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6. Botea F, Marconi M, Lutman F, Balzarini L, Roncalli M, Montorsi M, Torzilli G: Radiological estimation of size in colorectal liver metastases: is it reliable? Comparison with post-resectional measurements. Updates Surg; 2010 Aug;62(1):21-6
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  • [Title] Radiological estimation of size in colorectal liver metastases: is it reliable? Comparison with post-resectional measurements.
  • Since the efficiency of percutaneous ablation techniques in treating colorectal liver metastases is dependent on tumor size, the aim of this study was to verify the accuracy of computed tomography or magnetic resonance in estimating the maximum diameter of colorectal liver metastases by comparing these findings with those of pathology in a series of patients who underwent liver resection.
  • Radiological and pathological tumor measurements in 39 patients operated for 69 colorectal liver metastasis were recorded.
  • The results indicated that radiology significantly underestimates the diameter of liver metastasis.
  • To avoid on-site recurrence after percutaneous ablation therapies due to inaccurate radiological measurement, a radiological size of colorectal metastasis up to 2.5 cm should be considered as selection criteria for this treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Colorectal Neoplasms / radiography. Colorectal Neoplasms / secondary. Hepatectomy. Liver Neoplasms / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Tomography, X-Ray Computed


7. Grudzinski JJ, Yoriyaz H, Deluca PM Jr, Weichert JP: Patient specific treatment planning for systemically administered radiopharmaceuticals using PET/CT and Monte Carlo simulation. Appl Radiat Isot; 2010 Jan;68(1):59-65
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  • NM404 is a candidate for patient specific dosimetry because it can be used concurrently for both diagnosis and therapy.
  • The subsequent work uses a software interface (SCMS) to convert patient PET/CT data of a liver metastasis into a Monte Carlo environment for radiation transport analysis.
  • Thereby, the dosimetry within the liver and tumor during both diagnostic and therapeutic procedures was determined.
  • The results showed that per MBq injected of [(124)I] and [(131)I], the tumor receives an average of 1.2 and 1.5mGy, respectively, while the liver receives 0.031 and 0.022mGy, respectively.
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Liver / metabolism. Liver Neoplasms / metabolism. Liver Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Monte Carlo Method. Phantoms, Imaging. Phosphorylcholine / administration & dosage. Phosphorylcholine / analogs & derivatives. Positron-Emission Tomography. Software

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  • (PMID = 19879154.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-9800
  • [Journal-full-title] Applied radiation and isotopes : including data, instrumentation and methods for use in agriculture, industry and medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Appl Radiat Isot
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 18-(4-iodophenyl)octadecylphosphocholine; 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 107-73-3 / Phosphorylcholine
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8. Andrle J, Schartinger VH, Schwentner I, Deibl M, Sprinzl GM: Initial staging examinations for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: are they appropriate? J Laryngol Otol; 2009 Aug;123(8):885-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • OBJECTIVES: The presence of distant metastases affects the therapeutic regime in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
  • METHODS: One hundred and sixty-three patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma who were scheduled for major surgery underwent screening for distant metastases.
  • RESULTS: Distant metastases were detected in 5.52 per cent of the 163 patients.
  • Computed tomography scanning of the lungs revealed metastases in six patients.
  • Bone metastases were found in three patients.
  • Only one patient with primary liver metastases was detected by abdominal ultrasonography; this patient also had pulmonary metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Head and Neck Neoplasms. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Neoplasms, Second Primary / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Bone and Bones / radionuclide imaging. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Retrospective Studies. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods


9. Kulke MH: Gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors: a role for targeted therapies? Endocr Relat Cancer; 2007 Jun;14(2):207-19
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  • Selected patients with hepatic metastases may benefit from surgical debulking, embolization, or other ablative therapies.
  • While somatostatin analogs are highly effective in controlling symptoms of hormonal secretion, they are only rarely associated with tumor regression.
  • The clinical benefit associated with the administration of systemic agents such as interferon-alpha or cytotoxic chemotherapy is less clear, and the widespread use of such regimens has been limited by their relatively modest anti-tumor activity, as well as concerns regarding their potential toxicity.
  • [MeSH-major] Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / therapy. Neuroendocrine Tumors / diagnosis. Neuroendocrine Tumors / therapy

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  • (PMID = 17639038.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K23 CA 093401; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / K30 HL04095
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 99
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10. Yamamoto Y, Hirakawa E, Mori S, Hamada Y, Kawaguchi N, Matsuura N: Cleavage of carcinoembryonic antigen induces metastatic potential in colorectal carcinoma. Biochem Biophys Res Commun; 2005 Jul 22;333(1):223-9
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  • [Title] Cleavage of carcinoembryonic antigen induces metastatic potential in colorectal carcinoma.
  • Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), a widely used tumor marker, is attached by a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor motif to the cell membrane.
  • We studied the effect of GPI-PLD on the cleavage of CEA to elucidate the implication for metastatic potential in colorectal carcinoma cells.
  • Splenic injection of SW620 and SW837 induced marked hepatic metastases in nude mice.
  • These results suggest that membrane-bound CEA is cleaved by GPI-PLD and that this cleavage enhances the metastatic potential in colorectal carcinoma cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoembryonic Antigen / metabolism. Colorectal Neoplasms / metabolism. Liver Neoplasms / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Phospholipase D / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Movement / drug effects. Female. Humans. Mice. Mice, Inbred BALB C

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  • (PMID = 15958210.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-291X
  • [Journal-full-title] Biochemical and biophysical research communications
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen; EC 3.1.4.4 / Phospholipase D; EC 3.1.4.50 / glycoprotein phospholipase D
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11. Shimura T, Suehiro T, Suzuki H, Okada K, Araki K, Kuwano H: Trans-ileocecal portal vein embolization as a preoperative treatment for right trisegmentectomy with caudate lobectomy. J Surg Oncol; 2007 Oct 1;96(5):438-41
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The indication of preoperative portal vein embolization (PVE) has been expanded to hepatocellular carcinoma, cholangiocellular carcinoma (CCC), hepatic metastasis, and gallbladder (GB) cancer as well as hilar cholangiocarcinoma (hCC).
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed our preoperative trans-ileocecal-vein PVE (TIPE) method on 14 (3 GB cancer, 1 CCC, and 10 hCC), whose estimated residual liver volume was <30%.
  • RESULTS: Out of 14 patients, peritoneal dissemination was encountered in two patients with GB cancer and one with hCC (21.4%) during our procedure.
  • The estimated residual liver volume was 37.4 +/- 2.7% at 14 days after PVE in patients without predisposing cholangitis, while those in patients with cholangitis was 29.3 +/- 1.3% (P = 0.0002).
  • CONCLUSIONS: PTPE could be the first choice for patients with hCC, hepatocellular carcinoma, and hepatic metastases.
  • Although the TIPE proposed here has some potential disadvantages, we would recommend it especially for patients with GB cancer because of its high potential to cause cancerous peritonitis.

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  • [Copyright] 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc
  • (PMID = 17492638.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-4790
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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12. Ogino T, Komoike Y, Ishitobi M, Motomura K, Inaji H, Koyama H: [A long-term survival case of metastatic breast cancer treated with trastuzumab and paclitaxel]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2008 Nov;35(12):2234-6
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  • [Title] [A long-term survival case of metastatic breast cancer treated with trastuzumab and paclitaxel].
  • We report a long-term survival case of metastatic breast cancer treated with trastuzumab and paclitaxel.
  • She underwent left mastectomy with axillary lymphadenectomy for advanced breast cancer with liver metastases.
  • One year after the operation, any lesions of liver were not detected by CT and she was diagnosed as a complete response.
  • Breast cancer with liver metastases often could be a life threatening, and therefore an optimal chemotherapy should be applied as soon as possible.
  • Trastuzumab and paclitaxel would be one of the optimal chemotherapies for HER2 positive breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Breast Neoplasms / immunology. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Paclitaxel / therapeutic use


13. Nanashima A, Sumida Y, Abo T, Tobinaga S, Takeshita H, Hidaka S, Yasutake T, Nagayasu T, Mine M, Sawai T: A modified grading system for post-hepatectomy metastatic liver cancer originating from colorectal carcinoma. J Surg Oncol; 2008 Oct 1;98(5):363-70
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A modified grading system for post-hepatectomy metastatic liver cancer originating from colorectal carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: There is no appropriate grading system for prediction of survival of patients with metastatic liver cancer (MLC) from colorectal carcinoma.
  • METHODS: We compared predictive accuracies of survival of 121 Japanese MLC patients of five systems, including clinical risk score (CRS) proposed by Memorial-Sloan-Kettering-Cancer-Center, original H-number (OHN) by Japanese Society for Cancer of the Colon and Rectum, revised H-number (RHN) and Grade by the same society (GJSCCR), and our modified Grade (MGJSCCR) based on OHN and presence of primary lymph node metastasis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The simpler system of MGJSCCR is a better predictive grading system of prognosis of MLC patients who had undergone hepatic resection.
  • [MeSH-major] Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Hepatectomy. Humans. Japan. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Predictive Value of Tests. Survival Analysis. Survival Rate


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4. Meijerink MR, van Waesberghe JH, van Schaik C, Boven E, van der Veldt AA, van den Tol P, Meijer S, van Kuijk C: Perfusion CT and US of colorectal cancer liver metastases: a correlative study of two dynamic imaging modalities. Ultrasound Med Biol; 2010 Oct;36(10):1626-36
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Perfusion CT and US of colorectal cancer liver metastases: a correlative study of two dynamic imaging modalities.
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the correlation between dynamic-contrast-enhanced computed tomography (DCE-CT) and first-pass dynamic-contrast-enhanced ultrasound (DCE-US) of normal appearing liver parenchyma and of colorectal cancer liver metastases.
  • Thirty patients with hepatic metastases from colorectal cancer underwent DCE-CT and DCE-US.
  • The DCE-US-based tumor-to-liver perfusion gradient also showed a low test-retest variability and moderately correlated to DCE-CT (concordance correlation coefficient 0.87-0.92; r = 0.57 to 0.59).
  • To conclude, DCE-US-based slope-value and tumor-to-liver perfusion gradient correlate best with DCE-CT perfusion values.
  • DCE-US should be restricted for studies in which a considerable change in perfusion is expected and for patients with a relatively high tumor blood flow at baseline.
  • [MeSH-major] Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology. Liver / radiography. Liver / ultrasonography. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Tomography, Spiral Computed / methods

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20800954.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-291X
  • [Journal-full-title] Ultrasound in medicine & biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ultrasound Med Biol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; 0 / Phospholipids; 0 / contrast agent BR1; 4419T9MX03 / Iohexol; 712BAC33MZ / iopromide; WS7LR3I1D6 / Sulfur Hexafluoride
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15. Kiyoto S, Hara F, Osumi S, Takabatake D, Takashima S, Aogi K, Takashima S: [A case of recurrent breast cancer with extensive liver metastasis successfully treated with endocrine therapy]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2009 Dec;36(13):2623-5
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  • [Title] [A case of recurrent breast cancer with extensive liver metastasis successfully treated with endocrine therapy].
  • In June, 2006, at the age of 54, 14 years after initial surgery, CT revealed extensive liver masses which were diagnosed as liver metastasis by liver biopsy.
  • She refused second-line chemotherapy, so letrozole was selected, and subsequently resulted in PR of the liver metastasis.
  • However, 8 months later, with a liver metastasis relapse, exemestane followed by tamoxifen, medroxyprogesterone acetate, and high-dose toremifene were administered sequentially, resulting in long-time disease control.
  • In conclusion, endocrine therapy might be an effective option even in a visceral crisis, if metastatic tumors have showed slow growth and there is positive hormone receptor status.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Medroxyprogesterone / therapeutic use. Toremifene / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Androstadienes / therapeutic use. Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Nitriles / therapeutic use. Tamoxifen / therapeutic use. Triazoles / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 20009467.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androstadienes; 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Nitriles; 0 / Triazoles; 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen; 107868-30-4 / exemestane; 7LKK855W8I / letrozole; 7NFE54O27T / Toremifene; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; HSU1C9YRES / Medroxyprogesterone
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16. Lee L, Sharma S, Morgan B, Allegrini P, Schnell C, Brueggen J, Cozens R, Horsfield M, Guenther C, Steward WP, Drevs J, Lebwohl D, Wood J, McSheehy PM: Biomarkers for assessment of pharmacologic activity for a vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor inhibitor, PTK787/ZK 222584 (PTK/ZK): translation of biological activity in a mouse melanoma metastasis model to phase I studies in patients with advanced colorectal cancer with liver metastases. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol; 2006 Jun;57(6):761-71
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Biomarkers for assessment of pharmacologic activity for a vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor inhibitor, PTK787/ZK 222584 (PTK/ZK): translation of biological activity in a mouse melanoma metastasis model to phase I studies in patients with advanced colorectal cancer with liver metastases.
  • In early clinical trials, PTK/ZK demonstrated a dose-dependent reduction in tumor vascular parameters as measured by dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) and an acute increase in plasma VEGF levels.
  • The reduction in tumor vascularity was significantly correlated with improved clinical outcome in patients with advanced colorectal cancer and liver metastases.
  • To assess the predictive value of a mouse model of tumor metastases, comparisons were performed for the biological activity of PTK/ZK in the mouse model and in patients with liver metastases in the clinical phase I trials.
  • An orthotopic, syngeneic mouse model was used: C57BL/6 mice injected in the ear with murine B16/BL6 melanoma cells which metastases to the cervical lymph-nodes.
  • The primary tumor and spontaneous metastases express VEGF and VEGF receptors and respond to treatment with VEGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors.
  • PTK/ZK was administered orally, with assessments by DCE-MRI of the metastases and plasma VEGF taken predose and at 3 days posttreatment and efficacy determined at 7 days posttreatment.
  • An exposure-response relationship was observed both for mouse metastases (measured as % tumor weight treated/control) and for human liver metastases (measured as % regression).
  • [MeSH-major] Colorectal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Melanoma, Experimental / drug therapy. Phthalazines / therapeutic use. Pyridines / therapeutic use. Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor / blood

