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1. Ramsey J, Beckman EN, Winters JC: Breast cancer metastatic to the urinary bladder. Ochsner J; 2008;8(4):208-12
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Breast cancer metastatic to the urinary bladder.
  • Breast cancer is common and has the potential to spread to multiple organs.
  • This article describes metastasis to the urinary bladder.
  • In most instances, breast cancer metastatic to the bladder is associated with other pelvic organ metastasis.
  • In patients with known metastatic breast cancer, bladder screening is not warranted.
  • However, if lower urinary tract symptoms persist, an evaluation of the bladder should be considered to rule out metastatic involvement.

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  • (PMID = 21603504.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-5012
  • [Journal-full-title] The Ochsner journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ochsner J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3096370
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Bladder / bladder tumor / breast / hematuria / incontinence / metastasis
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2. Khan AH, Thompson CC, Carr-Locke DL: Chronic diarrhea due to metastatic breast cancer. MedGenMed; 2005;7(2):17
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  • [Title] Chronic diarrhea due to metastatic breast cancer.
  • We report the case of a patient with chronic diarrhea due to infiltrative cancer to the colon from the breast.
  • A 49-year-old woman with a history of metastatic breast cancer to the bones was admitted to hospital with 4 weeks of watery diarrhea.
  • Random biopsies taken throughout the colon showed infiltrative adenocarcinoma of breast origin in multiple specimens.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / complications. Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Breast Neoplasms / complications. Colonic Neoplasms / complications. Colonic Neoplasms / secondary. Diarrhea / drug therapy. Diarrhea / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antidiarrheals / therapeutic use. Chronic Disease. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome


3. Luczyńska E, Pawlik T, Chwalibóg A, Anioł J, Ryś J: Metastatic Breast Cancer to the Bladder case report and review of literature. J Radiol Case Rep; 2010;4(5):19-26
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  • [Title] Metastatic Breast Cancer to the Bladder case report and review of literature.
  • The main cause of mortality among patients with breast cancer is the metastatic spread of the primary tumour.
  • The urinary bladder is considered as an unusual site for breast cancer metastasis.
  • A patient has presented with right breast tumour and qualified for surgical treatment.
  • After removal of the mass, an intra-operative and final pathology evaluation indicated breast invasive lobular carcinoma.
  • A transurethral resection of bladder was performed, reaffirming a neoplastic mass, with histological assessment revealing invasive breast carcinoma.

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  • (PMID = 22470730.001).
  • [ISSN] 1943-0922
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of radiology case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Radiol Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3303405
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Breast cancer / breast invasive lobular carcinoma / recurrent lesion / transurethral resection / urinary bladder metastasis
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4. Nazareno J, Taves D, Preiksaitis HG: Metastatic breast cancer to the gastrointestinal tract: a case series and review of the literature. World J Gastroenterol; 2006 Oct 14;12(38):6219-24
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  • [Title] Metastatic breast cancer to the gastrointestinal tract: a case series and review of the literature.
  • Metastatic breast cancer involving the hepatobiliary tract or ascites secondary to peritoneal carcinomatosis has been well described.
  • Luminal gastrointestinal tract involvement is less common and recognition of the range of possible presentations is important for early and accurate diagnosis and treatment.
  • We report 6 patients with a variety of presentations of metastatic breast cancer of the luminal gastrointestinal tract.
  • These include oropharyngeal and esophageal involvement presenting as dysphagia with one case of pseudoachalasia, a linitis plastica-like picture with gastric narrowing and thickened folds, small bowel obstruction and multiple strictures mimicking Crohn's disease, and a colonic neoplasm presenting with obstruction.
  • Lobular carcinoma, representing only 10% of breast cancers is more likely to metastasize to the gastrointestinal tract.
  • These patients presented with gastrointestinal manifestations after an average of 9.5 years and as long as 20 years from initial diagnosis of breast cancer.
  • Given the increased survival of breast cancer patients with current therapeutic regimes, more unusual presentations of metastatic disease, including involvement of the gastrointestinal tract can be anticipated.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma / pathology. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Abdominal Pain / etiology. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Deglutition Disorders / etiology. Diarrhea / etiology. Dysarthria / etiology. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Vomiting / etiology

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  • (PMID = 17036400.001).
  • [ISSN] 1007-9327
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Number-of-references] 69
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4088122
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5. Shehadi JA, Sciubba DM, Suk I, Suki D, Maldaun MV, McCutcheon IE, Nader R, Theriault R, Rhines LD, Gokaslan ZL: Surgical treatment strategies and outcome in patients with breast cancer metastatic to the spine: a review of 87 patients. Eur Spine J; 2007 Aug;16(8):1179-92
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  • [Title] Surgical treatment strategies and outcome in patients with breast cancer metastatic to the spine: a review of 87 patients.
  • Aggressive surgical management of spinal metastatic disease can provide improvement of neurological function and significant pain relief.
  • However, there is limited literature analyzing such management as is pertains to individual histopathology of the primary tumor, which may be linked to overall prognosis for the patient.
  • In this study, clinical outcomes were reviewed for patients undergoing spinal surgery for metastatic breast cancer.
  • Respective review was done to identify all patients with breast cancer over an eight-year period at a major cancer center and then to select those with symptomatic spinal metastatic disease who underwent spinal surgery.
  • A total of 16,977 patients were diagnosed with breast cancer, and 479 patients (2.8%) were diagnosed with spinal metastases from breast cancer.
  • In patients with spinal metastases specifically from breast cancer, aggressive surgical management provides significant pain relief and preservation or improvement of neurological function with an acceptably low rate of complications.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Orthopedic Procedures / methods. Spinal Neoplasms / secondary. Spinal Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Pain Measurement. Pain, Postoperative / etiology. Postoperative Complications / etiology. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17406908.001).
  • [ISSN] 0940-6719
  • [Journal-full-title] European spine journal : official publication of the European Spine Society, the European Spinal Deformity Society, and the European Section of the Cervical Spine Research Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Spine J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2200772
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6. Palma MA, Body JJ: Usefulness of bone formation markers in breast cancer. Int J Biol Markers; 2005 Jul - Sep;20(3):147-155
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  • [Title] Usefulness of bone formation markers in breast cancer.
  • : The skeleton is the main site affected by metastases and breast cancer is the most frequent tumor to invade bone.
  • The assessment of bone metastases is difficult and biochemical markers of bone formation (BFMs) could be a promising alternative.
  • Although the essential role of osteoblasts in the metastatic process of bone destruction is now well established, little attention has been paid to BFMs.
  • We conducted a Medline search for studies about BFMs in breast cancer.
  • Our review allows us to conclude that BFMs have high specificity but low sensitivity for the diagnosis of bone metastases.
  • The available biochemical markers cannot replace imaging techniques for the diagnosis of bone metastases.
  • Several studies indicate that BFM serum levels reflect total tumor burden in the skeleton.
  • Besides markers of bone resorption, biochemical markers of bone formation are a promising alternative for the assessment of metastatic bone disease, but large prospective studies are needed to address this important issue. (Int J Biol Markers 2005; 20: 146-55).

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  • (PMID = 28207125.001).
  • [ISSN] 1724-6008
  • [Journal-full-title] The International journal of biological markers
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Biol. Markers
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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7. Goodier MA, Jordan JR: Metastatic breast cancer to the lower eyelid. Laryngoscope; 2010;120 Suppl 4:S129
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  • [Title] Metastatic breast cancer to the lower eyelid.
  • OBJECTIVES: To present a case of metastatic breast cancer to the lower eyelid and to review the literature.regarding the epidemiology and clinical features of cutaneous metastases to the eyelid.
  • METHODS: Case report describing a 68-year-old female with metastatic breast cancer to the lower eyelid.
  • RESULTS: Biopsy of the lower eyelid lesion revealed histopathologic features consistent with metastatic mucinous adenocarcinoma.
  • CONCLUSION: Cutaneous metastases to the eyelid are rare however should be in the differential diagnosis of patients with solitary nodules, ulceration, and skin changes involving the eyelid.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / secondary. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Eyelid Neoplasms / secondary. Eyelid Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biopsy. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Surgical Flaps


8. Ademuyiwa FO, Miller KD: Incorporation of antiangiogenic therapies in the treatment of metastatic breast cancer. Clin Breast Cancer; 2008 Dec;8 Suppl 4:S151-6
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  • [Title] Incorporation of antiangiogenic therapies in the treatment of metastatic breast cancer.
  • Angiogenesis plays a central role in the development of metastasis in breast cancer.
  • Recent results of large randomized trials show clinically significant improvements in outcomes with the use of bevacizumab in patients with metastatic breast cancer, leading to approval by European and US regulatory agencies.
  • This review discusses the results of recent clinical trials and novel mechanisms of inhibiting angiogenesis, resistance mechanisms, and toxicities; and raises key challenges that face optimal use and development of antiangiogenic agents in breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiogenesis Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / blood supply. Neovascularization, Pathologic / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 19158035.001).
  • [ISSN] 1526-8209
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical breast cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Breast Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors
  • [Number-of-references] 62
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9. Sobel JM, Lai R, Mallery S, Levy MJ, Wiersema MJ, Greenwald BD, Gunaratnam NT: The utility of EUS-guided FNA in the diagnosis of metastatic breast cancer to the esophagus and the mediastinum. Gastrointest Endosc; 2005 Mar;61(3):416-20
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  • [Title] The utility of EUS-guided FNA in the diagnosis of metastatic breast cancer to the esophagus and the mediastinum.
  • BACKGROUND: Breast cancer can metastasize to the esophagus and the mediastinum.
  • EUS-guided FNA (EUS-FNA) is being used increasingly as a less invasive alternative to mediastinoscopy for procuring a tissue diagnosis of mediastinal disease and may be useful for the diagnosis of breast cancer metastatic to the esophagus and the mediastinum.
  • METHODS: Twelve women (age range 54-82 years) with a history of breast cancer presented with dysphagia or other symptoms between 1 and 15 years after initial diagnosis and treatment.
  • CT and endoscopy with biopsies suggested a mediastinal mass or lymphadenopathy with extrinsic esophageal compression but failed to provide a tissue diagnosis.
  • EUS-FNA was performed for diagnosis.
  • RESULTS: Cytologic evaluation of specimens obtained by EUS-FNA confirmed breast cancer metastases in 11 of 12 patients (91%).
  • CONCLUSIONS: EUS-FNA is safe and effective for the diagnosis of breast cancer metastases to the esophagus and the mediastinum.
  • EUS-FNA may be useful as a first-line method of evaluation when breast cancer metastasis to the esophagus and the mediastinum is suspected.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle / methods. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Endosonography. Esophageal Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Esophageal Neoplasms / secondary. Mediastinal Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Mediastinal Neoplasms / secretion
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Middle Aged


