumonectomy / methods. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Recurrence. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20399672.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-734X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery : official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Cardiothorac Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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100. Pfannschmidt J, Klode J, Muley T, Dienemann H, Hoffmann H: Nodal involvement at the time of pulmonary metastasectomy: experiences in 245 patients. Ann Thorac Surg; 2006 Feb;81(2):448-54
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: Although routine systematic mediastinal and hilar lymph node dissection contemporary with pulmonary metastasectomy has not been uniformly performed in many thoracic surgical centers, the value of this procedure needs to be investigated.
  • METHODS: Between 1996 and 2001, 245 patients (157 men, 88 women) underwent pulmonary resection of metastatic colorectal carcinoma, sarcoma, and renal cell carcinoma.
  • Generally, systematic mediastinal and hilar lymph node dissection was performed concurrently with pulmonary metastasectomy.
  • Patients were assessed for patterns of lymph node metastases.
  • Patients and tumor characteristics were assessed to ascertain whether certain factors were likely to predict lymph node spread.
  • RESULTS: Of the 245 patients (328 primary thoracic procedures), 165 had no lymph node involvement, 45 had pulmonary and hilar metastases, 22 had pulmonary, hilar, and mediastinal metastases, and 13 had only mediastinal involvement without pulmonary and hilar spread.
  • Patients with more than one pulmonary metastasis or metachronous disease were more likely to have thoracic lymph node metastases.
  • The risk for mediastinal lymph node involvement was even more likely for patients who had already pulmonary or hilar lymph node spread; the odds ratios (with 95% confidence intervals) were 1.30 (0.71 to 2.36), 1.32 (0.59 to 2.99), and 5.87 (2.73 to 12.6), respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that systematic mediastinal and hilar lymph node dissection contemporary with pulmonary metastasectomy offers a further understanding of metastatic disease and provides important information for complete surgical staging.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Renal Cell / secondary. Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / surgery. Lymphatic Metastasis. Sarcoma / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Male. Mediastinum. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Odds Ratio. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors






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