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  • (PMID = 16172907.001).
  • [ISSN] 0344-5704
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer chemotherapy and pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase I; Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Phthalazines; 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; 0 / Pyridines; 5DX9U76296 / vatalanib; EC 2.7.10.1 / Protein-Tyrosine Kinases; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor
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17. Tohma T, Yamamoto Y, Seki Y, Takaishi S, Sakuma Y, Funami Y, Tobita K: Weekly paclitaxel therapy is effective for gastric adenosquamous carcinoma: a case report. Hepatogastroenterology; 2009 Mar-Apr;56(90):568-70
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • On endoscopy, a type 3 cancer from the lower body of the stomach to the antrum was found, and abdominal CT scan demonstrated multiple liver metastases and peritoneal dissemination.
  • On, pathological examination, a diagnosis of adenosquamous carcinoma was confirmed, and lymph node metastases around the perigastric areas were found.
  • After two courses of chemotherapy, his liver metastases were found to have progressed, and paclitaxel was given at a weekly dose of 80 mg/m2 for 3 weeks, followed by a one-week rest.
  • The carcinoembryonic antigen level decreased remarkably, and the liver metastases had decreased on CT.
  • Thus, extensive chemotherapy for the liver metastases improved the patient's prognosis, while maintaining his quality of life.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Gastroscopy. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19579645.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-6390
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepato-gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hepatogastroenterology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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18. Haendl T, Strobel D, Steinebrunner N, Frieser M, Hahn EG, Bernatik T: Hepatic transit time in benign liver lesions. Ultraschall Med; 2008 Apr;29(2):184-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Hepatic transit time in benign liver lesions.
  • PURPOSE: Shortening of the hepatic transit time (HTT) of an echo enhancer indicates a potential metastatic spread to the liver.
  • Previous studies showed a significant difference in the HTT between patients with metastases (6.5 sec) and patients without liver lesions (15 sec).
  • The influence of benign liver lesions on the HTT is unclear, although benign liver tumors are a frequent finding.
  • We therefore compared the HTT of benign liver lesions to the HTT of liver metastases.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with focal liver lesions were enrolled in this study.
  • For this the hepatic artery and a branch of the hepatic vein were visualized simultaneously in an intercostal section.
  • The difference between the arrival time of the echo enhancer in the hepatic artery and the hepatic vein offered the real HTT.
  • 19 patients had metastatic growth in the liver, benign lesions were found in 23 patients.
  • The mean HTT in patients with liver metastasis (6.4 sec +/- 1.6) was significantly less than in patients with benign lesions (10.4 sec +/- 3.4) (p < 0.001).
  • None of the patients with liver metastasis had an HTT of greater than 10 sec.
  • CONCLUSION: An HTT of greater than 10 sec seems to rule out liver metastasis.
  • If the HTT is less than 10 sec, further evaluation of the liver is needed.
  • There are indications that benign liver lesions also lead to a shortening of the HTT, but this is less pronounced than in patients with liver metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Hepatic Artery / ultrasonography. Hepatic Veins / ultrasonography. Liver / metabolism. Liver / ultrasonography. Liver Diseases / metabolism. Liver Diseases / ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aging. Hemangioma / metabolism. Hemangioma / ultrasonography. Humans. Kinetics. Liver Neoplasms / metabolism. Liver Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 18382965.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-4614
  • [Journal-full-title] Ultraschall in der Medizin (Stuttgart, Germany : 1980)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ultraschall Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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19. Fujiwara Y, Naomoto Y, Tanabe S, Sakurama K, Noma K, Nishikawa T, Motoki T, Takaoka M, Shirakawa Y, Yamatsuji T, Matsuoka J, Tanaka N: [A case report of FOLFOX treatment for primary duodenal carcinoma with multiple liver metastases]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2009 Apr;36(4):655-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [A case report of FOLFOX treatment for primary duodenal carcinoma with multiple liver metastases].
  • We report a case of a woman in her sixties having primary duodenal carcinoma with multiple liver metastases who was treated with oxaliplatin in combination with infusional 5-fluorouracil/Leucovorin(FOLFOX regimen).
  • Now at 8 months, the PR stage has been maintained.
  • So far, no standard therapeutic strategy for metastatic duodenal carcinoma has been developed.
  • However, we suggest a FOLFOX regimen can be highly effective as a safe approach for continuously maintaining the quality of life of patients with this rare type of cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Duodenal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Duodenal Neoplasms / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Liver Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Duodenoscopy. Female. Fluorouracil / therapeutic use. Humans. Leucovorin / therapeutic use. Organoplatinum Compounds / therapeutic use. Positron-Emission Tomography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19381042.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Organoplatinum Compounds; Q573I9DVLP / Leucovorin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil; Folfox protocol
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20. Shuto K, Ohira G, Kono T, Natsume T, Tohma T, Sato A, Ota T, Saito H, Akutsu Y, Uesato M, Matsubara H, Okazumi S, Kaiho T: [Regional treatment of esophageal liver metastasis by intra-arterial low-dose 5-FU therapy]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2010 Nov;37(12):2409-11
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  • [Title] [Regional treatment of esophageal liver metastasis by intra-arterial low-dose 5-FU therapy].
  • The prognosis of esophageal liver metastasis remains poor because of the high incidence of synchronous metastasis in other area and insufficient response to systemic chemotherapy.
  • We assessed loco-regional anticancer potential of intra-arterial 5-FU chemotherapy for esophageal liver metastasis aimed at combination with systemic chemotherapy, radiotherapy and ablation therapy as a multidisciplinary treatment.
  • Six patients of esophageal cancer with liver metastasis and without extra-hepatic metastasis were enrolled.
  • The responses of liver metastasis were 2 cases of CR, 3 of PR and 1 of SD.
  • Liver metastases were controlled well until death in all cases except one.
  • Low-dose intra-aortic 5-FU chemotherapy provided a good regional response and a combination with systemic chemotherapy may prolong survival for the patients of liver metastasis of esophageal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Esophageal Neoplasms / pathology. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Liver Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 21224589.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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21. Becker P, Maurer B, Schirmacher P, Waldherr R, Parlesak A, Bode C, Seitz HK: Vitamin A-induced cholestatic hepatitis: a case report. Z Gastroenterol; 2007 Oct;45(10):1063-6
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  • Some years previously she had suffered from breast and ovarian cancer with subsequent surgery and chemotherapy.
  • Liver biopsy showed an acute toxic liver injury with focal parenchymal necrosis, sinusoidal lesions, inflammatory infiltrate (round cells, macrophages), and activation and proliferation of stellate cells.
  • The hepatic vitamin A concentration was found to be significantly elevated.
  • There were no signs of intrahepatic metastasis or liver cirrhosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Cholestasis, Intrahepatic / chemically induced. Cholestasis, Intrahepatic / diagnosis. Dietary Supplements / adverse effects. Drug-Induced Liver Injury / diagnosis. Drug-Induced Liver Injury / etiology. Vitamin A / adverse effects


22. Li H, Yang W, Chen PW, Alizadeh H, Niederkorn JY: Inhibition of chemokine receptor expression on uveal melanomas by CXCR4 siRNA and its effect on uveal melanoma liver metastases. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci; 2009 Dec;50(12):5522-8
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  • [Title] Inhibition of chemokine receptor expression on uveal melanomas by CXCR4 siRNA and its effect on uveal melanoma liver metastases.
  • PURPOSE: To determine whether blocking the expression of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 using siRNA inhibits chemotactic responses of human uveal melanoma cells to liver-derived factors and prevents liver metastases.
  • METHODS: Human uveal melanoma cells were transfected with CXCR4 siRNA or control siRNA and tested in vitro for chemotactic and invasive behavior in response to soluble factors produced by human liver cells.
  • The effect of CXCR4 siRNA transfection on the formation of liver metastases was tested by injecting transfected melanoma cells into the spleen capsules of NOD-SCID mice, and metastases were quantified by measuring the human housekeeping gene hHPRT in livers.
  • RESULTS: Blocking CXCR4 interaction with its ligand using anti-CXCL12 antibody resulted in a significant reduction in the chemotactic responses of uveal melanoma cells to soluble factors produced by human liver cells.
  • Uveal melanoma cells transfected with CXCR4 siRNA produced fewer liver metastases than untreated uveal melanoma cells or uveal melanoma cells transfected with control siRNA.
  • CONCLUSIONS: CXCR4 is a key chemokine receptor that may account for the organ-specific homing of human uveal melanomas to the liver, which contains significant quantities of CXCL2, the only known ligand for CXCR4.
  • CXCR4 is a potential therapeutic target for preventing the initial establishment of liver metastases but has limited application for use in advanced liver tumors.

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  • (PMID = 19553629.001).
  • [ISSN] 1552-5783
  • [Journal-full-title] Investigative ophthalmology & visual science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R37 CA030276; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA30276; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA030276-25; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA030276; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA030276-25
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CXCL12 protein, human; 0 / CXCR4 protein, human; 0 / Chemokine CXCL12; 0 / RNA, Small Interfering; 0 / Receptors, CXCR4
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS179835; NLM/ PMC2841954
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23. Serra S, Asa SL, Bamberger AM, Wagener C, Chetty R: CEACAM1 expression in pancreatic endocrine tumors. Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol; 2009 Jul;17(4):286-93
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  • Sixty-nine PETs were examined for tumor size, necrosis, local peripancreatic invasion and lymphovascular invasion, lymph node, and liver metastasis.
  • Twenty-nine tumors were from males and 40 from females, age range: 23 to 80 years (mean 52.4 y), tumor size ranged from 0.8 to 11 cm (mean 3.5 cm), 8 patients had multiple endocrine neoplasia 1 syndrome, and 1 had von Hippel-Lindau disease.
  • Twenty tumors demonstrated local invasion, 32 had lymphovascular invasion, 16 had lymph node metastasis, and 10 had liver metastasis.
  • Benign tumors and PETs of uncertain malignant behavior were more frequently CEACAM1-negative and low-grade malignant cases were CEACAM1 positive (27 of 29 cases) (P=0.001).

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  • (PMID = 19349857.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-4058
  • [Journal-full-title] Applied immunohistochemistry & molecular morphology : AIMM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Appl. Immunohistochem. Mol. Morphol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / CD66 antigens; 0 / Cell Adhesion Molecules; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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24. Figueras J: [Massive liver metastases from colorectal cancer]. Cir Esp; 2005 Jun;77(6):313-4
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  • [Title] [Massive liver metastases from colorectal cancer].
  • [Transliterated title] Metástasis hepáticas masivas de cáncer colorrectal.
  • [MeSH-major] Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Neoplasm Staging


25. Takeda K, Uehara M, Tei N, Shimizu K, Imazu T, Yoshimura K, Kiyohara H: [A case of retroperitoneal myxofibrosarcoma]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2009 Nov;55(11):711-4
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  • A 63-year-old man presented to our hospital suffering from dull pain in his right flank and general malaise.Abdominal computed tomography (CT) revealed a 21X14 cm retroperitoneal tumor adjacent to the right kidney.
  • He underwent extirpation of the tumor,which weighed 2,900 g.
  • Histopathological diagnosis was high-grade myxofibrosarcoma.
  • Six months after initial surgery,CT revealed isolated metastasis in the upper lobe of the left lung,which was surgically treated.
  • Eleven months after the original tumor excision, CT revealed lymph node metastasis dorsal to the inferior vena cava,which was also removed.
  • Because he refused to receive adjuvant chemotherapy,he was observed for 2 months until CT revealed multiple liver metastases and para-aortic lymph node metastasis.
  • He underwent 1 cycle of combined chemotherapy with doxorubicin and carboplatin,but metastatic lesions grew larger rapidly and his general state became too poor to continue chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis

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  • (PMID = 19946191.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-1994
  • [Journal-full-title] Hinyokika kiyo. Acta urologica Japonica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hinyokika Kiyo
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 15
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26. Takahashi N, Nimura H, Aoki H, Koyama T, Mitsumori N, Aiba K, Kashiwagi H, Yanaga K: Successful preoperative chemotherapy with S-1 plus low-dose cisplatin for advanced gastric cancer with synchronous liver metastases: report of 2 cases. Chemotherapy; 2007;53(5):378-82
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  • [Title] Successful preoperative chemotherapy with S-1 plus low-dose cisplatin for advanced gastric cancer with synchronous liver metastases: report of 2 cases.
  • We report 2 cases of advanced gastric cancer with synchronous liver metastases who were successfully downstaged using S-1 plus low-dose cisplatin chemotherapy followed by surgical resection.
  • Successful downstaging of the hepatic metastases was confirmed by imaging analyses; however, neither patient showed a complete response of the primary lesion in the stomach.
  • These cases provide further evidence that S-1 plus low-dose cisplatin chemotherapy enables downstaging of advanced gastric cancer and a subsequent potentially curative resection without serious complications.
  • [MeSH-major] Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Liver Neoplasms / pathology. Oxonic Acid / therapeutic use. Preoperative Care. Stomach Neoplasms / drug therapy. Stomach Neoplasms / pathology. Tegafur / therapeutic use

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 17785974.001).
  • [ISSN] 1421-9794
  • [Journal-full-title] Chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chemotherapy
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Drug Combinations; 150863-82-4 / S 1 (combination); 1548R74NSZ / Tegafur; 5VT6420TIG / Oxonic Acid; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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27. Rappeport ED, Loft A: Liver metastases from colorectal cancer: imaging with superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO)-enhanced MR imaging, computed tomography and positron emission tomography. Abdom Imaging; 2007 Sep-Oct;32(5):624-34
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  • [Title] Liver metastases from colorectal cancer: imaging with superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO)-enhanced MR imaging, computed tomography and positron emission tomography.
  • The literature about superparamagnetic iron oxide-enhanced MR imaging, computed tomography (CT) and PET (positron emission tomography using fluorine-18 labelled fluoro-deoxy-glucose) in detection of liver metastases (LM) from colorectal cancer is reviewed in this update.
  • Based on the review, it is concluded that state-of-the-art anatomical imaging, e.g., SPIO-enhanced MR imaging and multidetector CT (MDCT), must be considered more sensitive than PET in detection of individual LM, due to technical developments in MR imaging, such as liver specific contrast agents, modern sequences and high performance gradients, and in modern MDCT have increased the performance of these modalities.
  • MR imaging with a liver specific contrast agent is recommended for the preoperative evaluation before liver surgery for LM because of high sensitivity and better discrimination between small LM and cysts compared to MDCT.
  • PET or PET/CT can be used for detection of extra-hepatic tumor before liver surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Colorectal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology. Contrast Media / pharmacology. Diagnostic Imaging / methods. Ferric Compounds / pharmacology. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Liver / pathology. Metals. Neoplasm Metastasis. Reference Standards. Sensitivity and Specificity. Treatment Outcome


28. Beer M, Winkelmann V, Becker JC, Terheyden P, Stenzel M, Bröcker EB, Hahn D, Köstler H: [Spectroscopic imaging of the human liver using 3D CSI: optimization and application in patients with metastatic uvea melanoma]. Rofo; 2009 Jan;181(1):60-6
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  • [Title] [Spectroscopic imaging of the human liver using 3D CSI: optimization and application in patients with metastatic uvea melanoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Spektroskopische bildgebung der menschlichen leber mittels 3D-CSI: etablierung und anwendung bei patienten mit metastasiertem aderhautmelanom.
  • We used a spatially resolved (31)P MRS technique to characterize metabolic abnormalities inside and adjacent to liver metastases of patients with uvea melanoma.
  • Patients (n = 8) with liver metastases were then examined.
  • RESULTS: Compared to healthy volunteers, the PME/PDE ratios of patients with liver metastasis were significantly higher (0.56 +/- 0.30 vs. 0.39 +/- 0.21; p < 0.05).
  • Patients with metastases > or = 5 cm showed significantly higher PME/PDE ratios (0.68 +/- 0.17 vs. 0.45 +/- 0.03; p < 0.05).
  • Liver parenchyma adjacent to metastases did not show any significant changes compared to non-diseased tissue.
  • CONCLUSION: 3D CSI allows the simultaneous analysis of metabolic alterations in diseased as well as in healthy human liver.
  • Metastases show significant metabolic alterations.
  • [MeSH-major] Choroid Neoplasms / physiopathology. Energy Metabolism / physiology. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted / methods. Imaging, Three-Dimensional / methods. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy / methods. Melanoma / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenosine Triphosphate / metabolism. Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Liver / physiopathology. Male. Middle Aged. Observer Variation. Phosphocreatine / metabolism. Phospholipids / metabolism. Reference Values. Sensitivity and Specificity. Young Adult