10. Sunada F, Yamamoto H, Kita H, Hanatsuka K, Ajibe H, Masuda M, Hirasawa T, Osawa H, Sato K, Hozumi Y, Sugano K: A case of esophageal stricture due to metastatic breast cancer diagnosed by endoscopic mucosal resection. Jpn J Clin Oncol; 2005 Aug;35(8):483-6
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  • [Title] A case of esophageal stricture due to metastatic breast cancer diagnosed by endoscopic mucosal resection.
  • Metastasis of breast cancer to the esophagus has been reported but is rare.
  • It is often difficult to diagnose metastases of breast cancer to the esophagus because they are often located in the submucosa and covered with normal mucosa.
  • Although several methods have been reported in order to obtain specimens for pathological diagnosis, the adverse effects including bleeding and perforation were considerable problems.
  • We report a case of a patient with esophageal stricture due to metastatic breast cancer to the esophagus.
  • Pathological diagnosis was successfully obtained using endoscopic mucosal resection of the esophagus.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Esophageal Neoplasms / secondary. Esophageal Stenosis / diagnosis. Esophagectomy. Esophagoscopy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Female. Humans. Mucous Membrane / surgery


11. Qayyum A, Lee GK, Yeh BM, Allen JN, Venook AP, Coakley FV: Frequency of hepatic contour abnormalities and signs of portal hypertension at CT in patients receiving chemotherapy for breast cancer metastatic to the liver. Clin Imaging; 2007 Jan-Feb;31(1):6-10
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  • [Title] Frequency of hepatic contour abnormalities and signs of portal hypertension at CT in patients receiving chemotherapy for breast cancer metastatic to the liver.
  • PURPOSE: This study aimed to determine the frequency of hepatic contour abnormalities and signs of portal hypertension at serial CT in patients receiving chemotherapy for breast cancer metastatic to the liver.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively identified 91 women with breast cancer metastatic to the liver who received chemotherapy and underwent serial CT at our institution between 1998 and 2002.
  • CONCLUSION: Hepatic contour abnormalities commonly develop at serial CT in patients undergoing chemotherapy for breast cancer metastatic to the liver and may be accompanied by signs of portal hypertension; the latter are particularly, but not exclusively, associated with the development of diffuse hepatic nodularity.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Breast Neoplasms / radiography. Hypertension, Portal / radiography. Liver Neoplasms / radiography. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / statistics & numerical data
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. California / epidemiology. Comorbidity. Female. Humans. Incidence. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment / methods. Risk Factors


12. Amir E, Ooi WS, Simmons C, Kahn H, Christakis M, Popovic S, Kalina M, Chesney A, Singh G, Clemons M: Discordance between receptor status in primary and metastatic breast cancer: an exploratory study of bone and bone marrow biopsies. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol); 2008 Dec;20(10):763-8
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  • [Title] Discordance between receptor status in primary and metastatic breast cancer: an exploratory study of bone and bone marrow biopsies.
  • AIMS: The treatment of bone metastases in breast cancer is traditionally based upon the receptor status of the primary tumour.
  • However, retrospective studies have shown significant discordance in receptor expression between primary and metastatic tumours.
  • Therefore, the aim of this study was to prospectively assess the incidence of discordant receptor status in primary and metastatic disease and evaluate the role of bone marrow biopsies for the reassessment of receptor status.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Nine patients with known bone metastases were assessed with both a radiologically guided bone biopsy and a bone marrow aspirate and trephine.
  • The oestrogen receptor and progesterone receptor status of these samples was assessed and compared with the primary breast cancer.
  • RESULTS: Tumour cells were found in six of the nine bone metastasis specimens and five of the nine bone marrow samples.
  • It seems that bone marrow biopsy may be a simple, safe and well-tolerated way to obtain tissue to reassess the receptor status of metastatic breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Marrow / pathology. Bone Neoplasms / metabolism. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Receptor, ErbB-2 / biosynthesis. Receptors, Estrogen / metabolism. Receptors, Progesterone / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biopsy, Needle. Bone and Bones / metabolism. Bone and Bones / pathology. Diphosphonates / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging


13. Pugliese MS, Stempel MM, Patil SM, Hsu M, Cody HS 3rd, Morrow M, Gemignani ML: The clinical impact and outcomes of immunohistochemistry-only metastases in breast cancer. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):613
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  • [Title] The clinical impact and outcomes of immunohistochemistry-only metastases in breast cancer.
  • : 613 Background: Modern surgical and pathologic techniques can detect small volume axillary metastases in breast cancer.
  • The clinical significance of these metastases was evaluated in comparison to patients with negative sentinel lymph nodes (Neg-SN).
  • METHODS: Retrospective database review from 1997 through 2003 for eligible patients with unilateral breast cancer and no history of significant non-breast malignancy identified 232 patients with sentinel lymph node (SLN) metastases identified only by immunohistochemical stains (IHC-SN).
  • There were no differences between cases and controls for recurrence-free survival (RFS) or overall survival (OS) both by univariate and multivariate models that included variables such as age, tumor size, chemotherapy and hormone therapy [HR 0.99 (95%CI 0.43-2.28, p=0.99) for RFS, HR 2.06 (95%CI 0.79-5.35) p=0.14 for OS].
  • However, failure to identify additional metastases by omitting ALND may result in understaging and inadequate systemic treatment in some patients.

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  • (PMID = 27961483.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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14. El Ayass W, Sereika S, Van Londen G, Brufsky A: Predictors of progression of bone metastases in breast cancer patients. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):e12011
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Predictors of progression of bone metastases in breast cancer patients.
  • : e12011 Background: Breast cancer is mostly diagnosed in elderly women aged >= 65 years and they constitute about 41% of all newly diagnosed cases.
  • Bone metastases is a very common event in these patients especially those with estrogen receptor positive subtypes.Our aim is to identify factors that may be associated with progression of bone metastases in breast bancer (BC) patients with bone metastases only.
  • METHODS: Retrospective review of medical records of 50 females with breast cancer with only bone metastases evaluated at Magee Womens Hospital in Pittsburgh, Pennsyvlania, between June 1998 and September 2007.
  • Candidate predictors considered included: age at breast cancer diagnosis (as a continuous variable and dichotomized at 60 years), age at metastatic BC diagnosis (as a continuous variable and dichotomized at 60 years), time elapsed between breast cancer diagnosis, and metastatic BC diagnosis, ER status, PR status, ER/PR status, HER-2 status, use of radiation, type of bisphosphonate used (since all but two patients had this: aredia use, zometa use), type of disease (IDC, ILC), and stage of disease (I, II, III, IV).
  • Marginal modeling using generalized estimating equations assuming a binomial error distribution was used considering potential candidate predictor variables univariately and then multivariately to identify predictors of progression of bone metastases at a significance level of 0.05.
  • RESULTS: Based on the univariate analysis, age at BC diagnosis (p = 0.03), age at metastatic BC diagnosis (p = 0.03), and being ER+ or PR+ (p = 0.04) were positively predictive of progression, with the latter two being also jointly significant in multivariate analysis.
  • CONCLUSION: We found that age as a continuous variable and ER/PR + were positive predictors of progression of bone metastases in BC patients.

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  • (PMID = 27964241.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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15. Chang H, Han S, Oh D, Im S, Kim T, Bang Y: Combination chemotherapy of irinotecan with fluoropyrimidine in taxane, anthracycline, and fluoropyrimidine-pretreated metastatic breast cancer. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):e12003
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  • [Title] Combination chemotherapy of irinotecan with fluoropyrimidine in taxane, anthracycline, and fluoropyrimidine-pretreated metastatic breast cancer.
  • : e12003 Background: Irinotecan (I) has some efficacy in taxane (T) and anthracycline (A)-refractory breast cancer, and combination of I and fluoropyrimidine (F) shows synergistic effects in preclinical model.
  • We conducted this study to reveal the clinical outcomes of I and F combination therapy in T, A, and F-pretreated metastatic breast cancer.
  • METHODS: We consecutively enrolled metastatic breast cancer patients treated with I and F combination chemotherapy from 2000 to 2008 in Seoul National University Hospital.
  • The median time from diagnosis of metastatic breast cancer to the initiation of IF therapy was 34 months (range: 12-97 months).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Treatment of I combined with F might be an option in metastatic breast cancer patients heavily treated with T, A, and F, irrespective of TNBC.

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  • (PMID = 27964261.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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16. Naskhletashvili DR, Gorbounova VA, Bychkov MB, Chmutin GE, Karakhan VB, Krat VB: Capecitabine monotherapy for patients with brain metastases from advanced breast cancer. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):1102
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  • [Title] Capecitabine monotherapy for patients with brain metastases from advanced breast cancer.
  • : 1102 Background: To assess the efficacy of capecitabine monotherapy for patients with chemotherapy-pretreated advanced breast cancer with brain metastases.
  • METHODS: Patients with brain metastases from breast cancer whose disease had progressed on prior chemotherapy for advanced disease received oral capecitabine 1,000 mg/m<sup>2</sup> bid on days 1-14 every 3 weeks until disease progression.
  • Two patients had metastases limited to the brain and the remaining eight also had extracranial metastases.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our small study suggests that capecitabine has pronounced anticancer activity in patients with brain metastases from breast cancer with reasonable tolerability and easy administration as outpatient treatment.

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  • (PMID = 27962170.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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17. Atassi Z, Varga D, Plotzki K, Kurzeder C, Kreienberg R: Peritoneal metastases in breast cancer patients: Differences in survival depending on histological subtype. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):e12024
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  • [Title] Peritoneal metastases in breast cancer patients: Differences in survival depending on histological subtype.
  • : e12024 Background: Distant spread from breast cancer is commonly found in bones, lungs, liver, and central nervous system.
  • Metastatic involvement of peritoneum and retroperitoneum is unusual and unexpected.
  • The aim of the study was to perform a comprehensive analysis of breast cancer patients with peritoneal metastases and to compare survivals depending on biological subtypes.
  • METHODS: 44 breast cancer pts with peritoneal metastases were detected out of a database of 2,500 breast cancer patients treated in one institution between 1995 and 2005.
  • Clinical characteristics such as estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor as well as survivals were analized based on breast cancer subtypes.
  • Median survival calculated from peritoneal metastases in histologic subgroups was as follows: Median progression free survival was 36.5 months for ductal invasive carcinoma, and 23.5 months for lobular invasive breast cancer.
  • Median overall survival was 46 (Std 38.5) months for ductal invasive breast cancer and 32 (Std 54.5) months for lobular invasive breast cancer.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Patients with peritoneal metastases are a heterogenous group with a different outcome.
  • The histologic subtype seems to be an important predictive factor as lobular invasive breast cancer is associated with worsened progression free an overall survival rates.