29. Ganti S, Milton R, Davidson L, Thorpe A: Facial flushing due to recurrent bronchial carcinoid. Ann Thorac Surg; 2007 Mar;83(3):1196-7
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  • This is usually associated with recurrent carcinoid tumor in the presence of hepatic metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Bronchial Neoplasms / complications. Carcinoid Tumor / complications. Flushing / etiology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Pneumonectomy. Radiography, Thoracic. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17307496.001).
  • [ISSN] 1552-6259
  • [Journal-full-title] The Annals of thoracic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Thorac. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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30. Hojo T, Kinoshita T, Shien T, Terada K, Hirose S, Isobe Y, Ikeuchi S, Kubochi K, Matsumoto S, Sadako AT: Primary small cell carcinoma of the breast. Breast Cancer; 2009;16(1):68-71
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  • Here, we report a case of primary small cell carcinoma of the breast that was treated with surgery and chemotherapy for postoperative local recurrence in the chest wall and metastasis to the liver.
  • The metastatic lesions showed a partial response (PR) to carboplatin and irinotecan, but did not respond to subsequent Taxotere and doxifluridine (5'-DFUR) treatment.
  • We then treated the metastatic lesions with CBDCA and etoposide (VP-16), and were able to stop disease progression.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Camptothecin / administration & dosage. Camptothecin / analogs & derivatives. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Mastectomy. Middle Aged. Thoracic Wall / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18504641.001).
  • [ISSN] 1880-4233
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer (Tokyo, Japan)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 7673326042 / irinotecan; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; XT3Z54Z28A / Camptothecin
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31. Suzuki S, Harada N, Takeo Y, Tanaka S, Hayashi T, Suzuki M, Hanyu F: [Second-line chemotherapy with bi-weekly CPT-11 and cisplatin for recurrent colorectal cancer resistant to 5-FU based chemotherapy]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2005 Jul;32(7):1007-10
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  • [Title] [Second-line chemotherapy with bi-weekly CPT-11 and cisplatin for recurrent colorectal cancer resistant to 5-FU based chemotherapy].
  • Second-line chemotherapy with bi-weekly CPT-11 and cisplatin (CDDP) was given to 19 patients with recurrent colorectal cancer resistant to 5-FU based chemotherapy.
  • Nine patients had liver metastasis, 4 had lung metastasis, 2 had local recurrence, 2 had both local recurrence and lung metastasis, respectively, 1 had local metastasis and lymph node metastasis, and 1 had bone metastasis.
  • CPT-11 and CDDP treatment should be considered as second-line chemotherapy for colorectal cancer resistant to 5-FU based chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Camptothecin / analogs & derivatives. Colonic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Rectal Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Alopecia / chemically induced. Anorexia / chemically induced. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / adverse effects. Drug Administration Schedule. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Female. Fluorouracil / pharmacology. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Nausea / chemically induced

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  • (PMID = 16044963.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 7673326042 / irinotecan; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil; XT3Z54Z28A / Camptothecin
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32. Kelessis NG, Prassas EP, Dascalopoulou DV, Apostolikas NA, Tavernaraki AP, Vassilopoulos P PP: Unusual metastatic spread of follicular thyroid carcinoma: report of a case. Surg Today; 2005;35(4):300-3
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  • [Title] Unusual metastatic spread of follicular thyroid carcinoma: report of a case.
  • Concurrent skull and liver metastases from follicular thyroid carcinoma is a very rare event.
  • We herein present the case of a 72-year-old woman who initially presented with a swelling in the right supraorbital region that proved to be metastasis from a well-differentiated follicular thyroid carcinoma of clear-cell type.
  • The metastatic workup disclosed a huge liver metastasis and an additional metastasis in the left iliac fossa.
  • Although well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma tends to show an excellent course, the presence of metastatic disease leads to a very dismal prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Skull Neoplasms / secondary. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [ErratumIn] Surg Today. 2005;35(6):505. Evangelos, Prassas P [corrected to Prassas, Evangelos P]; Dimitra, Dascalopoulou V [corrected to Dascalopoulou, Dimitra V]; Nikiforos, Apostolikas A [corrected to Apostolikas, Nikiforos A]; Angeliki, Tavernaraki P [corrected to Tavernaraki, Angeliki P]; Pericles, Vassilopoulos P [corrected to Vassilopoulos, Pericles P]
  • (PMID = 15815846.001).
  • [ISSN] 0941-1291
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery today
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Today
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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33. Daniels MJ, Jiang J, Varghese T: Ultrasound simulation of real-time temperature estimation during radiofrequency ablation using finite element models. Ultrasonics; 2008 Mar;48(1):40-55
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  • Radiofrequency ablation is the most common minimally invasive therapy used in the United States to treat hepatocellular carcinoma and liver metastases.
  • A finite element analysis simulation of radiofrequency ablation of hepatic tissue was developed.
  • These local displacement maps were combined with the displacement due to speed of sound changes and utilized to generate ultrasound radiofrequency frames at specified time increments over the entire ablation procedure.

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  • (PMID = 18082236.001).
  • [ISSN] 1874-9968
  • [Journal-full-title] Ultrasonics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ultrasonics
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA112192-01A2; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA112192; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA112192-01A2; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01CA112192
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS43377; NLM/ PMC2777513
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34. Tsim NC, Frampton AE, Habib NA, Jiao LR: Surgical treatment for liver cancer. World J Gastroenterol; 2010 Feb 28;16(8):927-33
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  • [Title] Surgical treatment for liver cancer.
  • Primary liver cancer is amongst the commonest tumors worldwide, particularly in parts of the developing world, and is increasing in incidence.
  • Over the past three decades, surgical hepatic resection has evolved from a high risk, resource intensive procedure with limited application, to a safe and commonly performed operation with a range of indications.
  • This article reviews the approach to surgical resection for malignancies such as hepatocellular cancer, metastatic liver deposits and neuroendocrine tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Liver Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Algorithms. Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology. Colorectal Neoplasms / surgery. Decision Making. Humans. Neoplasm Metastasis / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Neuroendocrine Tumors / pathology. Neuroendocrine Tumors / surgery. Patient Selection. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20180230.001).
  • [ISSN] 2219-2840
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Number-of-references] 61
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2828596
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35. Bipat S, van Leeuwen MS, Oyen WJ, Planting AS, IJzermans JN, Stoker J: [Imaging in the diagnosis of colorectal liver metastases and extrahepatic abnormalities]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd; 2008 Apr 12;152(15):857-62
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  • [Title] [Imaging in the diagnosis of colorectal liver metastases and extrahepatic abnormalities].
  • [Transliterated title] Beeldvormende diagnostiek van colorectale levermetastasen en extrahepatische afwijkingen.
  • Imaging using ultrasonography, spiral CT, MRI and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), plays a major role at two situations during the management of patients with colorectal liver metastases: (a) at the time of the diagnosis and treatment of the primary colorectal tumour, and (b) during the follow-up for the detection of liver metastases and assessing the resectability of these metastases.
  • At the time of the diagnosis and the treatment of the primary tumour, imaging comprising spiral CT or MRI to detect and characterize liver lesions is considered to be the modality of choice.
  • Due to their low prevalence, imaging for the evaluation of lung metastases may be limited to conventional chest radiography.
  • For evaluation of the extrahepatic abnormalities, abdominal and chest CT may be performed in combination with CT of the liver; alternatively a FDG-PET may be performed.
  • However, if the liver cannot be adequately imaged by ultrasonography, if there is a raised level ofcarcinoembryonic antigen or irresectability cannot be determined, additional CT or MRI examination will result in more information.
  • [MeSH-major] Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Fluorine Radioisotopes. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / radiography. Lung Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Tomography, Emission-Computed / methods. Ultrasonography / methods

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  • [CommentIn] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2008 Apr 12;152(15):854-6 [18512523.001]
  • (PMID = 18512524.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-2162
  • [Journal-full-title] Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd
  • [Language] dut
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Fluorine Radioisotopes; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
  • [Number-of-references] 42
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36. Abad A, Figueras J, Valls C, Carrato A, Pardo F, Díaz-Rubio E, Aranda E: Guidelines for the detection and treatment of liver metastases of colorectal cancer. Clin Transl Oncol; 2007 Nov;9(11):723-30
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  • [Title] Guidelines for the detection and treatment of liver metastases of colorectal cancer.
  • The spread of the surgical treatment for hepatic metastases have been crucial in the improvement of treatment and survival of metastatic colorectal cancer.
  • The early and accurate diagnosis of metastases and the assessment of their size are essential factors to reach the optimal results with this treatment strategy.
  • Although there is an agreement regarding some parameters related to diagnosis techniques and surgical criteria such as the bilobar extension, the size of the remaining liver post-surgical removal and the indication of pre-operatory chemotherapy, it is necessary to consider all these factors to set up standard criteria and optimize the results.
  • In this article we review all these parameters, from disease follow up to detect metastatic dissemination to the basic criteria for use of neoadjuvant chemotherapy, in order to suggest some general recommendations of evidence level II and recommendation grade A.
  • [MeSH-major] Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / therapy. Practice Guidelines as Topic

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  • (PMID = 18055327.001).
  • [ISSN] 1699-048X
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical & translational oncology : official publication of the Federation of Spanish Oncology Societies and of the National Cancer Institute of Mexico
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Transl Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 38
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37. Yuasa I, Tsukuda K, Hirai R, Ota T, Murakami M, Naito M, Doihara H, Date H, Shimizu N: Effects of adenoviral-mediated hepatocyte growth factor on liver regeneration after massive hepatectomy in rats. Acta Med Okayama; 2007 Apr;61(2):81-8
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  • [Title] Effects of adenoviral-mediated hepatocyte growth factor on liver regeneration after massive hepatectomy in rats.
  • Resection is the only curative treatment for liver metastasis of colorectal cancers.
  • Despite the supreme regenerative potential of the liver, major hepatectomy sometimes leads to liver failure, and the limitation of resectable liver volumes makes advanced tumors inoperable.
  • This study was attempted to promote liver regeneration using hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) gene transfection by venous-administered adenovirus and to improve the survival of rats after massive hepatectomy.
  • Gene transfection of HGF showed up-regulation of serum HGF, stimulation of hepatocellular proliferation and rapid liver regeneration.
  • The administration of HGF gene prevented liver dysfunction after major hepatectomy and may be a new assist for surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoviridae / genetics. Genetic Vectors. Hepatectomy. Hepatocyte Growth Factor / genetics. Liver Regeneration. Transfection
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Apoptosis. Cell Proliferation. Hepatocytes. Liver / metabolism. Liver / pathology. Liver / physiopathology. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley. Time Factors. Up-Regulation

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  • (PMID = 17471308.001).
  • [ISSN] 0386-300X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta medica Okayama
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Med. Okayama
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 67256-21-7 / Hepatocyte Growth Factor
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38. Puisset F, Chatelut E, Sparreboom A, Delord JP, Berchery D, Lochon I, Lafont T, Roché H: Dexamethasone as a probe for CYP3A4 metabolism: evidence of gender effect. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol; 2007 Jul;60(2):305-8
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  • RESULTS: Significant correlation was observed between observed plasma docetaxel clearances (CL(docetaxel)) and values predicted from dexamethasone plasma clearance (CL(dexa)), unbound plasma docetaxel fraction estimated from serum alpha1-acid glycoprotein level (fu(alpha1-AAG)), and hepatic metastasis status.

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  • (PMID = 17124593.001).
  • [ISSN] 0344-5704
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer chemotherapy and pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Taxoids; 15H5577CQD / docetaxel; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; 9035-51-2 / Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System; EC 1.14.13.67 / CYP3A4 protein, human; EC 1.14.14.1 / Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A
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39. Khan NA, Baerlocher MO, Owen RJ, Ho S, Kachura JR, Kee ST, Liu DM: Ablative technologies in the management of patients with primary and secondary liver cancer: an overview. Can Assoc Radiol J; 2010 Oct;61(4):217-22
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  • [Title] Ablative technologies in the management of patients with primary and secondary liver cancer: an overview.
  • Interventional ablative technologies have played an increasingly important role in the management of patients with primary or secondary liver malignancies.
  • [MeSH-major] Ablation Techniques / methods. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / surgery. Liver Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Contrast Media. Disease Models, Animal. Humans. Liver / radiography. Liver / surgery. Liver / ultrasonography. Radiographic Image Enhancement / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.
  • (PMID = 20188510.001).
  • [ISSN] 0846-5371
  • [Journal-full-title] Canadian Association of Radiologists journal = Journal l'Association canadienne des radiologistes
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Can Assoc Radiol J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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40. Melichar B, Voboril Z, Cerman J Jr, Melicharova K, Mergancova J, Voboril R, Jandik P: Regional chemotherapy in patients with breast carcinoma liver metastases. Hepatogastroenterology; 2006 Jan-Feb;53(67):100-5
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  • [Title] Regional chemotherapy in patients with breast carcinoma liver metastases.
  • BACKGROUND/AIMS: Although liver is a common site of metastases in breast cancer, isolated liver metastases in patients with disseminated breast cancer are rare.
  • The role of liver-directed therapies in these patients is based on data derived from retrospective analysis of case series.
  • METHODOLOGY: We have reviewed the records of 8 patients with liver metastases and a history of breast cancer treated at our institution over a period of 11 years with regional chemotherapy administered through surgically implanted port systems.
  • RESULTS: Three of the patients also had a history of second primary colorectal carcinoma.
  • The median survival times from the diagnosis and port systems implantation were 34 months and 31 months, respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our data support the use of regional intraarterial chemotherapy in patients with metastatic breast cancer limited to the liver.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Chemotherapy, Cancer, Regional Perfusion. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Liver Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 16506385.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-6390
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepato-gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hepatogastroenterology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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41. Adam R: Developing strategies for liver metastases from colorectal cancer. Semin Oncol; 2007 Apr;34(2 Suppl 1):S7-11
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  • [Title] Developing strategies for liver metastases from colorectal cancer.
  • Five-year survival rates of patients with liver metastases from colorectal cancer range from 30% to 40% for those who undergo successful resection procedures, and is almost nil among those unable to have surgery.
  • However, improved chemotherapy strategies for nonoperable patients (specifically, the use of neoadjuvant oxaliplatin- and irinotecan-based regimens) have increased response rates and tumor downstaging such that 15% to 30% of initially nonoperable patients are able to have secondary, or rescue, surgery.
  • Operative techniques such as portal vein embolization and two-stage procedures for patients with multiple or large tumors, as well as use of cryosurgery and radiofrequency ablation, are also contributing to more effective removal of liver metastases from colorectal cancer.
  • This brief report describes data supporting the expanding application of hepatectomy for patients with colorectal liver metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Colonic Neoplasms / pathology. Hepatectomy. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Rectal Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17449352.001).
  • [ISSN] 0093-7754
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / Organoplatinum Compounds; 0 / Topoisomerase I Inhibitors; 04ZR38536J / oxaliplatin; 7673326042 / irinotecan; XT3Z54Z28A / Camptothecin
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42. Nakano S, Shomura H, Akabane H, Inagaki M, Yanagida N: [Two cases of gastric endocrine cell carcinoma]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2010 Nov;37(12):2505-7
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  • But the tumor was re-grown and the patient died twenty months after diagnosis.
  • The second case was a man in his seventies with gastric endocrine cell carcinoma, of which a clinical finding was T3N1M0H0P0, Stage IIIa, underwent total gastrectomy.
  • Abdominal contrast-enhanced CT scan performed a month after the operation disclosed hepatic metastasis.

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  • (PMID = 21224621.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / Drug Combinations; 150863-82-4 / S 1 (combination); 1548R74NSZ / Tegafur; 5VT6420TIG / Oxonic Acid; 7673326042 / irinotecan; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; XT3Z54Z28A / Camptothecin
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43. Ishii T, Komoriyama H, Mikami S, Ashikawa K, Ohtsubo T: [A case of multiple liver metastases of sigmoid colon cancer responding well to UFT+Leucovorin therapy]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2008 Oct;35(10):1775-7
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  • [Title] [A case of multiple liver metastases of sigmoid colon cancer responding well to UFT+Leucovorin therapy].
  • For the treatment of multiple liver metastases from sigmoid colon cancer, the administration of UFT(300 mg/day)and oral Leucovorin(75 mg/day)was initiated after a resection of the sigmoid colon.
  • A decrease in the liver metastases was observed in a CT scan 4 months after the start of this administration, and the disappearance of the metastatic focus in the liver was confirmed at 10 months thereafter.
  • Now, 26 months have passed since the liver metastases disappeared and no recurrence has been found, even within the abdominal cavity.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Leucovorin / therapeutic use. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Sigmoid Neoplasms / drug therapy. Sigmoid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18931587.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 1548R74NSZ / Tegafur; 56HH86ZVCT / Uracil; Q573I9DVLP / Leucovorin; 1-UFT protocol
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44. Frilling A, Malago M, Testa G, Schleyer E, Grabellus F, Kronenberger R, Li J, Broelsch CE: Liver transplantation for metastasized extragastrointestinal stromal tumor: a case report and an overview of literature. Transplant Proc; 2010 Nov;42(9):3843-8
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  • [Title] Liver transplantation for metastasized extragastrointestinal stromal tumor: a case report and an overview of literature.
  • A 63-year-old woman underwent living donor liver transplantation for hepatic metastases of an extragastrointestinal stromal tumor (EGIST) originating from the rectovaginal space.
  • Due to a multifocal extrahepatic tumor recurrence, treatment with imatinib mesylate was started after extensive pharmacokinetic studies to rule out possible interactions with immunosuppressives.
  • At the last follow-up, 17 years after primary tumor resection and 10 years after living donor liver transplantation, the patient is symptom-free under immunosuppressive and imatinib mesylate treatments with a 2-cm stable recurrent pararectal EGIST.
  • To our knowledge, this is the only report published on a patient who underwent transplantation for hepatic EGIST metastases with a posttransplantation follow-up of 10 years and the first report on living donor liver transplantation for metastasized EGIST.
  • This is the first description of pharmacokinetics of imatinib and its main active metabolite CGP74588 in a liver transplant recipient.
  • [MeSH-major] Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / surgery. Liver Transplantation. Rectal Neoplasms / pathology. Vaginal Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacokinetics. Benzamides. Female. Humans. Imatinib Mesylate. Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use. Living Donors. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Piperazines / pharmacokinetics. Pyrimidines / pharmacokinetics. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 21094867.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-2623
  • [Journal-full-title] Transplantation proceedings
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Transplant. Proc.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Benzamides; 0 / CGP 74588; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 0 / Piperazines; 0 / Pyrimidines; 8A1O1M485B / Imatinib Mesylate
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45. Morris PG, O'Connor M, O'Rafferty C, Sheikh R, Gray J, McDermott R, Boyle T, Kennedy MJ: The excessive cost of baseline diagnostic imaging in early breast cancer. Ir Med J; 2009 May;102(5):149-52
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  • [Title] The excessive cost of baseline diagnostic imaging in early breast cancer.
  • Many patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer undergo multiple staging investigations.
  • We aimed to assess the use and yield of baseline diagnostic imaging in early-stage breast cancer.
  • A review of all patients diagnosed with breast cancer over five years at a single institution was carried out.
  • At diagnosis 266 (34%) patients underwent a bone scan, which showed metastases in 42 (15.8%), of whom 26 (61.9%) were symptomatic with pain.
  • Only two asymptomatic patients had incidental skeletal metastases detected at an estimated cost of euro 50,850 per case.
  • 261 (33.4%) patients underwent hepatic ultrasonography, which showed metastases in 23 (8.8%), of whom 19 (82.6%) had abnormal liver blood tests.
  • Only two patients had incidental hepatic metastases detected at an estimated cost of euro 29,400 per case.
  • The routine use of these imaging modalities to detect metastases in asymptomatic early-stage breast cancer patients is not justified.
  • [MeSH-minor] Alanine Transaminase. Biomarkers. Bone and Bones / radionuclide imaging. Diagnostic Imaging / economics. Female. Humans. Ireland. Liver / ultrasonography. Liver Function Tests. Neoplasm Staging. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 19623811.001).
  • [ISSN] 0332-3102
  • [Journal-full-title] Irish medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ir Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; EC 2.6.1.2 / Alanine Transaminase
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46. Bradley WG Jr: MR-guided focused ultrasound: a potentially disruptive technology. J Am Coll Radiol; 2009 Jul;6(7):510-3
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  • At present, MRgFUS has been used for the ablation of uterine fibroids, breast tumors, painful bony metastases, and liver tumors.
  • Phantom and animal studies suggest future applications for prostate cancer and acute stroke treatment.

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  • [CommentIn] J Am Coll Radiol. 2009 Nov;6(11):814; author reply 814-5 [19878894.001]
  • [CommentIn] J Am Coll Radiol. 2010 Apr;7(4):315-6 [20362955.001]
  • (PMID = 19560068.001).
  • [ISSN] 1558-349X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American College of Radiology : JACR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Am Coll Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 12
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47. Donadon M, Ribero D, Morris-Stiff G, Abdalla EK, Vauthey JN: New paradigm in the management of liver-only metastases from colorectal cancer. Gastrointest Cancer Res; 2007 Jan;1(1):20-7
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  • [Title] New paradigm in the management of liver-only metastases from colorectal cancer.
  • For patients with colorectal liver metastases, hepatic resection is the treatment of choice, and the 5-year survival rate following surgery now exceeds 50%.
  • Timely multidisciplinary and multimodality approaches that may include preoperative systemic chemotherapy, preoperative portal vein embolization, extended hepatic resection, and two-stage hepatectomy, have enabled a large proportion of patients to undergo potentially curative treatment.
  • The definition of resectability has shifted from a focus on tumor characteristics, such as tumor number and size, to determination of whether both intrahepatic and extrahepatic disease can be completely resected and whether such an approach is appropriate from an oncologic standpoint for a given patient.
  • Future identification of molecular factors may aid in predicting prognosis of patients with colorectal liver metastases and in improving the selection of patients most likely to benefit from surgery.
  • Hepatobiliary surgeons and medical oncologists should work together to individualize treatment strategies to maximize long-term survival in patients with colorectal liver metastases.

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  • (PMID = 19262699.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-7820
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastrointestinal cancer research : GCR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastrointest Cancer Res
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2632517
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48. Norton JA: Surgery and prognosis of duodenal gastrinoma as a duodenal neuroendocrine tumor. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol; 2005 Oct;19(5):699-704
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  • [Title] Surgery and prognosis of duodenal gastrinoma as a duodenal neuroendocrine tumor.
  • The increase in cure-rate appears to be secondary to increased detection of small, previously undetectable duodenal gastrinomas.
  • However, it has not affected the rate of development of liver metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Colectomy / methods. Duodenal Neoplasms / pathology. Duodenal Neoplasms / surgery. Gastrinoma / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Anastomosis, Surgical. Biopsy, Needle. Duodenoscopy. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Neuroendocrine Tumors / diagnosis. Neuroendocrine Tumors / mortality. Neuroendocrine Tumors / surgery. Prognosis. Risk Assessment. Treatment Outcome. Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome / diagnosis. Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome / mortality. Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome / therapy


49. Bereczky B, Gilly R, Rásó E, Vágó A, Tímár J, Tóvári J: Selective antimetastatic effect of heparins in preclinical human melanoma models is based on inhibition of migration and microvascular arrest. Clin Exp Metastasis; 2005;22(1):69-76
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  • Use of heparin derivatives in several cancer types revealed that anticoagulant therapies have a beneficiary side effect: delay of tumor progression.
  • However, heparins significantly inhibited lung colony formation and liver metastasis development in the concentration range of 20-200 IU/kg, whereas recombinant hirudin was ineffective.
  • The antimetastatic effect was due to an early (5-60 min) inhibition of tumor cell arrest in the lung microvasculature.
  • Analysis of the molecular mechanism of the antimetastatic effect of heparins indicated a specific inhibition of tumor cell migration and matrix invasion.
  • [MeSH-major] Anticoagulants / therapeutic use. Heparin / therapeutic use. Liver Neoplasms / prevention & control. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / prevention & control. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Melanoma / drug therapy. Melanoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Capillaries / drug effects. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Extracellular Matrix Proteins / metabolism. Female. Hemostasis / drug effects. Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight / pharmacology. Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight / therapeutic use. Humans. Mice. Mice, SCID. Neoplasm Transplantation. Neoplastic Stem Cells / drug effects. Neoplastic Stem Cells / metabolism. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 16132580.001).
  • [ISSN] 0262-0898
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical & experimental metastasis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Exp. Metastasis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anticoagulants; 0 / Extracellular Matrix Proteins; 0 / Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight; 9005-49-6 / Heparin
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50. Haddad F, Nadir S, Benkhaldoun L, Alaoui R, Cherkaoui A: [Primary anorectal melanoma]. Presse Med; 2005 Jan 29;34(2 Pt 1):85-8
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  • METHODS: Nine cases of malignant anorectal melanoma were managed in the department of gastroenterology of the Ibn Rochd university hospital in Casablanca between 1984 and 2002.
  • The tumor was blackish in 4 cases.
  • Extension staging showed metastases in the liver in one patient and in the bones in another.
  • One patient had undergone abdominoperineal resection, two transanal tumor resection, and in one patient radiotherapy was applied.
  • Three patients died because of visceral metastases.
  • DISCUSSION: The prognosis of anorectal melanoma is frightening because of late diagnosis and high malignancy potential.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Melanoma / diagnosis. Melanoma / therapy. Rectal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Rectal Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy. Colonoscopy. Colostomy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Hospitals, University. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Morocco / epidemiology. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Rare Diseases. Remission Induction. Survival Rate. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15687974.001).
  • [ISSN] 0755-4982
  • [Journal-full-title] Presse medicale (Paris, France : 1983)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Presse Med
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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51. Kouso H, Ikegami T, Ezaki T, Ishida T, Aimitsu S, Fujihara M, Mori M: Liver metastasis from thyroid carcinoma 32 years after resection of the primary tumor: report of a case. Surg Today; 2005;35(6):480-2
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  • [Title] Liver metastasis from thyroid carcinoma 32 years after resection of the primary tumor: report of a case.
  • Follicular thyroid carcinoma is a differentiated cancer originating from the follicular cells in the thyroid gland.
  • A 73-year-old woman, who had undergone curative resection of thyroid carcinoma 32 years earlier, was referred to our hospital after ultrasonography showed a solid mass in the liver.
  • Computed tomography showed a round tumor, about 1.5 cm in diameter, which was enhanced early and washed out later, in segment 5 of the liver.
  • She underwent laparotomy and partial resection of the liver.
  • Microscopic examination showed follicular cells with minimal atypia growing in a thyroid follicular pattern with colloids, whereby a diagnosis of metastatic liver cancer from thyroid follicular carcinoma was made.
  • This is a rare case of solitary liver metastasis appearing 32 years after eradication of primary follicular carcinoma.
  • Although the reason for the delayed presentation of the metastatic lesion remains unclear, this case shows that patients with differentiated thyroid cancer should be followed up for their entire life.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15912296.001).
  • [ISSN] 0941-1291
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery today
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Today
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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52. Yuan ZY, Wang SS, Gao Y, Su ZY, Luo WB, Guan ZZ: [Clinical characteristics and prognosis of triple-negative breast cancer: a report of 305 cases]. Ai Zheng; 2008 Jun;27(6):561-5
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  • [Title] [Clinical characteristics and prognosis of triple-negative breast cancer: a report of 305 cases].
  • BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: Triple-negative breast cancer is defined by a lack of expression of estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and HER2/neu, and considered to be a clinicopathologic entity with aggressive behaviors and poor prognosis.
  • This study was to analyze the clinical characteristics and prognostic factors of the patients with triple-negative breast cancer.
  • METHODS: Clinical data of 1,280 patients with histopathologically confirmed resectable breast cancer, treated at Cancer Center of Sun Yat-sen University from Jan.
  • Of the 1,280 patients, 305 (23.8%) were confirmed to be triple-negative breast cancer.
  • RESULTS: Triple-negative breast cancer was commonly seen in young patients, with large masses, a high proportion of lymph node metastasis and familial history of breast cancer at diagnosis. By Jun.
  • Of the 1,280 patients, 234 had local recurrence and metastasis, and 94 died.
  • There was no significant difference in local recurrence between triple-negative and non-triple-negative breast cancer patients.
  • However, the occurrence rates of lung metastasis (HR= 4.41, P<0.001) and liver metastasis (HR=2.13, P=0.006) were significantly higher in triple-negative breast cancer patients than in non-triple-negative breast cancer patients.
  • The 5-year disease-free and overall survival rates were significantly lower in triple-negative breast cancer patients than in non-triple-negative breast cancer patients (73.7% vs. 80.8%, P=0.025; 88.5% vs. 92.8%,P=0.010).
  • Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that tumor size and lymph node state were prognostic factors of triple-negative breast cancer patients.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Nearly one fourth of breast cancer patients in China are triple-negative breast cancer patients.
  • These patients are usually young, with large masses, lymph node metastasis, and family history of breast cancer.
  • Lung metastasis and liver metastasis may be the main reason of poor prognosis of triple-negative breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Prognosis. Survival Rate