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  • (PMID = 27964300.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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18. Sartori D, Bari M, Pappagallo GL, Rosetti F, Olsen S, Vinante O: Brain metastases in breast cancer: Different survival by biological subtype and Ki67 expression. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):1069
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Brain metastases in breast cancer: Different survival by biological subtype and Ki67 expression.
  • : 1069 Background: Ten to 15% of patients (pts) with breast cancer will be diagnosed with central nervous system (CNS) metastases, and autopsy series suggest that up to 30% of pts have evidence of CNS disease at the time of death.
  • The idenfication of factors that may predispose to CNS metastasis may help lead to earlier detection and possibly to improvement in disease management.
  • METHODS: Breast cancer pts with CNS metastases were identified within a database of 1300 breast cancer diganoses from 1995 to 2007 at the Department of Oncology, Azienda ULSS 13 VE.
  • Pathologic features of tumor samples were examined using standard immunohistochemical assays.
  • RESULTS: Fifty-one pts with CNS metastases were identified.
  • Median age at primary breast cancer diagnosis was 49 years (range, 28-78); median time to CNS metastases was 45 months (range, 3-244).
  • Overexpression of p53 (at least 20% tumor cells positive), Ki67 (at least 20%), and BCL2 (at least 30%) were detected in tumors from 16 pts (31.4%), 32 pts (62.7%), and 14 pts (27.5%), respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In our series of breast cancer pts with CNS metastases, nearly all had either HER2 overexpression or triple-negative disease.

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  • (PMID = 27961156.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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19. Araujo L, Metzger Filho O, Gomes CA, Moitinho MV, Silva AM, Carcano FM, Noronha Júnior H: Clinical outcomes and predictive factors in patients with liver metastasis from breast cancer treated with gemcitabine and cisplatin (GC) salvage regimen. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):e17568
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Clinical outcomes and predictive factors in patients with liver metastasis from breast cancer treated with gemcitabine and cisplatin (GC) salvage regimen.
  • : e17568 Background: Liver metastasis (mets) from breast cancer is typically associated with poor prognosis.
  • METHODS: Retrospective study designed to evaluate the clinical outcomes and predictive factors in pts with metastatic breast cancer treated with GC, with special interest for liver mets.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These data is in accordance with the literature concerning the dismal prognosis in liver mets from breast cancer and the clinical activity of GC.

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  • (PMID = 27963819.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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20. Ibrahim T, Sacanna E, Mercatali L, Flamini E, Tison C, Ricci R, Ricci M, Serra P, Scarpi E, Amadori D: Potential usefulness of OPG, a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, for the early diagnosis of bone metastasis in breast cancer patients. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):e22000
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Potential usefulness of OPG, a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, for the early diagnosis of bone metastasis in breast cancer patients.
  • : e22000 Background: Breast cancer is the most frequent tumor in women.
  • About 80% of patients with metastatic disease present bone involvement, in which the OPG/RANKL/RANK system would seem to play an important role.
  • Our aim was to evaluate the potential usefulness of OPG bone marker for the early diagnosis of bone metastases.
  • METHODS: The study was carried out on 120 individuals: 30 healthy donors, with a median age of 40 years (21-76) and 90 breast cancer patients, with a median age of 57 years (30-86).
  • Among patients, 49 were disease-free (median age 52 years) and 41 were at first diagnosis of bone metastases (median age 63 years).
  • The OPG median value was not statistically different in healthy donors (median=1.9; range 0.6-4.7) and disease-free patients (median=1.7; range 0.4-8.9), whereas it was threefold higher than that observed in relapsed patients (median=0.6; range 0.1-5.2; p<0.001), regardless of the number of metastatic sites.
  • In a parallel analysis of 37 patients (14 disease-free and 23 with bone metastases) for whom CEA and CA15.3 information was available, specificity for each marker was 100%, whereas sensitivity was only 61% and 59%, respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our preliminary data show a potential role of the OPG bone turnover marker for the early diagnosis of bone metastases.

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  • (PMID = 27963166.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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21. Peacock N, Saleh M, Bendell J, Rose AA, Dong Z, Siegel PM, Crowley E, Simantov R, Vahdat L: A phase I/II study of CR011-vcMMAE, an antibody-drug conjugate, in patients (pts) with locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer (MBC). J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):1067
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A phase I/II study of CR011-vcMMAE, an antibody-drug conjugate, in patients (pts) with locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer (MBC).
  • : 1067 Background: Glycoprotein NMB (GPNMB), also known as osteoactivin, has been shown to regulate metastasis of breast cancer in vivo.
  • This is the first study of CR011-vcMMAE in breast cancer.
  • Immunohistochemistry (IHC) with goat polyclonal antibody to GPNMB was performed on pt biopsy specimens and on tissue microarrays containing normal breast, DCIS, breast tumor and lymph node metastases.
  • A response of 37% tumor shrinkage was seen in a pt after only 2 cycles and is ongoing.
  • A second pt had a 51% reduction after 2 cycles, but had PD after 12 weeks.
  • Breast tumor samples were more likely to stain positive for GPNMB than normal breast tissues.
  • IHC of pt tumor specimens is being evaluated.

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  • (PMID = 27961164.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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22. Srirajaskanthan R, Desai K, Jayaratnam A, Carras E, Toumpanakis C, Meyer T, Caplin M: Uncommon sites for metastasis of neuroendocrine tumor in adults. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):e15683
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Uncommon sites for metastasis of neuroendocrine tumor in adults.
  • They often present with significant metastatic disease affecting liver, lymph nodes, lungs and bone.
  • However tumour masses may be found at unusual/uncommon sites e.g. breast, orbital soft tissue and the heart raising the possibility of this being metastatic focus or presence of another primary tumour.
  • AIM: to determine the most appropriate imaging modality and type of tumour metastases.
  • We identified 18 patients with metastasis at uncommon sites i.e. breast, orbital and cardiac.
  • To characterise these lesions additional investigations included cross sectional imaging, PET imaging (<sup>68</sup>Gallium DOTA Octreotate PET and <sup>18</sup>F- FDG PET) and histological evaluation of the metastasis where appropriate.
  • Patients with breast metastasis underwent bilateral mammogram, patients with peri-ocular involvement underwent MRI of the brain and the orbit.
  • Of these 15 masses were in the breast; 4 were in the orbital muscles and 2 patients had pericardial metastasis.
  • Of the 15 patients with breast lesions 12 had confirmed neuroendocrine tumour metastases and 3 had breast cancer.
  • It should be noted that breast cancer lesions were positive on the <sup>68</sup>Gallium Octreotate PET imaging.
  • One patient who had a defined metastasis in the pericardium showed avid uptake on the <sup>68</sup>Gallium DOTA Octreotate PET and scan and cardiac MRI, the other patient had pericardial metastases confirmed at post mortem.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Clear knowledge of these uncommon sites of metastasis is useful in terms of arranging further investigations and excluding other cancers.
  • It is also important to realise that although somatostatin receptor scintigraphy especially <sup>68</sup>Gallium DOTA Octreotate PET is very useful in detecting NET metastasis, it may also show avid uptake in patients with breast cancer and hence histological evaluation of these lesions are important.
  • Undoubtedly within our cohort of patients and generally there is an under-diagnosis of lesions in uncommon sites.

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  • (PMID = 27962813.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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23. Hatoum HT, Lin S, Smith MR, Lipton A: Effect of adherence to monthly zoledronic acid treatment on risk and frequency of skeletal complications and follow-up duration in breast cancer patients. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):9593
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Effect of adherence to monthly zoledronic acid treatment on risk and frequency of skeletal complications and follow-up duration in breast cancer patients.
  • : 9593 Background: Bone is the most common site of metastasis in breast cancer patients (pts).
  • METHODS: Female breast cancer pts with first bone metastasis (BM) diagnosed between Jan 03 to Oct 06 were identified from PharMetrics database.
  • TX selection bias was handled by calculating propensity scores using year of first BM diagnosis, having other metastases or >1 BM claim, use of opioids and oral bisphoshonate before BM.
  • CONCLUSIONS: TX with zoledronic acid in breast cancer pts with BM positively impacts the risk, frequency of SC and follow-up duration.

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  • (PMID = 27963730.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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24. Meyniel J, Cottu PH, Stern M, Lebigot I, Mignot L, Roman-Roman S, Sastre-Garau X: A genomic and transcriptomic approach to distinguish primary and metastatic ovary tumors. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):e22150
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A genomic and transcriptomic approach to distinguish primary and metastatic ovary tumors.
  • : e22150 Background: Distinction of primary ovarian tumors from metastatic tumors involving the ovary is in some cases challenging for final pathologic diagnosis and for treatment with efficient chemotherapy Methods: We gathered from our biobank 16 pairs of breast/ovarian tumors for some of which the diagnosis was uncertain.
  • We investigated the possibility to improve diagnosis using genomic and transcriptomic tools.
  • The pangenomic profiles of 16 pairs of primary breast carcinoma and ovary tumors (primary tumors or metastases from breast carcinoma) from the same patients were analyzed using the Affymetrix GeneChip Mapping 50K (XbaI) SNP arrays.
  • The data were normalized with GCRMA algorithm and a hierarchical clustering of these samples was performed, together with a dataset of primary and secondary ovary tumors.
  • RESULTS: Primary infiltrating lobular carcinoma (ILC) was observed in 6 patients, infiltrating ductal carcinoma (IDC) in 7 patients, 1 patient had one ILC and one IDC, 1 patient had a mixed IDC+ILC and 1 patient an undifferentiated cancer.
  • Median time to diagnosis of ovarian tumor was 54 months.
  • Ovarian tumors were considered as primary in 7 patients, and metastatic in 9 patients, and diagnosis was ambiguous in 4 of them.
  • Four patients developed extra-abdominal metastases.
  • Median survival from breast cancer diagnosis was 78 months, and from ovarian tumor diagnosis was 29 months.
  • In 4 cases, the genomic profiles established clearly the status of the ovary tumor whereas the pathological analysis did not.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We clearly established in this training series that CGH array analysis could help to discriminate between primary and secondary ovarian tumors from breast cancer.