53. Rodríguez-Cuesta J, Hernando FL, Mendoza L, Gallot N, de Cerio AA, Martínez-de-Tejada G, Vidal-Vanaclocha F: Candida albicans enhances experimental hepatic melanoma metastasis. Clin Exp Metastasis; 2010;27(1):35-42
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  • [Title] Candida albicans enhances experimental hepatic melanoma metastasis.
  • Candida albicans infections are very frequent in cancer patients, whose immune system is often compromised, but whether this fungal pathogen affects cancer progression is unknown. C. albicans infection involves endogenous production of inflammatory cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-18 (IL-18).
  • Increased levels of these cytokines have already been correlated with metastasis of most common cancer types.
  • In this study, a well-established model of IL-18-dependent hepatic melanoma metastasis was used to study whether C. albicans can alter the ability of murine B16 melanoma (B16M) cells to colonize the liver.
  • First, we determined the ability of intrasplenically (IS) injected B16M cells to metastasize into the liver of mice challenged with 5 x 10(4) C. albicans cells by three different routes (intravenous, IV; intrasplenic, IS; or intraperitoneal, IP) 12 h prior to injection of B16M cells.
  • We demonstrated that C. albicans significantly increased metastasis of B16M cells with all three fungal injection routes.
  • Pro-metastatic effects occurred when hepatic colonization with B16M cells place after the peak of TNF-alpha and IL-18 levels had been reached in the hepatic blood of fungal challenged mice.
  • In a second set of experiments, mice were fungal challenged 4 days after injection of B16M cells.
  • In these mice, C. albicans also potentiated the growth of established micro-metastases.
  • Significantly, the fungal challenge had pro-metastatic effects without the C. albicans being able to reach the liver, suggesting that soluble factors can promote metastasis in remote sites.
  • Mouse treatment with antifungal ketoconazol abrogated hepatic TNF-alpha stimulation by C. albicans and prevented the enhancement of hepatic metastasis in fungal challenged-mice.
  • Therefore, the pro-inflammatory microenvironment generated by the host's systemic response to C. albicans stimulates circulating cancer cells to metastasize in the liver.
  • [MeSH-major] Candidiasis / complications. Liver Neoplasms, Experimental / microbiology. Liver Neoplasms, Experimental / secondary. Melanoma, Experimental / microbiology. Melanoma, Experimental / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antifungal Agents / pharmacology. Candida albicans. Humans. Inflammation Mediators / metabolism. Interleukin-18 / metabolism. Ketoconazole / pharmacology. Mice. Mice, Inbred C57BL. Tumor Cells, Cultured. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20035374.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7276
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical & experimental metastasis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Exp. Metastasis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antifungal Agents; 0 / Inflammation Mediators; 0 / Interleukin-18; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; R9400W927I / Ketoconazole
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54. Chen CW, Huang ZC, Liu Y, Yuan ZJ, Ning GQ, Tan LX: [Association between expressions of HSP70, HSP90 and efficacy of chemotherapy in colorectal cancer patients with unresectable liver metastasis]. Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2009 Jul;12(4):346-9
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  • [Title] [Association between expressions of HSP70, HSP90 and efficacy of chemotherapy in colorectal cancer patients with unresectable liver metastasis].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between expressions of HSP70, HSP90 and efficacy of chemotherapy in colorectal cancer patients with unresectable liver metastasis.
  • METHODS: Data of 52 colorectal cancer cases, whose primary colorectal focuses were resected but hepatic metastatic tumors were unresectable, were reviewed retrospectively.
  • The number and size of hepatic metastatic tumors pre- and post-chemotherapy were compared by CT scanning.
  • RESULTS: Partial remission(PR) rate was 33.3% in cases with up-regulated expression of HSP70, while 64.5% in cases with down-regulated expression of HSP70, whose difference was significant.
  • PR rate was 50% in cases with up-regulated expression of HSP90, and 53.1% in the others with down-regulated expression of HSP90, whose difference was not significant.
  • [MeSH-major] HSP70 Heat-Shock Proteins / metabolism. HSP90 Heat-Shock Proteins / metabolism. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 19598015.001).
  • [ISSN] 1671-0274
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua wei chang wai ke za zhi = Chinese journal of gastrointestinal surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / HSP70 Heat-Shock Proteins; 0 / HSP90 Heat-Shock Proteins
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55. Murata S, Yanagisawa K, Fukunaga K, Oda T, Kobayashi A, Sasaki R, Ohkohchi N: Fatty acid synthase inhibitor cerulenin suppresses liver metastasis of colon cancer in mice. Cancer Sci; 2010 Aug;101(8):1861-5
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  • [Title] Fatty acid synthase inhibitor cerulenin suppresses liver metastasis of colon cancer in mice.
  • Fatty acid synthase (FAS) is highly expressed in many kinds of human cancers, including colorectal cancer (CRC), and we have investigated the potential use of FAS inhibitors for chemoprevention of liver metastasis of CRC in mice.
  • The ability of cerulenin to prevent development of liver metastatic lesions in Colon 26 was evaluated.
  • The numbers and sizes of liver metastatic CRC tumors were significantly reduced by treating mice with cerulenin.
  • Based on studies in mouse models, inhibiting FAS would be an effective strategy to prevent and retard growth of liver metastatic tumors of CRC that have high expression of this enzyme.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerulenin / therapeutic use. Colonic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Fatty Acid Synthases / antagonists & inhibitors. Liver Neoplasms, Experimental / prevention & control. Liver Neoplasms, Experimental / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Caspases / physiology. Cell Line, Tumor. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Lipogenesis / drug effects. Male. Mice. Mice, Inbred BALB C

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  • (PMID = 20491775.001).
  • [ISSN] 1349-7006
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 17397-89-6 / Cerulenin; EC 2.3.1.85 / Fatty Acid Synthases; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspases
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56. Toiyama Y, Miki C, Inoue Y, Kawamoto A, Kusunoki M: Circulating form of human vascular adhesion protein-1 (VAP-1): decreased serum levels in progression of colorectal cancer and predictive marker of lymphatic and hepatic metastasis. J Surg Oncol; 2009 May 1;99(6):368-72
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  • [Title] Circulating form of human vascular adhesion protein-1 (VAP-1): decreased serum levels in progression of colorectal cancer and predictive marker of lymphatic and hepatic metastasis.
  • However, sVAP-1 expression or function has not been studied in colorectal cancer.
  • The present study determined the relationships between preoperative serum sVAP-1 and clinicopathological features and prognosis in colorectal cancer.
  • METHODS: One hundred patients with histologically proven colorectal cancer and 33 normal volunteers were included.
  • Mean sVAP-1 level was significantly correlated with venous invasion, lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis including hepatic metastasis, and advanced TNM classification.
  • Furthermore, sVAP-1 was an independent marker for predicting lymph node or hepatic metastasis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative low sVAP-1 level is associated with poor prognosis in colorectal cancer.
  • Measuring serum sVAP-1 may provide valuable information in predicting patients with lymph node or hepatic metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Amine Oxidase (Copper-Containing) / blood. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Cell Adhesion Molecules / blood. Colorectal Neoplasms / blood. Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lymph Nodes / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Logistic Models. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis


57. Luboldt W, Hartmann H, Wiedemann B, Zöphel K, Luboldt HJ: Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors: standardizing therapy monitoring with 68Ga-DOTATOC PET/CT using the example of somatostatin receptor radionuclide therapy. Mol Imaging; 2010 Dec;9(6):351-8
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  • The purpose of this study was to standardize therapy monitoring of hepatic metastases from gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs) during the course of somatostatin receptor radionuclide therapy (SRRT).
  • In 21 consecutive patients with nonresectable hepatic metastases of GEP-NETs, chromogranin A (CgA) and 68Ga-DOTATOC PET/CT were compared before and after the last SRRT.
  • On 68Ga-DOTATOC PET/CT, the maximum standard uptake values (SUVmax) of normal liver and hepatic metastases were calculated.
  • In addition, the volumes of hepatic metastases (volume of interest [VOI]) were measured using four cut-offs to separate normal liver tissue from metastases (SUVmax of the normal liver plus 10% [VOIliver+10%], 20% [VOIliver+20%], 30% [VOIliver+30%] and SUV  =  10 [VOI10SUV]).
  • The SUVmax of the normal liver was below 10 (7.2 ± 1.3) in all patients and without significant changes.
  • 68Ga-DOTATOC PET/CT allows volumetric therapy monitoring via an SUV-based cut-off separating hepatic metastases from normal liver tissue (10 SUV recommended).

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  • (PMID = 21084031.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-0121
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ga(III)-DOTATOC; 0 / Organometallic Compounds; 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide; U194AS08HZ / Edotreotide
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58. Harrod-Kim P: Tumor ablation with photodynamic therapy: introduction to mechanism and clinical applications. J Vasc Interv Radiol; 2006 Sep;17(9):1441-8
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  • [Title] Tumor ablation with photodynamic therapy: introduction to mechanism and clinical applications.
  • Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been used to treat cancer for more than 25 years.
  • PDT is currently being used in the treatment of many cancers including lung cancer, head and neck cancers, liver metastases, cholangiocarcinoma, and prostate cancer.

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  • (PMID = 16990463.001).
  • [ISSN] 1051-0443
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of vascular and interventional radiology : JVIR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Vasc Interv Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 36
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59. Valkema R, Pauwels S, Kvols LK, Barone R, Jamar F, Bakker WH, Kwekkeboom DJ, Bouterfa H, Krenning EP: Survival and response after peptide receptor radionuclide therapy with [90Y-DOTA0,Tyr3]octreotide in patients with advanced gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. Semin Nucl Med; 2006 Apr;36(2):147-56
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  • Because the role of chemotherapy, interferon, or somatostatin analogs as antiproliferative agents is uncertain, currently few treatment options exist for patients with metastatic or inoperable gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NET).
  • The extent of disease was: 4 patients without liver metastases and 52 patients with liver metastases, including 16 patients with very advanced disease, qualified as "end-stage," and 2 end-stage patients without liver metastases.
  • The objective responses were 5 partial response (PR), 7 minor response (MR), 29 stable disease (SD), and 17 PD.

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  • (PMID = 16517236.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-2998
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 90Y-octreotide, DOTA-Tyr(3)-; 0 / Yttrium Radioisotopes; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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60. Yang M, Yang ZH, Hou ZD, Li XN: [Establishment of a whole-body visualization model of breast cancer with high hepatic metastatic potential in nude mice through serial passage in vivo]. Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao; 2008 Jun;28(6):944-7
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  • [Title] [Establishment of a whole-body visualization model of breast cancer with high hepatic metastatic potential in nude mice through serial passage in vivo].
  • OBJECTIVE: To establish a whole-body visualization model of breast cancer with high hepatic metastatic potential in nude mice and observe the development and metastasis of breast cancer by real-time imaging.
  • METHODS: pEGFP-N1 plasmid was transfected into human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 to obtain pEGFP-MDA-MB-231 cells that emitted fluorescence. pEGFP-MDA-MB-231 cells were inoculated orthotopically in BALB/C nude mice and cultured in vivo through serial passage, thereby establishing the mouse model bearing tumors with high hepatic metastasis potential.
  • The fluorescence emitted from the tumors was quantitatively detected and imaged with a fluorescence stereo microscope for real-time visualization of the tumor growth and metastasis.
  • RESULTS: The transfected breast cancer cells stably and efficiently expressed EGFP.
  • After inoculation of the transfected cells in nude mice, 20% of the first-generation cells showed hepatic metastasis, and the rate increased to 80% among the second-generation and up to 100% among the third-generation cells.
  • CONCLUSION: The whole-body visualization model bearing breast cancer with high hepatic metastasis potential provides a reliable means for studying the mechanisms of hepatic tumor metastasis, and can be instrumental in the exploration of novel means for breast cancer treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Disease Models, Animal. Liver Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Line, Tumor. Female. Green Fluorescent Proteins / genetics. Green Fluorescent Proteins / metabolism. Humans. Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental / genetics. Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental / metabolism. Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental / pathology. Mice. Mice, Inbred BALB C. Mice, Nude. Microscopy, Fluorescence. Neoplasm Transplantation. Transplantation, Heterologous

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  • (PMID = 18583234.001).
  • [ISSN] 1673-4254
  • [Journal-full-title] Nan fang yi ke da xue xue bao = Journal of Southern Medical University
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 147336-22-9 / Green Fluorescent Proteins
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61. Ohashi Y, Watanabe M, Ikeda M, Nanami T, Yamazaki K, Yajima S, Oshima Y, Takeyama T, Ito M, Saito F: [Regression of metastatic hepatic cancer from gastric cancer by polysaccharide K and UFT administration--a case report]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2008 Dec;35(13):2409-12
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  • [Title] [Regression of metastatic hepatic cancer from gastric cancer by polysaccharide K and UFT administration--a case report].
  • Various treatments for hepatic metastasis of gastric cancer have been attempted, but problems remain with respect to long-term effectiveness and recurrence.
  • Case reports have indicated the tumor regression effect of polysaccharide K(PSK)combined with chemotherapy, and meta-analysis has shown that PSK combined with chemotherapy improves the prognosis compared to chemotherapy alone.
  • We report a case of hepatic metastasis of gastric cancer in which low-dose UFT and PSK therapy resulted in regression of metastatic hepatic lesions and improvement of tumor markers.
  • A 78-year-old man had synchronous hepatic metastasis of gastric cancer.
  • Recurrences of metastatic hepatic lesion and new hepatic lesion were observed 6 months after surgery.
  • Addition of PSK to UFT chemotherapy was selected as the treatment for recurrences, resulting in disappearance of the hepatic lesions and normalization of tumor markers.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Polysaccharides / therapeutic use. Stomach Neoplasms / drug therapy. Stomach Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Humans. Male. Tegafur / administration & dosage. Tegafur / therapeutic use. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Uracil / administration & dosage. Uracil / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 19098413.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Polysaccharides; 1548R74NSZ / Tegafur; 56HH86ZVCT / Uracil; 1-UFT protocol
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62. Shibaki T, Morimoto N: [A case of postoperative liver metastasis of mucinous carcinoma of the breast with complete response to sequential administration of FEC75, tamoxifen citrate, and letrozole]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2010 Mar;37(3):499-501
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  • [Title] [A case of postoperative liver metastasis of mucinous carcinoma of the breast with complete response to sequential administration of FEC75, tamoxifen citrate, and letrozole].
  • A 51-year-old woman, who had undergone mastectomy due to a mucinous carcinoma of her left breast, was diagnosed with solitary liver metastasis 7 months after operation.
  • The size of metastatic lesions on CT gradually reduced, and FDG-PET, which was conducted 4 months after initiation of FEC75, showed no viable tumor cells in the target lesion.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Nitriles / therapeutic use. Tamoxifen / therapeutic use. Triazoles / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 20332691.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Nitriles; 0 / Triazoles; 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen; 3Z8479ZZ5X / Epirubicin; 7LKK855W8I / letrozole; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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63. Thiemann M, Benhidjeb T, Anders S, Gebauer B, Strik MW: Hepato-pericardial fistula following radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for liver metastasis: a case report and review of the literature. Langenbecks Arch Surg; 2008 Nov;393(6):1013-6
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  • [Title] Hepato-pericardial fistula following radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for liver metastasis: a case report and review of the literature.
  • INTRODUCTION: Recent large-scale studies have demonstrated the efficiency and safety of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for unresectable hepatic tumors.
  • CASE REPORT: We observed the development of a hepato-pericardial fistula leading to pericardial empyema after RFA of a metastatic hepatic lesion.
  • Concerning the genesis of the fistula, development from thermal damages in the diaphragm and pericardium as well as abscess formation in the liver is assumed.
  • Treatment consisted of percutaneous drainage and flushing via remaining hepatic and pericardial catheters.
  • The review of the literature revealed several cases of intrahepatic abscess formation after RFA as well as one case of pericardial empyema due to perforation of hepatic amoebic abscess.
  • Treatment via percutaneous drainage has been successful in this case and correlates with the successful treatment of abscess formation after RFA of metastatic pancreatic cancer.
  • CONCLUSION: The management of hepatic abscess formation subsequent to RFA of metastatic hepatic malignancies is not well described.
  • We regard the percutaneous drainage as treatment of pericardial empyema as well as hepatic abscess as less invasive and sufficient, as demonstrated in this case.
  • [MeSH-major] Electrocoagulation / instrumentation. Fistula / etiology. Gallbladder Neoplasms / surgery. Heart Diseases / etiology. Liver Diseases / etiology. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / surgery. Pericardium. Postoperative Complications / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use. Bacterial Infections / diagnosis. Bacterial Infections / etiology. Bacterial Infections / therapy. Combined Modality Therapy. Drainage. Humans. Liver Abscess / diagnosis. Liver Abscess / etiology. Liver Abscess / therapy. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Neoplasm, Residual / surgery. Pericardial Effusion / diagnosis. Pericardial Effusion / etiology. Pericardial Effusion / therapy. Reoperation. Tomography, X-Ray Computed


64. Kuwakado S, Takiuchi H, Goto M, Kawabe S, Ohta S, Kii T, Tanaka T, Nishitani H, Katsu K: [A case of gastric cancer with multiple liver metastases resistant to TS-1 responding to chemotherapy with paclitaxel plus doxifluridine]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2006 Apr;33(4):513-5
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  • [Title] [A case of gastric cancer with multiple liver metastases resistant to TS-1 responding to chemotherapy with paclitaxel plus doxifluridine].
  • A 74-year-old man was revealed to have type 3 gastric cancer with synchronous multiple liver metastases.
  • Despite treatment with TS-1 (120 mg/body), an increase in tumor size was demonstrated by computer tomography and endoscopy.
  • We tried a course of a combination chemotherapy consisting of paclitaxel (PTX) plus doxifluridine (5'-DFUR ) to reduce the tumor.
  • After 5 courses, the tumor markers decreased markedly, and computer tomography and endoscopy revealed remarkable tumor reduction which was thought to show a partial response.
  • After 13 courses we discontinued this chemotherapy, so increase of the tumor marker was remarkable.
  • This case suggests that PTX/5'-DFUR protocol is effective for clinical management of gastric cancer resistant to TS-1.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Oxonic Acid / pharmacology. Pyridines / pharmacology. Stomach Neoplasms / drug therapy. Tegafur / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 16612164.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Drug Combinations; 0 / Pyridines; 039LU44I5M / Floxuridine; 150863-82-4 / S 1 (combination); 1548R74NSZ / Tegafur; 5VT6420TIG / Oxonic Acid; 7673326042 / irinotecan; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel; V1JK16Y2JP / doxifluridine; XT3Z54Z28A / Camptothecin
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65. Uneda S, Toi H, Tsujie T, Tsujie M, Harada N, Tsai H, Seon BK: Anti-endoglin monoclonal antibodies are effective for suppressing metastasis and the primary tumors by targeting tumor vasculature. Int J Cancer; 2009 Sep 15;125(6):1446-53
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  • [Title] Anti-endoglin monoclonal antibodies are effective for suppressing metastasis and the primary tumors by targeting tumor vasculature.
  • Anti-metastatic activity of an antitumor agent is exceedingly important because metastasis is the primary cause of death for most solid cancer patients.
  • In this report, we show that 3 anti-endoglin (ENG) monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) SN6a, SN6j and SN6k which define individually distinct epitopes of ENG of tumor vasculature are capable of suppressing tumor metastases in the multiple metastasis models.
  • The metastasis models were generated by i.v., s.c. (into flank) or mammary gland fat pad injection of 4T1 murine mammary carcinoma cells and splenic injection of two types of colon26 murine colorectal carcinoma cells.
  • SN6a and SN6j effectively suppressed the formation of metastatic colonies of 4T1 in the lung in all of the three 4T1 metastatic models.
  • Furthermore, SN6a and SN6j extended survival of the tumor-bearing mice.
  • SN6j, SN6k and their immunoconjugates with deglycosylated ricin A-chain were all effective for suppressing hepatic metastasis of colon26.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Antigens, CD / immunology. Neoplasm Metastasis / prevention & control. Neoplasms, Experimental / blood supply. Neovascularization, Pathologic / prevention & control. Receptors, Cell Surface / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Collagen / metabolism. Drug Combinations. Endoglin. Female. Humans. Laminin / metabolism. Mice. Mice, Inbred BALB C. Proteoglycans / metabolism. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • [Copyright] 2009 UICC
  • (PMID = 19533687.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0215
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA016056; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA016156
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Drug Combinations; 0 / ENG protein, human; 0 / Endoglin; 0 / Laminin; 0 / Proteoglycans; 0 / Receptors, Cell Surface; 119978-18-6 / matrigel; 9007-34-5 / Collagen
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS666935; NLM/ PMC4367950
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71. Zaporozhchenko BS, Kachanov VN, Borodaev IE, Gorbunov AA, Sharapov IV: [Comparative efficacy of pancreatoduodenal resection using intraoperative cryo-techniques]. Klin Khir; 2009 Oct;(10):11-4
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  • In 61 patients pancreaticoduodenal resection (PDR) was performed: for pancreatic gland head cancer-in 29, periampullar zone cancer--in 20, chronic pseudotumoral pancreatitis--in 12.
  • In 10 patients, suffering pancreatic gland and periampullar zone cancer, complicated by solitary hepatic metastases, PDR was added by cryodestruction of metastases.
  • Cryodestruction of hepatic metastases have promoted the patients survival median increase.

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  • (PMID = 20458943.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-2130
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinichna khirurhiia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin Khir
  • [Language] RUS
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ukraine
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72. Buffart TE, Coffa J, Hermsen MA, Carvalho B, van der Sijp JR, Ylstra B, Pals G, Schouten JP, Meijer GA: DNA copy number changes at 8q11-24 in metastasized colorectal cancer. Cell Oncol; 2005;27(1):57-65
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  • [Title] DNA copy number changes at 8q11-24 in metastasized colorectal cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: C-Myc, a well-known oncogene located on 8q24.12-q24.23, is often amplified and over-expressed in both primary and metastasizing colorectal cancer.
  • In addition, PRL-3 (also known as PTP4A3), a tyrosine phosphatase located on 8q24.3, is amplified in colorectal cancer metastasis.
  • Therefore, the present study aims to correlate DNA copy number status of a series of genes at 8q23-24 in colorectal cancer at high resolution in correlation to metastatic disease.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-two cases of colorectal cancer, 10 stage B1, 10 B2 and 12 D (Astler-Coller) with their corresponding liver metastasis and one colorectal cell line (colo205, previously analyzed by array-CGH), were included in this study.
  • When comparing primary Astler-Coller D tumors and their corresponding liver metastases, a similar pattern of gains and losses was observed.
  • Most of the liver metastases showed higher DNA copy number ratios than the corresponding primary tumors, but this difference was only significant for TPD52 (p=0.02) and EIF3S6 (p=0.007).
  • CONCLUSION: In addition to c-myc, multiple genes on chromosome 8 differed significantly between primary colorectal cancers with and without liver metastases.
  • This observation is consistent with the concept that clinical behaviour, like risk of liver metastasis, is determined by the genomic profile that is already present in the primary tumor.
  • [MeSH-minor] Base Sequence. Cell Line, Tumor. DNA / genetics. DNA / metabolism. DNA Primers / chemistry. Genes, myc / genetics. Humans. Immediate-Early Proteins / genetics. Liver Neoplasms / genetics. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Molecular Sequence Data. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Proteins. Nucleic Acid Hybridization. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Oligonucleotides / chemistry. Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases / genetics. Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 15750208.001).
  • [ISSN] 1570-5870
  • [Journal-full-title] Cellular oncology : the official journal of the International Society for Cellular Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cell. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / Immediate-Early Proteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Oligonucleotides; 9007-49-2 / DNA; EC 3.1.3.48 / PTP4A3 protein, human; EC 3.1.3.48 / Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4611113
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73. Matsusue R, Kubo H, Hisamori S, Okoshi K, Takagi H, Hida K, Nakano K, Itami A, Kawada K, Nagayama S, Sakai Y: Hepatic stellate cells promote liver metastasis of colon cancer cells by the action of SDF-1/CXCR4 axis. Ann Surg Oncol; 2009 Sep;16(9):2645-53
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Hepatic stellate cells promote liver metastasis of colon cancer cells by the action of SDF-1/CXCR4 axis.
  • However, the function and mechanism of the SDF-1/CXCR4 system in the metastasis of colorectal cancer remain controversial.
  • METHODS: Immunohistochemistry was performed to examine quantitatively the expression of CXCR4 in 40 human samples of colorectal cancer and liver metastasis.
  • The functions of SDF-1 on HCT116 colon cancer cells were investigated in vitro.
  • We subcutaneously inoculated HCT116 cells with hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) expressing SDF-1.
  • RESULTS: By quantitatively counting the number of cells, it was shown that there are more CXCR4-positive cells at the metastatic site in the liver compared with the primary sites.
  • In mouse experiment of liver metastasis, intraperitoneal administration of AMD3100 blocked the metastatic potential of HCT116 cells.
  • Furthermore, we found that alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA)-positive myofibroblasts derived from HSCs, surrounding the liver metastasis foci, secreted SDF-1.
  • The subcutaneous inoculation of HCT116 cells with HSCs promoted the tumor initiation in nude mice, indicating the importance of the direct interaction between these cells in vivo.
  • CONCLUSION: These results suggest that HSCs play important role in liver metastasis of colon cancer cells by the action of SDF-1/CXCR4 axis and provide preclinical evidence that blockade of the axis is a target for antimetastasis therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Chemokine CXCL12 / metabolism. Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology. Hepatic Stellate Cells / physiology. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Receptors, CXCR4 / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Actins / metabolism. Animals. Apoptosis. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Mice. Mice, Nude. Neoplasm Invasiveness. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Survival Rate. Tumor Cells, Cultured. Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays

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  • (PMID = 19588204.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / ACTA2 protein, human; 0 / Actins; 0 / Chemokine CXCL12; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, CXCR4
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74. Ide Y, Yasumoto T, Okada K, Ota H, Maruyama K, Yokouchi H, Kinuta M, Mikami K, Murata K: [A case report of complete remission of relapsed rectal cancer liver metastasis after systemic chemotherapy successfully treated by radiofrequency ablation]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2008 Nov;35(12):2180-2
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [A case report of complete remission of relapsed rectal cancer liver metastasis after systemic chemotherapy successfully treated by radiofrequency ablation].
  • We report a case of complete remission of relapsed rectal cancer liver metastasis after systemic chemotherapy successfully treated by radiofrequency ablation (RFA).
  • A 60-year-old man was diagnosed as having rectal cancer with colonoscopy and as solitary liver metastasis with enhanced CT.
  • After primary tumor was resected, modified FOLFOX6 chemotherapy was performed.
  • Recurrence of liver metastasis was showed after the chemotherapy for six months, so RFA was performed without any complications.
  • We basically performed first was systemic chemotherapy to liver metastasis of colorectal cancer, and performed a local treatment including resection, if necessary.
  • We suppose that RFA after systemic chemotherapy is one of the useful treatment strategies for liver metastasis of colorectal cancer, because RFA is less invasive than resection and a discontinuation of the drug is not required for RFA.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Rectal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Rectal Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19106563.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Organoplatinum Compounds; Q573I9DVLP / Leucovorin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil; Folfox protocol
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75. Kanou M, Kurisu Y, Akagi S, Tanaka T, Toge K: [A case of advanced gastric cancer with multiple liver metastases completely responding long term to paclitaxel plus S-1 therapy]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2010 Jan;37(1):143-5
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  • [Title] [A case of advanced gastric cancer with multiple liver metastases completely responding long term to paclitaxel plus S-1 therapy].
  • Upper gastroscopy revealed advanced gastric cancer.
  • Abdominal CT suggested liver metastases.
  • At first we thought the liver metastases has been completely resected, but we found multiple liver metastases unexpectedly.
  • So only total gastric resection and liver biopsy were performed.
  • The pathological diagnosis was metastatic carcinoma.
  • A CT scan showed a complete response, and he has been well without tumor re-growth ever since.
  • The combination of PTX and S-1 not only may be an effective regimen for gastric cancer with liver metastases, but also can be used without side effects for a long time.
  • [MeSH-major] Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Stomach Neoplasms / drug therapy. Stomach Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20087050.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / Drug Combinations; 150863-82-4 / S 1 (combination); 1548R74NSZ / Tegafur; 5VT6420TIG / Oxonic Acid; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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76. Ishii K, Hayashida Y, Yoshimoto K, Tajima H, Fuchisaki U, Takeda T, Kamata T, Miyamori H, Kanno M: [A case of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor producing gastric cancer]. Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi; 2006 Aug;103(8):931-5
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  • [Title] [A case of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor producing gastric cancer].
  • We report a case of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor producing gastric cancer with multiple liver metastases.
  • Upper gastrointestinal endoscopic examination revealed a type-2 gastric cancer.
  • Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor producing gastric cancer was diagnosed by immunohistochemistry of biopsy specimen.
  • Since we detected multiple liver metastases, chemotherapy was performed.
  • Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor-producing gastric cancer is relatively rare and we summarize previous reports.