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  • (PMID = 27963541.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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25. Kaiser T, Klein G, Solomayer E, Wallwiener D, Fehm T: Interactions of breast cancer cells with the microenvironment of the human bone marrow. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):e22097
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  • [Title] Interactions of breast cancer cells with the microenvironment of the human bone marrow.
  • : e22097 Background: Bone is one of the most favored sites for metastasis of breast cancer cells (BrCa) resulting in the formation of osteolytic and/or osteoblastic lesions.
  • There is increasing evidence that the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment plays a pivotal role in modulating tumor cell homing to the bone, metastasis and progression.
  • However, the molecular crosstalk between BrCa cells and the cellular and extracellular components of the bone marrow leading to osteotropism still remains a poorly characterized step in the metastatic process.
  • METHODS: Cell adhesion and migration assays using the invasive MDA-MB-231 and the noninvasive MCF7 BrCa cell lines were performed to investigate the impact of BM components on cellular functions of tumor cells.
  • Notably, cell-cell adhesion experiments with primary osteoclasts revealed an anti-adhesive effect on tumor cell binding leading to no attachment activity of BrCa cells with the cell surface of primary osteoclasts.
  • The influence of cellular components of the BM on tumor cell migration was analyzed by cell migration assays using conditioned media of osteoblasts, osteoclasts and stromal cells or a modified Transwell chamber technique.
  • The migration assays with invasive MDA-MB-231 cells clearly showed that osteoblasts, but not osteoclasts or stromal cells released factors which led to a faster wound closure, suggesting an enhanced migratory ability of the metastatic tumor cells, whereas the migration of nonmetastatic MCF7 cells was unaffected.
  • Furthermore, the presented experimental conditions may provide useful tools to study effects of antiresorptive drugs like bisphosphonates to improve therapeutic strategies for treatment metastatic bone disease.

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  • (PMID = 27963283.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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26. Han W, Kim H, Lee J, Lee K, Moon H, Ko E, Kim E, Yu J, Noh D: Value of preoperative staging of breast cancer patients using computed tomography to detect asymptomatic lung and liver metastasis. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):1105
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  • [Title] Value of preoperative staging of breast cancer patients using computed tomography to detect asymptomatic lung and liver metastasis.
  • : 1105 Background: Preoperative clinical staging in breast cancer patients is important to determine the most appropriate treatment plans and to predict prognosis for individual patients.
  • Identifying unexpected distant metastases in newly diagnosed breast cancer patients frequently alters initial treatment plans.
  • Routine imaging studies to detect lung or liver metastasis is not indicated in patients with early and operable breast cancer.
  • A recent study showed that routine use of chest radiograph and liver ultrasound does not provide much diagnostic benefit in early breast cancer patients.
  • METHODS: We aimed to investigate the value of preoperative computed tomography to detect asymptomatic liver and lung metastasis in breast cancer patients.
  • We performed preoperative CT for 667 breast cancer patients to detect lung and liver metastasis among 1,636 primary breast cancer patients who had been diagnosed and treated between January 2006 and December 2007 at Seoul National University Hospital.
  • RESULTS: CT showed abnormal findings (suspicious of metastasis or indeterminate nodules) in 78 patients (10.5%).
  • Among these, abnormal finding in 13 patients (1.7%) turned out to be true metastatic lesions.
  • There was no CT-detected lung or liver metastasis in patients with T1 tumor and 4 metastases in patients with T2 tumor.
  • There was no CT-detected lung or liver metastasis in patients with negative axillary lymph node metastasis.
  • When patients were classified according to the AJCC staging, CT-detected true metastatic lesions were only present in stage III patients (13 out of 173 patients, 7.5%).
  • The true metastatic lesions in lung or liver were all small sized nodules, ranging from 0.3cm to 1.2cm in largest diameters.
  • In seven patients, the CT-detected metastatic lesions were less than 1cm which is in contrast with the previous studies.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrated the lack of usefulness in performing routine CT exams to detect asymptomatic liver and lung metastasis in early breast cancer patients.

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  • (PMID = 27962171.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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27. Musolino A, Ciccolallo L, Panebianco M, Fontana E, Zanoni D, De Lisi V, Sgargi P, Ceci G, Ardizzoni A: Multifactorial CNS relapse susceptibility in HER2-positive breast cancer patients: First results from a population-based registry study. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):1117
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  • [Title] Multifactorial CNS relapse susceptibility in HER2-positive breast cancer patients: First results from a population-based registry study.
  • : 1117 Background: A series of retrospective studies have reported a higher incidence of central nervous system (CNS) metastases in HER-2-positive (HER-2+) metastatic breast cancer.
  • METHODS: The aim of this study was to evaluate incidence, survival, and risk factors of CNS metastases in the incident breast cancer population systematically collected by the Tumor Registry of Parma Province over the 4-year period, 2004-2007.
  • Study endpoints were: any distant metastasis as first event; CNS metastasis as first event; CNS metastasis at any time.
  • Associations between CNS metastases and HER-2 status in the entire population and between trastuzumab and CNS metastases in HER-2+ patients (pts) were estimated.
  • RESULTS: We evaluated the total resident population (n = 1500) of breast cancer pts diagnosed during the period 2004-2007 in Parma Province.
  • At a median follow-up of 36 months from the diagnosis, the incidence of CNS relapse was 3% (1.3% as first recurrence).
  • The median time to death from the diagnosis of CNS metastases was 25 months.
  • Among the HER-2+ pts, there was a significant association between trastuzumab and subsequent CNS metastases (p = 0.02).
  • However, in multivariate analysis, HER-2 status regardless of trastuzumab therapy was found to be the only independent predictive factor for CNS metastases (either as first or as subsequent recurrences; p < 0.01).
  • CONCLUSIONS: This is the first population-based registry study analyzing CNS metastases in breast cancer in relation to tumor biological features, systemic treatment, and clinical outcome.
  • Based on our results, HER-2 status independently distinguishes pts with a higher risk of CNS metastases.

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  • (PMID = 27962197.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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28. Di Filippo F, Mottolese M, Botti C, Marandino F, Psaila A, Perri P, Di Filippo S, Pasqualoni R, Ferranti F, Buglioni S: A prospective clinical study for molecular intra-operative detection of lymph node metastasis in breast cancer patients by one step nucleic acid amplification (OSNA) in comparison to intensive histological investigation. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):609
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  • [Title] A prospective clinical study for molecular intra-operative detection of lymph node metastasis in breast cancer patients by one step nucleic acid amplification (OSNA) in comparison to intensive histological investigation.
  • : 609 Background: The aims of the study were 1) to assess the accuracy of a new intra-operative molecular diagnostic tool named OSNA, based on the measurement of cytokeratin 19 (CK19) mRNA, in the detection of axillary sentinel lymph node (SLN) metastases in patients with breast carcinoma 2) to determine the concordance of OSNA analysis with multilevel haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and immunohistochemical (IHC) examination.
  • METHODS: A prospective series of 247 consecutive SLNs from 187 breast cancer patients was evaluated.
  • The method could be applied as a rapid and reliable intra-operative diagnostic tool thus preventing breast cancer patients from a diagnostic delay or second surgery due to a postoperatively diagnosed positive SLN.

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  • (PMID = 27961472.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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29. Kan N: [Analysis of long-term (5-year) survival in patients with metastatic breast cancer to the liver]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2006 Nov;33(12):1780-4
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  • [Title] [Analysis of long-term (5-year) survival in patients with metastatic breast cancer to the liver].
  • Patients with metastatic breast cancer to the liver are generally considered to have a poor prognosis.
  • The purpose of this study was to identify factors contributing to long term survival in 11 patients who were 35 76 years old at the time of diagnosis with liver metastasis, and survived for 5 years.
  • The liver was the primary and secondary sites of metastasis in 8 and 3 of the 11 patients, respectively.
  • In all of the 128 patients given OK-AIT at 5 years after diagnosis, the 5-year survival rates with primary and secondary liver metastases were 11.8. and 5%, respectively.
  • To determine the relationships among the prognosis of the liver metastasis, AIT indications, HR, and HER2, we analyzed our 139 liver metastasis patients encountered in 2001 and onwards.
  • Fifty-one patients with primary liver metastasis had a median survival time (MST) of 31 months, and a 5-year survival rate of 25%, indicating an improved prognosis.
  • Eighty-eight patients with secondary liver metastasis had a MST of only 11 months and a 5-year survival of only 6%; however, the MST in these patients showed the same tendency as in the primary liver metastasis patients: ER (+) HER2 (-) >HER2 (+) >HR (-) HER2 (-) (17, 13, and 4 months, respectively).
  • The response rates of OK-AIT in the primary and secondary liver metastasis patients were 52 and 34%, respectively, showing no significant difference.
  • Of the patients in the past, 18 with primary liver metastasis underwent hepatectomy in combination with OK-AIT.
  • Of these 18 patients, 5 had concurrent metastases to other sites, but achieved a 5-year survival rate of 56%, suggesting that it is incorrect to conclude that patients with liver metastasis have generally a poor prognosis. Key
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / mortality. Liver Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Hepatectomy. Humans. Immunotherapy, Adoptive. Middle Aged. Picibanil / therapeutic use. Prognosis. Receptor, ErbB-2 / analysis. Receptors, Steroid / analysis. Survival Rate


30. Ito Y, Tokudome N: [Chemotherapy for metastatic breast cancer]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2006 Jun;33(6):742-6
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  • [Title] [Chemotherapy for metastatic breast cancer].
  • The treatment of metastatic breast cancer aims to relieve symptoms by controlling disease and prolonging survival with better QOL.
  • For HER 2-overexpressing breast cancer, a standard treatment utilizes trastuzumab-containing chemotherapy.
  • Bisphosphonates combined with chemotherapy or hormone therapy are able to alleviate pain or complications of osteolytic bone metastasis.
  • In selecting the most appropriate treatment for metastatic breast cancer, it is recommended to consider patients' preference by providing the correct information on the status of disease, efficacy and toxicities of chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Anthracyclines / administration & dosage. Antibodies, Monoclonal / administration & dosage. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bone Neoplasms / drug therapy. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Capecitabine. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Deoxycytidine / administration & dosage. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Diphosphonates / therapeutic use. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Female. Fluorouracil / analogs & derivatives. Humans. Meta-Analysis as Topic. Quality of Life. Receptor, ErbB-2 / analysis. Taxoids / administration & dosage. Trastuzumab. Vinblastine / administration & dosage. Vinblastine / analogs & derivatives

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  • (PMID = 16770091.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anthracyclines; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Diphosphonates; 0 / Taxoids; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; 5V9KLZ54CY / Vinblastine; 6804DJ8Z9U / Capecitabine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2; P188ANX8CK / Trastuzumab; Q6C979R91Y / vinorelbine; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
  • [Number-of-references] 27
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31. Heinemann V: Gemcitabine in metastatic breast cancer. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther; 2005 Jun;5(3):429-43
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  • [Title] Gemcitabine in metastatic breast cancer.
  • Gemcitabine is a pyrimidine antimetabolite which has shown activity in metastatic breast cancer both as a single agent, but also in various combination regimens.
  • In metastatic breast cancer, several Phase II trials document the activity of gemcitabine in pretreated and unpretreated patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives
  • [MeSH-minor] DNA Damage. DNA Repair. Female. Humans. Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16001951.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-8328
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert review of anticancer therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Rev Anticancer Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine
  • [Number-of-references] 102
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32. Beslija S, Bonneterre J, Burstein H, Cocquyt V, Gnant M, Goodwin P, Heinemann V, Jassem J, Köstler WJ, Krainer M, Menard S, Petit T, Petruzelka L, Possinger K, Schmid P, Stadtmauer E, Stockler M, Van Belle S, Vogel C, Wilcken N, Wiltschke C, Zielinski CC, Zwierzina H: Second consensus on medical treatment of metastatic breast cancer. Ann Oncol; 2007 Feb;18(2):215-25
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  • [Title] Second consensus on medical treatment of metastatic breast cancer.
  • The present consensus manuscript defines evidence-based recommendations for state-of-the-art treatment of metastatic breast cancer depending on disease-associated and biologic variables.

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  • (PMID = 16831851.001).
  • [ISSN] 0923-7534
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Consensus Development Conference; Journal Article; Practice Guideline; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 97
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33. Tomao F, Miele E, Spinelli GP, Russillo M, La Ferla G, Tomao S: Trastuzumab in metastatic breast cancer. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2006;27(3):247-9
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  • [Title] Trastuzumab in metastatic breast cancer.
  • Metastatic breast cancer is an incurable disease in a very high percentage of patients.
  • HER2 is overexpressed in approximately 20% to 30% of breast cancers.
  • Overexpression of HER2 has been shown to be associated with increased tumor proliferation and relative resistance to some types of chemotherapy and hormonal therapies.
  • Trastuzumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody directed against HER2 protein, has been shown to be an efficacious and well tolerated treatment for HER2-overexpressing metastatic breast cancer, both as a single agent and when it is used in combination with chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Metastasis. Receptor, ErbB-2 / metabolism. Trastuzumab


34. Frenel JS, Bourbouloux E, Berton-Rigaud D, Sadot-Lebouvier S, Zanetti A, Campone M: Lapatinib in metastatic breast cancer. Womens Health (Lond); 2009 Nov;5(6):603-12
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  • [Title] Lapatinib in metastatic breast cancer.
  • Lapatinib was approved in June 2008 in Europe for the treatment of advanced HER2-positive breast cancer.
  • Promising results in trastuzumab-refractory metastatic breast cancer were obtained from Phase I, II and III studies in combination with chemotherapy.
  • Unlike trastuzumab, some data show that lapatinib could cross the blood-brain barrier, with some evidence of activity in treating or preventing brain metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Quinazolines / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols. Biomarkers. Capecitabine. Clinical Trials as Topic. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Deoxycytidine / therapeutic use. Female. Fluorouracil / analogs & derivatives. Fluorouracil / therapeutic use. Genes, erbB-2. Humans. Neoplasm Metastasis. Trastuzumab


35. Stebbing J, Ngan S: Breast cancer (metastatic). BMJ Clin Evid; 2010;2010
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  • [Title] Breast cancer (metastatic).
  • INTRODUCTION: Median survival from metastatic breast cancer is 12 months without treatment, but young people can survive up to 20 years with the disease, whereas in other metastatic cancers this would be considered unusual.
  • What are the effects of second-line hormonal treatment in women who have not responded to tamoxifen?
  • What are the effects of second-line chemotherapy?
  • What are the effects of treatments for bone metastases?
  • What are the effects of treatments for spinal cord metastases?
  • What are the effects of treatments for cerebral or choroidal metastases?
  • RESULTS: We found 77 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: first-line hormonal treatment using anti-oestrogens (tamoxifen), ovarian ablation, progestins, selective aromatase inhibitors, or combined gonadorelin analogues plus tamoxifen; second-line hormonal treatment using progestins or selective aromatase inhibitors; first-line non-taxane combination chemotherapy; first-line taxane-based combination chemotherapy; first-line high- versus low-dose standard chemotherapy; first-line chemotherapy plus monoclonal antibody (bevacizumab, trastuzumab); first-line chemotherapy plus tyrosine kinase inhibitor (lapatinib); second-line taxane-based combination chemotherapy; second-line capecitabine or semi-synthetic vinca alkaloids for anthracycline-resistant disease; second-line chemotherapy plus tyrosine kinase inhibitor (lapatinib); and treatment for bone, spinal, or choroidal metastases using bisphosphonates, intrathecal chemotherapy, radiotherapy (alone or plus corticosteroids) radiation sensitisers, or surgical resection.
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Humans

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  • (PMID = 21418674.001).
  • [ISSN] 1752-8526
  • [Journal-full-title] BMJ clinical evidence
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMJ Clin Evid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3217794
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36. Taira N, Aogi K, Ohsumi S, Takashima S, Nishimura R, Doihara H, Saeki T: S-1 (TS-1) maintained complete response for approximately 10 years in a case of metastatic breast cancer. Breast Cancer; 2006;13(2):220-4
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  • [Title] S-1 (TS-1) maintained complete response for approximately 10 years in a case of metastatic breast cancer.
  • We present a patient with pulmonary metastasis from breast cancer who received S-1 (TS-1) and maintained complete response for approximately 10 years after recurrence.
  • A 51-year-old woman underwent modified radical mastectomy for left breast cancer in November 1991.
  • Her cancer was postoperatively classified as pT2 pN0 M0 Stage IIA.
  • During the administration period (30 months after surgery), a solitary pulmonary metastasis occurred.
  • Three months after the start of S-1 (100 mg/body/day), the tumor disappeared on images.
  • Thereafter she took S-1 orally for approximately 10 years, and the pulmonary metastatic focus maintained complete response.
  • First, S-1 was effective even though this patient had a lung metastasis during adjuvant treatment with HCFU.
  • Second, since S-1 toxicity was mild, long-term treatment for approximately 10 years was possible.
  • The purpose of treatments for metastatic breast cancer is to maintain favorable quality of life (QOL), as well as to improve survival.
  • S-1 could be a valuable agent for breast cancer treatments, since it showed clinical efficacy and mild toxicity, and can be given orally.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / prevention & control. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Tegafur / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biopsy, Needle. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Fluorouracil / analogs & derivatives. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Mastectomy, Modified Radical. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Remission Induction. Risk Assessment. Tamoxifen / administration & dosage. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16755122.001).
  • [ISSN] 1340-6868
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer (Tokyo, Japan)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen; 1548R74NSZ / Tegafur; HA82M3RAB2 / 1-hexylcarbamoyl-5-fluorouracil; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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37. Gligorov J, Selle F, Khalil A, Abbas F, Namer M, Lotz JP: [Updates on gemcitabine on metastatic breast cancer]. Bull Cancer; 2007;94 Spec No Actualites:S90-4
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  • [Title] [Updates on gemcitabine on metastatic breast cancer].
  • [Transliterated title] Actualités de la gemcitabine dans le cancer du sein métastatique.
  • Gemcitabine is one of the key products actually used in metastatic breast cancer.
  • Recently published and presented results from different trials may modify our perception and strategies regarding metastatic breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies, Monoclonal / administration & dosage. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Clinical Trials, Phase II as Topic. Clinical Trials, Phase III as Topic. Female. Humans. Organoplatinum Compounds / administration & dosage. Organoplatinum Compounds / adverse effects. Paclitaxel / administration & dosage. Paclitaxel / adverse effects. Trastuzumab. Vinblastine / administration & dosage. Vinblastine / adverse effects. Vinblastine / analogs & derivatives

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  • (PMID = 17845977.001).
  • [ISSN] 1769-6917
  • [Journal-full-title] Bulletin du cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bull Cancer
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Organoplatinum Compounds; 04ZR38536J / oxaliplatin; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; 5V9KLZ54CY / Vinblastine; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine; P188ANX8CK / Trastuzumab; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel; Q6C979R91Y / vinorelbine
  • [Number-of-references] 28
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38. Schmid P, Possinger K: [Chemotherapy for metastatic breast cancer]. Zentralbl Gynakol; 2006 Dec;128(6):318-26
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  • [Title] [Chemotherapy for metastatic breast cancer].
  • Primary goals of treatment in metastatic breast cancer include prevention and palliation of symptoms, maintenance or improvement of quality of life and prolongation of survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Metastasis. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 17213969.001).
  • [ISSN] 0044-4197
  • [Journal-full-title] Zentralblatt für Gynäkologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zentralbl Gynakol
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal
  • [Number-of-references] 60
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39. Koo JS, Jung W, Jeong J: Metastatic breast cancer shows different immunohistochemical phenotype according to metastatic site. Tumori; 2010 May-Jun;96(3):424-32
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  • [Title] Metastatic breast cancer shows different immunohistochemical phenotype according to metastatic site.
  • AIMS AND BACKGROUND: The study was performed to assess the status of immunohistochemical markers in primary and metastatic breast cancer and to determine the organ-specific characteristics of metastatic breast cancer.
  • METHODS: Samples from 13 cases of paired primary and metastatic breast cancer and 34 cases of metastatic breast cancer were included.
  • RESULTS: In the analysis of 13 cases of paired primary and metastatic breast cancer, estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor loss were noted in 1 (7.7%) case each.
  • HER-2 showed 100% concordance with primary and metastatic tumors.
  • C-kit was demonstrated in only 2 (15.4%) cases of metastatic breast cancer.
  • In the analysis of 34 cases of metastatic breast cancer, when classified into triple-negative type (ER-, PR-, and HER-2-), HER-2+ type, and ER+ or PR+/HER-2- type according to immunohistochemical stain results, HER-2 type (66.7%) in brain metastasis and ER+ or PR+/HER-2- type (75.0%) in liver metastasis were predominant.
  • Bone metastasis was composed of triple negative type (44.4%) and ER+ or PR+/HER-2- type (55.6%), and lung metastasis showed all of three subtypes in similar proportions.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Metastatic breast cancer shows different immunohistochemical phenotypes according to metastatic site (P = 0.048).
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Breast Neoplasms / chemistry. Breast Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Middle Aged. Phenotype. Receptor, ErbB-2 / analysis. Receptors, Estrogen / analysis. Receptors, Progesterone / analysis. Sampling Studies