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  • (PMID = 16912459.001).
  • [ISSN] 0446-6586
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai zasshi = The Japanese journal of gastro-enterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 143011-72-7 / Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor
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77. van Laarhoven HW, Kaanders JH, Lok J, Peeters WJ, Rijken PF, Wiering B, Ruers TJ, Punt CJ, Heerschap A, van der Kogel AJ: Hypoxia in relation to vasculature and proliferation in liver metastases in patients with colorectal cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2006 Feb 1;64(2):473-82
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  • [Title] Hypoxia in relation to vasculature and proliferation in liver metastases in patients with colorectal cancer.
  • PURPOSE: To investigate hypoxia measured by pimonidazole binding, glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) and carbonic anhydrase IX (CA-IX) expression, proliferation, and vascularity in liver metastases of colorectal cancer and to compare GLUT1 and CA-IX expression in corresponding primary tumors.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: Twenty-five patients with liver metastases of colorectal cancer, planned for metastasectomy, were included.
  • After immunofluorescent staining of the frozen metastases, pimonidazole binding, vascularity, and proliferation were analyzed quantitatively.
  • Thirteen paraffin-embedded primary tumors were stained immunohistochemically for GLUT1 and CA-IX expression, which was analyzed semiquantitatively in primary tumors and corresponding liver metastases.
  • RESULTS: In liver metastases, pimonidazole binding showed a pattern consistent with diffusion-limited hypoxia.
  • Expression of CA-IX in primary tumors and metastases showed a significant correlation, which was absent for GLUT1 expression.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Compared with other tumor types, liver metastases of colorectal cancer contain large amounts of hypoxic cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carbonic Anhydrases / metabolism. Cell Hypoxia. Colorectal Neoplasms / metabolism. Glucose Transporter Type 1 / metabolism. Liver Neoplasms / metabolism. Nitroimidazoles / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16242253.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Glucose Transporter Type 1; 0 / Nitroimidazoles; 46JO4D76R2 / pimonidazole; EC 4.2.1.1 / Carbonic Anhydrases; LGP81V5245 / Idoxuridine
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78. Chao YL, Shepard CR, Wells A: Breast carcinoma cells re-express E-cadherin during mesenchymal to epithelial reverting transition. Mol Cancer; 2010;9:179
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  • BACKGROUND: Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), implicated as a mechanism for tumor dissemination, is marked by loss of E-cadherin, disruption of cell adhesion, and induction of cell motility and invasion.
  • In addition, it has been observed that metastatic foci commonly appear more differentiated than the primary tumor, suggesting that cancer cells may further undergo a mesenchymal to epithelial reverting transition (MErT) in the secondary organ environment following the EMT that allows for escape.
  • RESULTS: We first examined E-cadherin expression in primary breast tumors and their corresponding metastases to liver, lung and brain and discovered that 62% (10/16) of cases showed increased E-cadherin expression in the metastases compared to the primaries.
  • These observations led to the question of whether the positive metastatic foci arose from expansion of E-cadherin-positive cells or from MErT of originally E-cadherin-negative disseminated cells.
  • Thus, we aimed to determine whether it was possible for the mesenchymal-like MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells to undergo an MErT through the re-expression of E-cadherin, either through exogenous introduction or induction by the microenvironment.
  • Ectopic expression of full-length E-cadherin in MDA-MB-231 cells resulted in a morphological and functional reversion of the epithelial phenotype, with even just the cytosolic domain of E-cadherin yielding a partial phenotype.
  • Introduction of MDA-MB-231 cells or primary explants into a secondary organ environment simulated by a hepatocyte coculture system induced E-cadherin re-expression through passive loss of methylation of the promoter.
  • Furthermore, detection of E-cadherin-positive metastatic foci following the spontaneous metastasis of MDA-MB-231 cells injected into the mammary fat pad of mice suggests that this re-expression is functional.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our clinical observations and experimental data indicate that the secondary organ microenvironment can induce the re-expression of E-cadherin and consequently MErT.
  • This phenotypic change is reflected in altered cell behavior and thus may be a critical step in cell survival at metastatic sites.
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Line, Tumor. DNA Methylation. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Metastasis. Promoter Regions, Genetic

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  • (PMID = 20609236.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-4598
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cadherins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2907333
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79. Yoshida Y, Kishimoto T, Ishiguro H, Nagai Y, Koda K, Takiguchi N, Miyazaki M, Ishikura H: Dexamethasone modifies the susceptibility to serum cytotoxicity and increases the metastatic efficiency of a colon carcinoma cell line. Exp Mol Pathol; 2006 Aug;81(1):77-84
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  • [Title] Dexamethasone modifies the susceptibility to serum cytotoxicity and increases the metastatic efficiency of a colon carcinoma cell line.
  • Metastatic inefficiency is a phenomenon by which a majority of tumor cells is lost in the blood stream during the metastatic process.
  • We investigated the effects of dexamethasone (DEX), a synthesized glucocorticoid, on the serum susceptibility of a colon carcinoma cell line, HT-29, with respect to metastatic inefficiency.
  • The susceptibility to serum cytotoxicity of these carcinoma cells is possibly an important factor in metastatic inefficiency.
  • In this study, we used glucocorticoid because it modifies the function of the plasma membrane and has been shown to enhance the hematogenous metastasis of some tumor cells.
  • Using HT-29 cells that had been treated with DEX in vitro, the following factors were evaluated: the metastasis of intrasplenic injected cells; in vitro and in vivo proliferation; motility; the production of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs); and the expression of the membrane complement regulatory proteins CD46, CD55, and CD59.
  • The number of viable cells in the liver after an intraportal injection of tumor cells was determined by the expression of human beta-globin mRNA that is aberrantly expressed in HT-29 cells.
  • Treatment with DEX was found to accelerate liver metastasis; here, the number of metastatic colonies and the weight of the liver were both significantly increased in DEX-treated HT-29 (HT-29DEX) cells.
  • Finally, the expression of colon cancer-derived beta-globin mRNA was detectable 24 h after intravenous injection, but only in samples obtained from the HT-29DEX-, but not in those from the HT-29-inoculated mice.
  • These results indicate that DEX reduced the metastatic inefficiency of the HT-29 cells, resulting in a hematogenous metastasis-prone phenotype.
  • It is thus expected that the acquisition of resistance against serum cytotoxicity is among the mechanisms that contribute to the efficiency of hematogeneous metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / pathology. Colonic Neoplasms / pathology. Dexamethasone / pharmacology. Neoplasm Metastasis. Toxins, Biological / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Membrane / drug effects. Cell Membrane / immunology. Cell Movement. Cell Proliferation. Globins / genetics. Globins / metabolism. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Mice. Mice, Inbred BALB C. Organ Size. RNA, Messenger / analysis. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 16380115.001).
  • [ISSN] 0014-4800
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental and molecular pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Mol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Toxins, Biological; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; 9004-22-2 / Globins
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80. Simmonds PC, Primrose JN, Colquitt JL, Garden OJ, Poston GJ, Rees M: Surgical resection of hepatic metastases from colorectal cancer: a systematic review of published studies. Br J Cancer; 2006 Apr 10;94(7):982-99
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  • [Title] Surgical resection of hepatic metastases from colorectal cancer: a systematic review of published studies.
  • No consensus on the indications for surgical resection of colorectal liver metastases exists.
  • Only 30 of 529 independent studies met all the eligibility criteria for the review, and data on 30-day mortality and morbidity only were included from a further nine studies.
  • The remainder reported outcomes for selected groups of patients: those undergoing hepatic resection or those undergoing curative resection.
  • The quality of the majority of published papers was poor and ascertaining the benefits of surgical resection of colorectal hepatic metastases is difficult in the absence of randomised trials.
  • However, it is clear that there is group of patients with liver metastases who may become long-term disease-free survivors following hepatic resection.
  • [MeSH-major] Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology. Hepatectomy. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / surgery. Postoperative Complications

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  • (PMID = 16538219.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 103
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2361241
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81. Jones C, Badger SA, McClements J, McKie L, Diamond T, Taylor MA: Can the National Health Service Cancer Plan timeline be applied to colorectal hepatic metastases? Ann R Coll Surg Engl; 2010 Mar;92(2):136-8
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  • [Title] Can the National Health Service Cancer Plan timeline be applied to colorectal hepatic metastases?
  • INTRODUCTION: The National Health Service (NHS) Cancer Plan guidelines recommend a maximum 2-week wait from referral to first appointment, and 2 months from referral to treatment for primary cancers.
  • However, there are currently no guidelines available for metastatic disease.
  • In the UK, nearly half of all colorectal cancer patients develop hepatic metastases.
  • The aim of this study was to audit current practice for colorectal liver metastases in a regional hepatobiliary unit, and compare this to the NHS Cancer Plan standards for primary disease.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective review of the unit's database was performed for all hepatic metastases referrals from January 2006 to December 2008.
  • RESULTS: A total of 102 patients with hepatic metastases were identified.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The data compare favourably to the NHS Cancer Plan guidelines for primary malignancy, demonstrating that a regional hepatobiliary unit is capable of delivering a service for colorectal liver metastases that adheres to the NHS Cancer Plan.
  • Therefore, the NHS Cancer Plan can be applied to this cohort.
  • [MeSH-major] Colorectal Neoplasms. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / surgery. State Medicine / standards. Waiting Lists

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  • (PMID = 20353641.001).
  • [ISSN] 1478-7083
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann R Coll Surg Engl
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3025242
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82. Adachi A, Uchiyama T, Uchisako H, Hashimoto H: [A case of complete response treated by gastrectomy with lymphadenectomy and combined chemotherapy of peroral S-1 and CDDP by arterial infusion for gastric cancer with multiple liver metastasis]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2008 Mar;35(3):503-6
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  • [Title] [A case of complete response treated by gastrectomy with lymphadenectomy and combined chemotherapy of peroral S-1 and CDDP by arterial infusion for gastric cancer with multiple liver metastasis].
  • Upper gastrointestinal series and endoscopy revealed type 1 gastric cancer in the greater curvature.
  • CT and MRI showed multiple liver metastasis in the right lobe.
  • Distal partial gastrectomy with lymphadenectomy and cannulation of hepatic artery was performed.
  • Two months after operation the tumor marker values have become normal, and CT can hardly detect the metastatic liver tumors.
  • Combined use of peroral S-1 and CDDP by arterial infusion is effective for multiple liver metastasis after gastrectomy in gastric cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Oxonic Acid / therapeutic use. Stomach Neoplasms / drug therapy. Stomach Neoplasms / surgery. Tegafur / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 18347405.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Drug Combinations; 150863-82-4 / S 1 (combination); 1548R74NSZ / Tegafur; 5VT6420TIG / Oxonic Acid; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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83. Suto T, Sato T, Mori N, Takano N, Ishiyama K, Sakurai N, Saito K, Iizawa H, Ikeda E: [Combination of hepatic arterial infusion therapy and FOLFOX for colorectal cancer with multiple unresectable liver metastases causing severe liver dysfunction]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2009 Jan;36(1):71-6
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  • [Title] [Combination of hepatic arterial infusion therapy and FOLFOX for colorectal cancer with multiple unresectable liver metastases causing severe liver dysfunction].
  • PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the combination of hepatic arterial infusion therapy and FOLFOX for colorectal cancer with multiple unresectable liver metastases causing severe liver dysfunction.
  • SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The subjects were 13 colorectal cancer patients who had undergone resection of the primary tumor, and showed multiple, unresectable liver metastases and severe liver dysfunction.
  • They had an average of 8(3-22)liver metastases of 4.6(1.5-14.5)cm in diameter.
  • Only 5-FU in FOLFOX4 or 6 m therapy was infused into the hepatic artery, and LV and L-OHP were injected into the central venous port about every two weeks.
  • RESULTS: The therapy was performed 14(6-22)times, with a response rate of 84.6% for liver metastases, facilitating hepatectomy in 1 patient.
  • The overall response rate was 61.5%, with 1 patient dying of the primary cancer on the 265th day.
  • Grade 3 adverse events were neutropenia and anorexia in only 1 patient each, and no adverse events were specific to hepatic arterial infusion.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Colorectal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology. Drug-Induced Liver Injury. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Liver Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Fluorouracil / adverse effects. Fluorouracil / therapeutic use. Humans. Infusions, Intra-Arterial. Leucovorin / administration & dosage. Leucovorin / adverse effects. Leucovorin / therapeutic use. Liver Diseases / physiopathology. Male. Middle Aged. Organoplatinum Compounds / administration & dosage. Organoplatinum Compounds / adverse effects. Organoplatinum Compounds / therapeutic use. Prognosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome


84. Skalicky T, Treska V, Sutnar A, Liska V, Duras P, Slauf F: Chemo-embolization of inoperable liver tumors. Bratisl Lek Listy; 2010;111(12):676-9
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  • [Title] Chemo-embolization of inoperable liver tumors.
  • A small percentage of patients suitable for radical surgery require us to introduce alternative palliative methods prolonging the good quality of life in patients with malignant liver tumors.
  • The chemo-embolization was done on inoperable liver metastases of colorectal carcinoma and on inoperable hepatocellular carcinoma (Tab. 1, Fig. 2, Ref. 5).
  • [MeSH-major] Chemoembolization, Therapeutic. Liver Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 21384740.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-9248
  • [Journal-full-title] Bratislavské lekárske listy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bratisl Lek Listy
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Slovakia
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85. Anderson P: Non-surgical treatment of pulmonary and extra-pulmonary metastases. Cancer Treat Res; 2009;152:203-15
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  • [Title] Non-surgical treatment of pulmonary and extra-pulmonary metastases.
  • Studies have demonstrated that chemotherapy alone is usually unsuccessful as exclusive therapy for osteosarcoma (Cancer 95:2202-2201, 2002).
  • Other situations include too many metastases to easily resect, axial osteosarcomas, bone metastases, liver and brain metastases.
  • Because of the predictable and common pattern of pulmonary metastases in osteosarcoma, aerosol therapy also offers an attractive regional treatment strategy.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / therapy. Osteosarcoma / secondary

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  • (PMID = 20213392.001).
  • [ISSN] 0927-3042
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer treatment and research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Treat. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
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86. Jacobs VR, Zemzoum I, Kremer M, Gottschalk N, Baumgärtner AK, Krol J, Kiechle M: Primary metastatic leiomyosarcoma of the fallopian tube: a rare case report. Onkologie; 2010;33(1-2):49-52
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  • [Title] Primary metastatic leiomyosarcoma of the fallopian tube: a rare case report.
  • BACKGROUND: Leiomyosarcoma of the fallopian tube is an extremely unusual gynecologic neoplasm.
  • As such, clinical diagnosis and therapy management are difficult.
  • CASE REPORT: We report on the case of a 59-year-old woman with leiomyosarcoma of the fallopian tube and liver metastases at the time of diagnosis.
  • After initial tumor debulking, she received palliative chemotherapy with gemcitabine 900 mg/m(2) (d1+8) and docetaxel 100 mg/m(2) (d8) (q21).
  • For additional bone metastases, she started local radiation plus bisphosphonates (q28).
  • After 2 cycles of chemotherapy, the disease progressed, and the patient died within 8 months of diagnosis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Primary metastatic leiomyosarcoma of the fallopian tube is a progressive disease with limited therapy options.
  • [MeSH-major] Fallopian Tube Neoplasms / diagnosis. Leiomyosarcoma / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Peritoneal Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnostic Imaging. Disease Progression. Fallopian Tubes / pathology. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Liver / pathology. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Palliative Care. Prognosis


87. Smeets D, Loeckx D, Stijnen B, De Dobbelaer B, Vandermeulen D, Suetens P: Semi-automatic level set segmentation of liver tumors combining a spiral-scanning technique with supervised fuzzy pixel classification. Med Image Anal; 2010 Feb;14(1):13-20
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  • [Title] Semi-automatic level set segmentation of liver tumors combining a spiral-scanning technique with supervised fuzzy pixel classification.
  • In this paper, a specific method is presented to facilitate the semi-automatic segmentation of liver tumors and liver metastases in CT images.
  • Accurate and reliable segmentation of tumors is essential for the follow-up of cancer treatment.
  • This method is tested on CT images of the abdomen and compared with manual delineations of liver tumors.
  • The described method outperformed the semi-automatic methods of the other participants of the "3D Liver Tumor Segmentation Challenge 2008".
  • [MeSH-major] Fuzzy Logic. Imaging, Three-Dimensional / methods. Liver Neoplasms / radiography. Pattern Recognition, Automated / methods. Radiographic Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted / methods. Tomography, Spiral Computed / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • (PMID = 19828356.001).
  • [ISSN] 1361-8423
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical image analysis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med Image Anal
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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88. Abid M, Amar MB, Feriani N, Damak Z, Cheikhrouhou H, Khalif M, Mzali R, Frikha MF, Beyrouti MI: [Pelvic pseudotumoral actinomycosis: two cases]. Rev Med Interne; 2010 Mar;31(3):232-5
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  • [Transliterated title] Actinomycose pelvienne pseudotumorale : à propos de deux cas.
  • INTRODUCTION: Pelvic actinomycosis is a rare suppurative disease that should be included in the differential diagnosis of gynecological cancers.
  • CASE REPORTS: We report two women aged 40 and 41 years with pelvic tumor-like actinomycosis.
  • CT-scan showed annexial infiltrative tumor in both cases with liver metastasis and peritoneal carcinosis in one case each.
  • Pathologic diagnosis was diagnostic of actinomycosis.
  • Clinical outcome showed significant improvement in both cases with complete regression of hepatic and pelvic lesions on CT-scan in one case.
  • CONCLUSION: Pelvic actinomycosis is a rare suppurative disorder, commonly associated with a long term wearing of intra-uterine device.
  • Diagnosis is difficult, often delayed and pelvic actinomycosis could mimic gynaecologic neoplasia.

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  • [Copyright] 2009 Société nationale française de médecine interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19713010.001).
  • [ISSN] 1768-3122
  • [Journal-full-title] La Revue de medecine interne
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Med Interne
  • [Language] FRE
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents; Q42T66VG0C / Penicillin G
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89. Tokudome N, Ito Y, Hatake K, Toi M, Sano M, Iwata H, Sato Y, Saeki T, Aogi K, Takashima S: Trastuzumab and vinorelbine as first-line therapy for HER2-overexpressing metastatic breast cancer: multicenter phase II and pharmacokinetic study in Japan. Anticancer Drugs; 2008 Aug;19(7):753-9
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  • [Title] Trastuzumab and vinorelbine as first-line therapy for HER2-overexpressing metastatic breast cancer: multicenter phase II and pharmacokinetic study in Japan.
  • Tolerability and response rate to weekly combination chemotherapy with trastuzumab and vinorelbine in Japanese women with HER2-overexpressing breast cancer not previously receiving either therapy were assessed.
  • Tumor response was evaluated every 4 weeks and adverse events were graded.
  • Time to progression was 361 days, with 75.0% of liver metastases and 60% of lung metastases responding to this treatment.
  • This combination therapy produced high response rates and good tolerability, indicating a promising role in first-line chemotherapy for HER2-overexpressing metastatic breast cancer in Japan.

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  • (PMID = 18594220.001).
  • [ISSN] 0959-4973
  • [Journal-full-title] Anti-cancer drugs
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Drugs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 5V9KLZ54CY / Vinblastine; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2; P188ANX8CK / Trastuzumab; Q6C979R91Y / vinorelbine
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90. Kulig J, Popiela T, Kłek S, Milanowski W, Kołodziejczyk P, Szybiński P, Richter P: Intraoperative ultrasonography in detecting and assessment of colorectal liver metastases. Scand J Surg; 2007;96(1):51-5
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  • [Title] Intraoperative ultrasonography in detecting and assessment of colorectal liver metastases.
  • OBJECTIVE: to assess the clinical value of intraoperative ultrasonography (IOUS) in detecting and assessment of liver metastatic tumours in colorectal cancer patients.
  • The authors analyzed of sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and accuracy of pre- and intraoperative ultrasonography in detecting and staging of colorectal metastatic lesions.
  • RESULTS: Intraoperative ultrasonography showed the highest sensitivity, specificity and accuracy in both, tumor detection (99.1, 98.5 and 98.9%, respectively) and assessment (95.4, 99.5 and 99.1%, respectively).
  • CONCLUSIONS: IOUS should be used as routine diagnostic modality in colorectal cancer patients with hepatic metastases or suspected metastases.
  • Transabdominal ultrasonography cannot be used as the only diagnostic tool in the evaluation of liver lesions, but may be helpful in preoperative screening.
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis / diagnostic imaging. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 17461313.001).
  • [ISSN] 1457-4969
  • [Journal-full-title] Scandinavian journal of surgery : SJS : official organ for the Finnish Surgical Society and the Scandinavian Surgical Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Scand J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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91. Bipat S, van Leeuwen MS, Ijzermans JN, Comans EF, Planting AS, Bossuyt PM, Greve JW, Stoker J: Evidence-base guideline on management of colorectal liver metastases in the Netherlands. Neth J Med; 2007 Jan;65(1):5-14
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  • [Title] Evidence-base guideline on management of colorectal liver metastases in the Netherlands.
  • A dutch national evidence-based guideline on the diagnosis and treatment of patients with colorectal liver metastases has been developed.
  • For synchronous liver metastases, spiral computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) should be used as imaging.
  • For evaluation of lung metastases, imaging can be limited to chest radiography.
  • For detection of metachronous liver metastases, ultrasonography could be performed as initial modality if the entire liver is adequately visualised.
  • Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography could be valuable in patients selected for surgery based on CT (liver/abdomen/chest), for identifying additional extrahepatic disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 17293634.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-2977
  • [Journal-full-title] The Netherlands journal of medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neth J Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Number-of-references] 112
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92. Akerström G, Hessman O, Hellman P, Skogseid B: Pancreatic tumours as part of the MEN-1 syndrome. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol; 2005 Oct;19(5):819-30
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  • However, hormonal syndromes often occur late with MEN-1 pancreatic tumours, and when developed indicate presence of metastases in up to 50% of the patients.
  • Prospective screening is therefore recommended in MEN-1 with biochemical markers and endoscopic ultrasound for early detection of PETs, and early surgery before metastases have developed.
  • Surgery is recommended in patients with or without hormonal syndromes in absence of disseminated liver metastases.
  • The suggested operation includes enucleation of tumours in the head of the pancreas, excision of duodenal gastrinomas together with clearance of lymph node metastases, and distal 80% subtotal pancreatic resection as prophylaxis against tumour recurrence.
  • This strategy with early and aggressive surgery is believed to reduce the risks for malignant progression.
  • [MeSH-major] Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 / pathology. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 / surgery. Pancreatectomy / methods. Pancreatic Neoplasms / pathology. Pancreatic Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Needle. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Risk Assessment. Survival Rate. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16253903.001).
  • [ISSN] 1521-6918
  • [Journal-full-title] Best practice & research. Clinical gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 44
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93. Kamimura H, Mochiki E, Kamiyama Y, Aihara R, Kimura H, Kuwano H: Gastrointestinal stromal tumor of the stomach: report of a case. Hepatogastroenterology; 2005 Jul-Aug;52(64):1297-300
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  • [Title] Gastrointestinal stromal tumor of the stomach: report of a case.
  • We report herein a case of a 65-year-old woman who had a gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) of the stomach.
  • Preoperative endoscopic and X-ray examinations showed a spherical submucosal tumor in the gastric fornix.
  • We resected the tumor by laparoscopic surgery, because it was detected by computed tomography (CT) and positron emission tomography (PET), and they did not detect distant metastasis.
  • Postoperative histologic examination revealed that the tumor was composed of spindle-shaped cells with elongated nuclei and showed little mitosis.
  • The tumor did not show differentiation toward smooth muscle or neural cells.
  • Pathological findings showed this tumor was probably benign.
  • In such cases, careful follow-up is needed to detect liver metastasis and local recurrence.
  • [MeSH-major] Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors / diagnosis. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors / surgery. Stomach Neoplasms / diagnosis. Stomach Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16001681.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-6390
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepato-gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hepatogastroenterology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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94. Krüger A, Arlt MJ, Gerg M, Kopitz C, Bernardo MM, Chang M, Mobashery S, Fridman R: Antimetastatic activity of a novel mechanism-based gelatinase inhibitor. Cancer Res; 2005 May 1;65(9):3523-6
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  • Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and in particular gelatinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9), play a key role in cancer progression.
  • However, clinical trials in which MMP inhibitors were tested in cancer patients have been disappointing.
  • Thus, despite the consensus opinion that MMP-mediated proteolysis is essential for cancer progression and that certain MMPs represent important targets for intervention, effective and selective inhibition of those MMPs remains a major challenge in drug development.
  • Here we report that SB-3CT (5-50 mg/kg/d) is a potent inhibitor of liver metastasis and increases survival in an aggressive mouse model of T-cell lymphoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Heterocyclic Compounds, 1-Ring / pharmacology. Liver Neoplasms, Experimental / prevention & control. Liver Neoplasms, Experimental / secondary. Lymphoma, T-Cell / drug therapy. Matrix Metalloproteinase Inhibitors. Protease Inhibitors / pharmacology. Sulfones / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Cell Line, Tumor. Disease Models, Animal. Female. Mice. Mice, Inbred DBA

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  • (PMID = 15867341.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-100475; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-61986
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Heterocyclic Compounds, 1-Ring; 0 / Matrix Metalloproteinase Inhibitors; 0 / Protease Inhibitors; 0 / SB 3CT compound; 0 / Sulfones
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95. Borgia B, Roesli C, Fugmann T, Schliemann C, Cesca M, Neri D, Giavazzi R: A proteomic approach for the identification of vascular markers of liver metastasis. Cancer Res; 2010 Jan 1;70(1):309-18
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  • [Title] A proteomic approach for the identification of vascular markers of liver metastasis.
  • Vascular proteins expressed at liver metastasis sites could serve as prognostic markers or as targets for pharmacodelivery applications.
  • We employed a proteomic approach to define such proteins in three syngeneic mouse models of liver metastasis.
  • In this manner, we identified 12 proteins for which expression was selectively associated with liver metastasis, confirming this association by tissue immunofluorescence or in vivo localization with radiolabeled antibodies.
  • In summary, our findings identify vascular proteins that may have prognostic or drug-targeting use in addressing liver metastases, a common issue in many advanced cancers.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Blood Vessels / metabolism. Gene Expression Profiling. Liver Neoplasms, Experimental / secondary. Proteomics / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid. Fluorescent Antibody Technique. Gene Expression. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Immunohistochemistry. Mice. Mice, Inbred C57BL. Neoplasm Metastasis / pathology. Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization

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  • (PMID = 19996283.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7445
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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96. Revoredo Rego F, Alvarez Baca D, Benavides Samamé A, Cruzado Villanueva C, Lloclla Kano P: [Spontaneous rupture of choriocarcinoma hepatic metastases: Report of a Case]. Rev Gastroenterol Peru; 2010 Jul-Sep;30(3):232-7
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  • [Title] [Spontaneous rupture of choriocarcinoma hepatic metastases: Report of a Case].
  • [Transliterated title] Ruptura Espontánea de Metastasis Hepática por Coriocarcinoma.
  • Choriocarcinoma is a highly vascularized gestational trophoblastic neoplasia, and has a propensity to metastasize hematogenously.
  • Hepatic metastases are less common and spontaneous rupture of them results in a hemoperitoneum.
  • We present a case of a young female with liver metastases from choriocarcinoma, who had severe haemorrhage and died after the second laparotomy.
  • The possibility of choriocarcinoma should be suspected in women of child bearing age who present liver metastases.
  • Because of the high risk oh haemorrhage, liver biopsy should be deferred until HCG has been measured.
  • [MeSH-major] Choriocarcinoma. Liver Neoplasms / complications. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Uterine Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Liver / pathology. Pregnancy. Rupture, Spontaneous

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  • (PMID = 20924433.001).
  • [ISSN] 1022-5129
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista de gastroenterología del Perú : órgano oficial de la Sociedad de Gastroenterología del Perú
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Gastroenterol Peru
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Peru
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97. Kaneko OF, Lee DM, Wong J, Kadell BM, Reber HA, Lu DS, Raman SS: Performance of multidetector computed tomographic angiography in determining surgical resectability of pancreatic head adenocarcinoma. J Comput Assist Tomogr; 2010 Sep-Oct;34(5):732-8
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  • Twelve patients deemed resectable by preoperative MDCTA were found to be unresectable on surgical exploration owing to vascular involvement (n = 4), liver metastases (n = 4), and peritoneal involvement (n = 4).
  • Liver and peritoneal metastases and vascular invasion still remain important pitfalls in preoperative evaluation.

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  • (PMID = 20861777.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-3145
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of computer assisted tomography
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Comput Assist Tomogr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; 4419T9MX03 / Iohexol
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98. Hu XT, Chen W, Zhang FB, Shi QL, Hu JB, Geng SM, He C: Depletion of the proteasome subunit PSMA7 inhibits colorectal cancer cell tumorigenicity and migration. Oncol Rep; 2009 Nov;22(5):1247-52
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  • [Title] Depletion of the proteasome subunit PSMA7 inhibits colorectal cancer cell tumorigenicity and migration.
  • Colorectal cancer is one of the most common causes of cancer-related deaths throughout the world.
  • Recently, we reported that proteasome subunit PSMA7 located on 20q13 amplicon was overexpressed and associated with liver metastasis of colorectal cancer.
  • The results indicate that PSMA7 may play an important role in the colorectal cancer progression and provide a unique target site for the development of therapeutic drugs.
  • However, it is unknown how aberrant PSMA7 activation critically regulates the metastatic behavior of colorectal cancer cells.
  • To investigate the role of PSMA7 in the progression of colorectal cancer, we employed the RNA interference technology to knock down the PSMA7 gene in human colon cancer cell line RKO and analyzed its effect and explored the involved mechanisms.
  • Genetic or pharmacological inhibition of PSMA7 may therefore be a beneficial strategy in the treatment of colorectal cancer patients.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Apoptosis. Blotting, Western. Cell Adhesion. Cell Cycle. Cell Proliferation. Colony-Forming Units Assay. Female. Genetic Therapy. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Mice. Mice, Inbred BALB C. Mice, Nude. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 19787246.001).
  • [ISSN] 1021-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Proteasome Inhibitors; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA, Small Interfering; EC 3.4.25.1 / PSMA7 protein, human; EC 3.4.25.1 / Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex
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99. Okamoto Y, Maeba T, Kakinoki K, Okano K, Izuishi K, Wakabayashi H, Usuki H, Suzuki Y: A patient with unresectable advanced pancreatic cancer achieving long-term survival with gemcitabine chemotherapy. World J Gastroenterol; 2008 Nov 28;14(44):6876-80
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  • [Title] A patient with unresectable advanced pancreatic cancer achieving long-term survival with gemcitabine chemotherapy.
  • A routine laboratory test revealed jaundice and liver dysfunction.
  • Pancreatic cancer was diagnosed by cytological examination analyzing the pancreatic juice obtained by ERCP.
  • When jaundice had decreased the tumor was observed via laparotomy.
  • No ascites, liver metastasis, or peritoneal dissemination was observed.
  • To date, for 4 years after chemotherapy, the tumor has not reappeared.

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  • (PMID = 19058319.001).
  • [ISSN] 1007-9327
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4988355
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100. van der Klaauw AA, Kienitz T, Strasburger CJ, Smit JW, Romijn JA: Malignant pituitary corticotroph adenomas: report of two cases and a comprehensive review of the literature. Pituitary; 2009;12(1):57-69
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  • [Title] Malignant pituitary corticotroph adenomas: report of two cases and a comprehensive review of the literature.
  • Corticotroph pituitary carcinomas are tumors, defined by the presence of distant metastases that determine their poor prognosis.
  • The diagnosis and therapy of malignant corticotroph adenomas remains a clinical challenge.
  • The molecular mechanisms of malignant transformation of pituitary adenomas are unclear, although they are believed to arise in an adenoma-to-carcinoma sequence.
  • We describe two cases of malignant Cushing's disease with metastases in liver and bone, respectively.
  • The time interval between the diagnosis of Cushing's disease and the discovery of metastases was 32 and 17 years, respectively.
  • In the first case the patient died within 6 months after diagnosis of metastasis, whereas the second patient is alive at a follow-up of 2 years after the discovery of the metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / diagnosis. ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / pathology. Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion / complications

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  • (PMID = 18176844.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7403
  • [Journal-full-title] Pituitary
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pituitary
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 62
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