40. Inaba T, Kashiwaba M, Takeda Y, Komatsu H, Tomisawa Y, Takiyama I, Wakabayashi G: [Palliative chemotherapy for metastatic breast cancer with capecitabine]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2009 May;36(5):769-72
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  • [Title] [Palliative chemotherapy for metastatic breast cancer with capecitabine].
  • We examined 51 patients treated with Capecitabine for metastatic breast cancer.
  • 51 patients achieved a 30.8% response rate, 59.6% a clinical benefit rate(59.6%)and 7.2 M of time to disease progression, as previously reported.
  • Capecitabine therapy, single agent or combination therapy, should be considered a treatment of choice for metastatic breast cancer with certain response and general tolerability.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Fluorouracil / analogs & derivatives. Palliative Care
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / pharmacology. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Capecitabine. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis / drug therapy. Neoplasm Metastasis / pathology


41. Stebbing J, Slater S, Slevin M: Breast cancer (metastatic). BMJ Clin Evid; 2007;2007
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  • [Title] Breast cancer (metastatic).
  • INTRODUCTION: Median survival from metastatic breast cancer is 12 months without treatment, but young people can survive up to 20 years with the disease, whereas in other metastatic cancers this would be considered unusual.
  • What are the effects of second-line hormonal treatment in women who have not responded to tamoxifen?
  • What are the effects of second-line chemotherapy?
  • What are the effects of treatments for bone metastases?
  • What are the effects of treatments for spinal cord metastases?
  • What are the effects of treatments for cerebral or choroidal metastases?
  • RESULTS: We found 63 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria.
  • [MeSH-major] Anthracyclines. Breast Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 19454050.001).
  • [ISSN] 1752-8526
  • [Journal-full-title] BMJ clinical evidence
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMJ Clin Evid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anthracyclines; 0 / Diphosphonates; 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2943771
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42. Beacham B, Hill C, McDermott F, O'Brien M, Turner J: Therapy with women with metastatic breast cancer. Australas Psychiatry; 2005 Mar;13(1):50-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Therapy with women with metastatic breast cancer.
  • OBJECTIVE: To describe some clinical issues encountered in individual and group therapy with women with metastatic breast cancer.
  • In addition to the obvious need to detect and treat illness such as depression, working with women with metastatic breast cancer requires flexibility on the part of the therapist to adapt to her physical state of health, to include partners and family members where possible, and to liaise with colleagues in the treating team to facilitate communication and understanding of specific difficulties that may be encountered.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / psychology. Breast Neoplasms / secondary. Depression / etiology. Depression / therapy. Psychotherapy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Attitude to Death. Awareness. Female. Humans. Psychotherapy, Group / methods


43. Amar S, Roy V, Perez EA: Treatment of metastatic breast cancer: looking towards the future. Breast Cancer Res Treat; 2009 Apr;114(3):413-22
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  • [Title] Treatment of metastatic breast cancer: looking towards the future.
  • The armamentarium for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer is increasing with the introduction of newer chemotherapeutic agents and the development of molecular targeted therapies.
  • The clinical utility of anthracyclines in advanced breast cancer has been limited by significant adverse events; therefore the taxanes are increasingly used in the metastatic setting.
  • Trastuzumab with a taxane as first-line therapy is now standard of care for patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive metastatic breast cancer.
  • This paper reviews recent data regarding the established and investigational medical treatments for endocrine-refractory metastatic breast cancer, and presents treatment recommendations.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Medical Oncology / trends
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bevacizumab. Clinical Trials as Topic. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Metastasis. Paclitaxel / therapeutic use. Quinazolines / therapeutic use. Taxoids / therapeutic use. Trastuzumab. Treatment Outcome


44. Pronzato P, Rondini M: First line chemotherapy of metastatic breast cancer. Ann Oncol; 2006 May;17 Suppl 5:v165-8
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  • [Title] First line chemotherapy of metastatic breast cancer.
  • In the last 20-30 years the approach to metastatic breast cancer by chemotherapy has been largely studied.

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  • (PMID = 16807448.001).
  • [ISSN] 1569-8041
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 46
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45. Schwartz J: Current combination chemotherapy regimens for metastatic breast cancer. Am J Health Syst Pharm; 2009 Dec 1;66(23 Suppl 6):S3-8
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  • [Title] Current combination chemotherapy regimens for metastatic breast cancer.
  • PURPOSE: To review the role of combination therapy in the treatment of metastatic breast cancer and to describe strategies to help manage adverse events associated with combination therapy.
  • SUMMARY: Although the median survival of patients with metastatic breast cancer has increased over the last several decades, new treatment options are needed to further improve survival and quality of life for these patients.
  • Novel cytotoxic and noncytotoxic agents have recently been evaluated in combination regimens for patients with metastatic breast cancer.
  • Combinations for metastatic breast cancer that appear in recently approved labeling include ixabepilone with capecitabine, and the targeted biological agent lapatinib in combination with capecitabine.
  • Ixabepilone possesses antitumor activity in taxane-resistant tumor cells and has been shown to significantly improve progression-free survival when used in combination with capecitabine in patients with taxane-resistant tumors.
  • Lapatinib, an oral small-molecule inhibitor of human epidermal growth factor receptors-1 and -2, has been shown, when combined with capecitabine, to improve progression-free survival in patients with advanced metastatic breast cancer who had progressed on prior therapy.
  • The combination of paclitaxel and bevacizumab carries approved labeling for treatment of metastatic breast cancer, although there are concerns about bevacizumab and the risk of toxicity.
  • CONCLUSION: Ongoing clinical trials continue to define the role of novel antitumor agents in combination regimens for patients with metastatic breast cancer.
  • Targeted agents are less likely to produce adverse events that are typical of cytotoxic chemotherapy but, because of their effects on specific molecular targets, may cause toxicities that were previously uncommon in cancer therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Breast Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies, Monoclonal / administration & dosage. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Biological Products / therapeutic use. Capecitabine. Cytotoxins / administration & dosage. Deoxycytidine / administration & dosage. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Diarrhea / chemically induced. Diarrhea / drug therapy. Drug Delivery Systems. Epothilones / administration & dosage. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Fluorouracil / analogs & derivatives. Humans. Quinazolines / administration & dosage. Signal Transduction / drug effects. Skin Diseases / chemically induced. Skin Diseases / drug therapy. Trastuzumab

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  • (PMID = 19923317.001).
  • [ISSN] 1535-2900
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of health-system pharmacy : AJHP : official journal of the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Health Syst Pharm
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Biological Products; 0 / Cytotoxins; 0 / Epothilones; 0 / Quinazolines; 0VUA21238F / lapatinib; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; 6804DJ8Z9U / Capecitabine; K27005NP0A / ixabepilone; P188ANX8CK / Trastuzumab; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
  • [Number-of-references] 24
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46. Hough B, Brufsky A, Lentzsch S: Metastatic breast cancer or multiple myeloma? Camouflage by lytic lesions. J Oncol; 2010;2010:509530
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  • [Title] Metastatic breast cancer or multiple myeloma? Camouflage by lytic lesions.
  • We report a case of a female with stage I infiltrating ductal carcinoma who received adjuvant therapy including trastuzumab.
  • Lytic lesions were attributed to relapse of breast cancer, and cardiac failure attributed to prior trastuzumab therapy.
  • After complications necessitated multiple hospitalizations, a further workup revealed that the lytic lesions were not metastatic breast cancer but multiple myeloma.
  • This report addresses the pitfalls of overlapping symptoms and the question of which patients with suspected metastatic disease should undergo a biopsy.

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  • (PMID = 20224644.001).
  • [ISSN] 1687-8469
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Egypt
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2833304
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47. King KM, Lupichuk S, Baig L, Webster M, Basi S, Whyte D, Rix S: Optimal use of taxanes in metastatic breast cancer. Curr Oncol; 2009 May;16(3):8-20
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Optimal use of taxanes in metastatic breast cancer.
  • The role of taxanes in the treatment of breast cancer is becoming increasingly important.
  • In clinical practice, the taxanes are now standard therapy in both early-stage and metastatic breast cancer.
  • Since the 1990s, multiple randomized clinical trials have been evaluating the efficacy of taxanes in the treatment of metastatic breast cancer.
  • Pre-existing published guidelines for the use of taxanes in the management of metastatic breast cancer are available.
  • The mandate of the Alberta Cancer Board Provincial Breast Tumour Group Guideline Panel was to consider and adapt the recommendations of the existing guidelines and to develop de novo guidelines to account for current evidence.

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  • (PMID = 19526080.001).
  • [ISSN] 1198-0052
  • [Journal-full-title] Current oncology (Toronto, Ont.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2695713
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Metastatic breast cancer / chemotherapy / docetaxel / nab-paclitaxel / paclitaxel
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48. Taguchi T, Nakayama T, Masuda N, Yoshidome K, Akagi K, Nishida Y, Yoshikawa Y, Ogino N, Abe C, Sakamoto J, Noguchi S, Kinki Breast Cancer Study Group: Study of low-dose capecitabine monotherapy for metastatic breast cancer. Chemotherapy; 2010;56(2):166-70
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Study of low-dose capecitabine monotherapy for metastatic breast cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Capecitabine is an established therapy for metastatic breast cancer.
  • METHODS: Metastatic breast cancer patients who had received no chemotherapy for recurrent disease received capecitabine 825 mg/m(2) twice daily, on days 1-21 of a 28-day cycle until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These preliminary results confirm previous data showing that a lower capecitabine dose is an active and well-tolerated first-line therapy for metastatic breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Fluorouracil / analogs & derivatives
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Capecitabine. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant / methods. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Foot Dermatoses / chemically induced. Hand Dermatoses / chemically induced. Humans. Japan. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neutropenia / chemically induced. Survival. Syndrome. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 20407245.001).
  • [ISSN] 1421-9794
  • [Journal-full-title] Chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chemotherapy
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; 6804DJ8Z9U / Capecitabine; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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49. Heinemann V, Kahlert S, Stemmler HJ: [Multimodality treatment concepts for metastatic breast cancer]. Internist (Berl); 2010 Nov;51(11):1358-65
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Multimodality treatment concepts for metastatic breast cancer].
  • While metastatic breast cancer is a systemic disease in most patients, there is a smaller subset of patients who suffer from oligometastatic disease defined by single or few resectable metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Bone Neoplasms / mortality. Bone Neoplasms / pathology. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Bone Neoplasms / therapy. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnostic Imaging. Female. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / mortality. Liver Neoplasms / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / therapy. Lung Neoplasms / mortality. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / therapy. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Peritoneal Neoplasms / mortality. Peritoneal Neoplasms / pathology. Peritoneal Neoplasms / secondary. Peritoneal Neoplasms / therapy. Prognosis. Survival Rate


50. Moen MD: Ixabepilone: in locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer. Drugs; 2009 Jul 30;69(11):1471-81
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Ixabepilone: in locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer.
  • It is indicated for the treatment of locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer in the US.
  • In a randomized, nonblind, multicentre, phase III trial in women with locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer that was pretreated with, or resistant to, anthracyclines and resistant to taxanes, progression-free survival was significantly longer in ixabepilone plus capecitabine recipients compared with recipients of capecitabine monotherapy (median 5.8 vs 4.2 months).
  • The response rate to ixabepilone monotherapy was 11.5% in a noncomparative, multicentre, phase II trial in women with locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer resistant to anthracyclines, taxanes and capecitabine.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Epothilones / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Capecitabine. Clinical Trials, Phase II as Topic. Clinical Trials, Phase III as Topic. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Deoxycytidine / therapeutic use. Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Fluorouracil / analogs & derivatives. Fluorouracil / therapeutic use. Humans. Multicenter Studies as Topic. Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic

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  • (PMID = 19634925.001).
  • [ISSN] 1179-1950
  • [Journal-full-title] Drugs
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Drugs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / Epothilones; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; 6804DJ8Z9U / Capecitabine; K27005NP0A / ixabepilone; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
  • [Number-of-references] 35
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51. Hurtig J: Managing patients with advanced and metastatic breast cancer. Clin J Oncol Nurs; 2010 Jun;14(3):313-23
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Managing patients with advanced and metastatic breast cancer.
  • Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers in women, and although the prognosis is good for patients with early-stage, localized disease, it is relatively poor for patients with metastatic breast cancer.
  • Treatment options become progressively limited with advancing lines of therapy, primarily because of the development of tumor drug resistance.
  • Nurses have a crucial role in managing patients with breast cancer; therefore, awareness of the clinical efficacy and side-effect profiles of traditional and newer treatment options is of great importance.
  • The taxanes (docetaxel and paclitaxel) are well known for their efficacy in patients with breast cancer.
  • The most clinically advanced epothilone, ixabepilone, has been approved for the treatment of locally advanced or metastatic disease.
  • Importantly, ixabepilone retains clinical efficacy in patients with metastatic breast cancer who show resistance to taxanes and anthracyclines.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Metastasis

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  • (PMID = 20529793.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-067X
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical journal of oncology nursing
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin J Oncol Nurs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 67
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52. Rosenzweig M, Donovan H, Slavish K: The sensory and coping intervention for women newly diagnosed with metastatic breast cancer. J Cancer Educ; 2010 Sep;25(3):377-84
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  • [Title] The sensory and coping intervention for women newly diagnosed with metastatic breast cancer.
  • Preparatory information at the time of metastatic breast cancer diagnosis can be used to enhance patients' coping ability.
  • Women with metastatic breast cancer evaluated a multimedia educational intervention designed to provide sensory and coping information regarding illness.
  • Twenty women with metastatic breast cancer evaluated the materials.
  • Findings confirm the acceptability and usability of these materials for further testing and ultimately for integration into cancer care practice.
  • [MeSH-major] Adaptation, Psychological. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / psychology. Women's Health
  • [MeSH-minor] Attitude to Health. Female. Health Services Needs and Demand. Humans. Middle Aged. Multimedia. Neoplasm Metastasis. Patient Education as Topic. Pilot Projects. Videotape Recording


53. Gralow JR: Optimizing the treatment of metastatic breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat; 2005;89 Suppl 1:S9-S15
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Optimizing the treatment of metastatic breast cancer.
  • There is currently no standard care for metastatic breast cancer; consequently, individual patient and tumor characteristics are among several factors considered in treatment decisions.
  • Effective first- and second-line, single-agent chemotherapeutic treatments include the taxanes, anthracyclines, vinorelbine, capecitabine, and gemcitabine.
  • Research involving biologic therapy continues to provide encouraging results for patients with metastatic breast cancer.
  • Newer formulations of anthracyclines have been developed (e.g., liposomal anthracyclines) to decrease the incidence of cardiotoxicity, and these provide additional treatment options for patients with metastatic breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasm Metastasis. Receptors, Estrogen / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Clinical Trials as Topic. Down-Regulation. Female. Humans. Prognosis. Quality of Life

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  • (PMID = 15770536.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-6806
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer research and treatment
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen
  • [Number-of-references] 40
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54. Bourdeanu L, Wong SF: Supporting Asian patients with metastatic breast cancer during ixabepilone therapy. Expert Opin Drug Saf; 2010 May;9(3):383-96
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Supporting Asian patients with metastatic breast cancer during ixabepilone therapy.
  • IMPORTANCE OF THE FIELD: Ixabepilone is currently FDA-approved in metastatic breast cancer, and most patients in the registrational trials were Caucasian.
  • [MeSH-major] Asian Continental Ancestry Group / ethnology. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Breast Neoplasms / ethnology. Epothilones / adverse effects. Epothilones / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Disease Management. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Neuralgia / chemically induced. Neuralgia / ethnology. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20105113.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-764X
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert opinion on drug safety
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Opin Drug Saf
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Epothilones; K27005NP0A / ixabepilone
  • [Number-of-references] 73
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55. Rodríguez Lajusticia L, Martín Jiménez M, López-Tarruella Cobo S: Endocrine therapy of metastatic breast cancer. Clin Transl Oncol; 2008 Aug;10(8):462-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Endocrine therapy of metastatic breast cancer.
  • Breast cancer growth and dissemination is regulated by estrogen and different growth factor receptor signalling pathways.
  • The increasing knowledge of the biology of breast cancer regarding the interaction of these signalling pathways provides a tool to understand endocrine therapies response and resistance mechanisms.
  • In patients with slowly progressive disease, no visceral involvement, and minimal symptoms, endocrine therapy could be the strategy of choice, even if the tumor has low estrogen receptor expression.
  • This is a review focused on the different strategies and combinations of endocrine therapies for metastatic breast cancer patients considering the potential strategies clinically tested to overcome resistance and the different treatments of choice available for each scenario of disseminated disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Aromatase Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Clinical Trials as Topic. Female. Humans. Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent / pathology. Receptors, Estrogen / antagonists & inhibitors. Receptors, Estrogen / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18667376.001).
  • [ISSN] 1699-048X
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical & translational oncology : official publication of the Federation of Spanish Oncology Societies and of the National Cancer Institute of Mexico
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Transl Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Aromatase Inhibitors; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen
  • [Number-of-references] 49
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56. Li L, Li J, Yang K, Tian J, Sun T, Jia W, Zhang P, Yi K: Ixabepilone plus capecitabine with capecitabine alone for metastatic breast cancer. Future Oncol; 2010 Feb;6(2):201-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Ixabepilone plus capecitabine with capecitabine alone for metastatic breast cancer.
  • AIM: We conducted a systematic review to estimate efficacy and safety of ixabepilone plus capecitabine compared with capecitabine alone for patients of anthracycline- and/or taxane-resistant metastatic breast cancer.
  • Randomized controlled trials containing ixabepilone plus capecitabine for anthracycline- and/or taxane-resistant metastatic breast cancer were eligible.
  • RESULTS: This report included two large clinical trials (1973 patients) for patients with metastatic breast cancer resistant to taxanes and resistant to or pretreated with anthracyclines.
  • CONCLUSION: Ixabepilone plus capecitabine demonstrated clinical activity with an acceptable safety profile, which seems to be a valid option for patients with anthracycline-pretreated/resistant and taxane-resistant metastatic breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Fluorouracil / analogs & derivatives
  • [MeSH-minor] Capecitabine. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Epothilones / administration & dosage. Epothilones / adverse effects. Female. Humans. Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic

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  • (PMID = 20146579.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-8301
  • [Journal-full-title] Future oncology (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Future Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Epothilones; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; 6804DJ8Z9U / Capecitabine; K27005NP0A / ixabepilone; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
  • [Number-of-references] 26
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57. Liljegren A, Bergh J, Castany R: Early experience with sunitinib, combined with docetaxel, in patients with metastatic breast cancer. Breast; 2009 Aug;18(4):259-62
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Early experience with sunitinib, combined with docetaxel, in patients with metastatic breast cancer.
  • Sunitinib malate (SUTENT) is an oral, multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor that blocks several pathways central to angiogenesis and tumor cell proliferation and migration, including vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFRs) and platelet-derived growth factor receptors (PDGFRs).
  • Sunitinib has demonstrated clinical activity as a single agent in patients with metastatic breast cancer and it is hypothesized that enhanced clinical benefit may be derived by combining sunitinib with chemotherapy or other targeted agents.
  • The current report describes four patients with advanced/metastatic breast cancer who experienced clinically meaningful responses following treatment with sunitinib in combination with docetaxel.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiogenesis Inhibitors / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / drug therapy. Indoles / administration & dosage. Pyrroles / administration & dosage. Taxoids / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lymph Node Excision. Mastectomy. Middle Aged. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • [CommentIn] Breast. 2009 Aug;18(4):211-2 [19744625.001]
  • (PMID = 19744626.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-3080
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast (Edinburgh, Scotland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Indoles; 0 / Pyrroles; 0 / Taxoids; 0 / sunitinib; 15H5577CQD / docetaxel
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58. Morris PG, Hudis CA: Personalizing therapy for metastatic breast cancer. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther; 2009 Sep;9(9):1223-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Personalizing therapy for metastatic breast cancer.
  • Treatments for metastatic breast cancer are increasingly tailored towards individual tumor biology.
  • In HER2-normal metastatic breast cancer, recent studies suggest that the addition of bevacizumab to first-line chemotherapy improves progression-free survival irrespective of choice of cytotoxic agent.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Drug Delivery Systems
  • [MeSH-minor] Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Metastasis. Receptor, ErbB-2 / genetics


59. Dizdar O, Altundag K: Emerging drugs in metastatic breast cancer. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs; 2009 Mar;14(1):85-98
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  • [Title] Emerging drugs in metastatic breast cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women and comprises 26% of all cancers diagnosed in women in the United States.
  • Among presenting patients, 3 - 6% already have metastatic disease, and 50 - 70% of the remaining patients develop systemic relapse.
  • OBJECTIVE: To review the current and emerging data on the treatment of metastatic breast cancer, with emphasis on novel therapies that show promise.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Drug Delivery Systems
  • [MeSH-minor] Clinical Trials as Topic. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Metastasis. Recurrence. Remission Induction / methods. United States / epidemiology


60. Wang XX, Zhou ZM, Yuan ZY, Zhang DS, Shi YX, Jiang WQ: [Efficacy of docetaxel combined capecitabine on metastatic breast cancer]. Ai Zheng; 2007 Apr;26(4):407-10
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Efficacy of docetaxel combined capecitabine on metastatic breast cancer].
  • BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: Few treatment options are available for metastatic breast cancer with resistance to both anthracycline-and taxane-based chemotherapy regimens.
  • Docetaxel combined capecitabine (DC regimen) is approved as a new active regimen for metastatic breast cancer.
  • This study was to explore the efficacy of DC regimen on metastatic breast cancer, and evaluate its safety.
  • METHODS: A total of 31 metastatic breast cancer patients received DC regimen during each 3-week chemotherapy cycle.
  • Two patients were died of tumor progression.
  • CONCLUSION: The combination of docetaxel and capecitabine provides a well-tolerated and active chemotherapy regimen for metastatic breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / drug therapy. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Fluorouracil / analogs & derivatives. Taxoids / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Adult. Bone Neoplasms / drug therapy. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Capecitabine. Disease-Free Survival. Fatigue / chemically induced. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infusions, Intravenous. Leukopenia / chemically induced. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Remission Induction

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  • (PMID = 17430662.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Ai zheng = Aizheng = Chinese journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ai Zheng
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Taxoids; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; 15H5577CQD / docetaxel; 6804DJ8Z9U / Capecitabine; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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61. Anderson DM, Rolnick SJ, Jackson J, Amundson J, Asche SE, Loes LM: Impact of chemotherapy in women with metastatic breast cancer diagnosed 1990-2003. Clin Breast Cancer; 2007 Oct;7(10):801-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Impact of chemotherapy in women with metastatic breast cancer diagnosed 1990-2003.
  • PURPOSE: In order to determine whether new treatments for advanced breast cancer resulted in improved survival, we analyzed treatment and survival trends in 232 women with metastatic breast cancer treated in the Minneapolis/St. Paul metropolitan area between 1990 and 2003.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Subjects were identified from area hospital tumor registries and the Minnesota Department of Health.
  • Data on demographics, estrogen receptor status, location of metastases, and treatment were obtained from hospital tumor registries and medical records.
  • CONCLUSION: We conclude that newer chemotherapeutic agents have had an impact on survival in women with metastatic breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Breast Neoplasms / mortality
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Female. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Time


62. Salem AM, Zohny SF, Abd El-Wahab MM, Hamdy R: Predictive value of osteocalcin and beta-CrossLaps in metastatic breast cancer. Clin Biochem; 2007 Nov;40(16-17):1201-8
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  • [Title] Predictive value of osteocalcin and beta-CrossLaps in metastatic breast cancer.
  • OBJECTIVES: Assessment of the diagnostic value of serum CEA, CA 15.3, osteocalcin (OC) and beta-CrossLaps (beta-CTX) in the detection of metastatic breast cancer.
  • DESIGN AND METHODS: This study included 47 patients with breast cancer (20 non-metastatic breast cancer, 11 bone metastasis, 11 soft tissue metastasis, 5 bone plus soft tissue metastasis), 10 patients with benign breast lesions and 13 healthy volunteers.
  • RESULTS: CEA, CA 15.3, OC and beta-CTX median levels were higher in breast cancer patients compared to controls (p=0.006, 0.001, 0.004 and 0.038, respectively).
  • Increased levels of OC and beta-CTX were demonstrated in bone metastatic patients compared to non-metastatic or soft tissue metastatic patients (p=0.000).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Combined use of OC and beta-CTX could be useful in early detection of bone metastatic breast cancer which might improve the outcome of the disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / blood. Collagen / blood. Osteocalcin / blood. Peptide Fragments / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Bone Neoplasms / blood. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoembryonic Antigen / blood. Egypt. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Mucin-1 / blood. Predictive Value of Tests. ROC Curve. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / blood. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 17889845.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-9120
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical biochemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Biochem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen; 0 / Mucin-1; 0 / Peptide Fragments; 0 / glutamyl-lysyl-alanyl-histidyl-aspartyl-glycyl-glycyl-arginine; 104982-03-8 / Osteocalcin; 9007-34-5 / Collagen
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63. Smith I: Goals of treatment for patients with metastatic breast cancer. Semin Oncol; 2006 Feb;33(1 Suppl 2):S2-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Goals of treatment for patients with metastatic breast cancer.
  • The key goal in the treatment of metastatic breast cancer is to prolong survival, with an emphasis on restricting treatment-related toxicity as much as possible.
  • Despite the plethora of treatment modalities available in metastatic breast cancer, significant survival differences are relatively uncommon.
  • Symptom relief in particular is not used as widely used as it could be, in contrast to lung cancer where it has been proven clinically informative.
  • Finally, time to disease progression is an increasingly used primary endpoint in comparing treatments for metastatic breast cancer; this measure includes both patients who achieve an objective response, and those whose disease may be stabilized with treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasm Metastasis. Palliative Care
  • [MeSH-minor] Disease Progression. Endpoint Determination. Female. Humans. Quality of Life. Survival


64. Robinson DM, Keating GM: Albumin-bound Paclitaxel: in metastatic breast cancer. Drugs; 2006;66(7):941-8
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  • [Title] Albumin-bound Paclitaxel: in metastatic breast cancer.
  • The reconciled target-lesion response rate was significantly higher in patients receiving intravenous nab-paclitaxel 260 mg/m(2) once every 3 weeks than in those receiving CrEL-paclitaxel 175 mg/m(2) once every 3 weeks (21.5% vs 11.1%) in a randomised, nonblind, phase III trial in 454 patients with metastatic breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Albumins / chemistry. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Paclitaxel / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Agents / chemistry. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Clinical Trials as Topic. Female. Glycerol / analogs & derivatives. Glycerol / chemistry. Humans. Nanostructures / chemistry. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neutropenia / chemically induced. Treatment Outcome

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  • [CommentIn] Drugs. 2006;66(7):949-50 [16740011.001]
  • (PMID = 16740010.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-6667
  • [Journal-full-title] Drugs
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Drugs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Albumins; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 6D4M1DAL6O / cremophor EL; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel; PDC6A3C0OX / Glycerol
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65. Wong ST, Goodin S: Overcoming drug resistance in patients with metastatic breast cancer. Pharmacotherapy; 2009 Aug;29(8):954-65
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Overcoming drug resistance in patients with metastatic breast cancer.
  • Metastatic breast cancer is generally considered to be incurable, with response rates and duration of response progressively declining with subsequent lines of treatment.
  • Targeted anticancer agents for the treatment of breast cancer, such as hormonal agents or the more recently approved epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors, are also associated with intrinsic and acquired resistance.
  • Novel agents with reduced susceptibility to resistance may prevent or delay the emergence of resistance and improve survival in patients with common solid tumors, including metastatic breast cancer.
  • We are hopeful that further elucidation of the cellular and molecular processes that allow tumor cells to develop resistance and the use of new agents to combat these mechanisms will improve outcomes for patients with metastatic breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Apoptosis. DNA Repair. Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Humans. Models, Biological. Multidrug Resistance-Associated Proteins / physiology. Neoplasm Metastasis


66. Al Murri AM, Bartlett JM, Canney PA, Doughty JC, Wilson C, McMillan DC: Evaluation of an inflammation-based prognostic score (GPS) in patients with metastatic breast cancer. Br J Cancer; 2006 Jan 30;94(2):227-30
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  • [Title] Evaluation of an inflammation-based prognostic score (GPS) in patients with metastatic breast cancer.
  • Prediction of outcome in patients with metastatic breast cancer remains problematical.
  • The present study evaluated the value of an inflammation-based score (Glasgow Prognostic Score, GPS) in patients with metastatic breast cancer.
  • During follow-up 51 patients died of their cancer.
  • On multivariate analysis of the GPS and treatment received, only the GPS (HR 2.26, 95% CI 1.45-3.52, P<0.001) remained significantly associated with cancer-specific survival.
  • The presence of a systemic inflammatory response (the GPS) appears to be a useful indicator of poor outcome independent of treatment in patients with metastatic breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Glasgow Outcome Scale. Inflammation / pathology. Neoplasm Metastasis / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] C-Reactive Protein / analysis. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Serum Albumin. Survival Analysis. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 16404432.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Serum Albumin; 9007-41-4 / C-Reactive Protein
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2361117
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67. Gueth U, Huang DJ, Schoetzau A, Holzgreve W, Wight E: Systemic therapy of metastatic breast cancer: the truth beyond the clinical trials. Oncology; 2009;76(4):247-53
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Systemic therapy of metastatic breast cancer: the truth beyond the clinical trials.
  • METHODS: We compared therapy type and course of 242 women whose distant metastatic disease was diagnosed from 1990 to 2006 and who ultimately died of the disease.
  • We divided the patients into two subgroups depending on the year of diagnosis of metastases (group A: 1998-2006 vs. group B: 1990-1997).
  • The median metastatic disease-specific survival increased from 16 months in the period from 1990 to 1997, to 21 months in the period from 1998 to 2000 (p = 0.062).
  • CONCLUSION: The number of patients who died from metastatic breast cancer without receiving any antineoplastic therapy was surprisingly high.
  • The use of newer agents and regimens in the treatment of metastatic breast cancer was associated with an improved survival over time.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Clinical Trials as Topic
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Palliative Care


68. Coley HM: Mechanisms and strategies to overcome chemotherapy resistance in metastatic breast cancer. Cancer Treat Rev; 2008 Jun;34(4):378-90
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Mechanisms and strategies to overcome chemotherapy resistance in metastatic breast cancer.
  • Resistance to chemotherapeutic agents is a significant issue in the management of patients with breast cancer.
  • Subsequently, the taxanes heralded a new era in chemotherapy and have been used extensively in the treatment of metastatic breast cancer.
  • Unfortunately, along with other constituents of combination chemotherapy for metastatic breast cancer such as cyclophosphamide, these agents become increasingly ineffective in progressive disease and tumours are then deemed to be drug resistant - frequently multidrug resistant.
  • A number of processes have been identified that can underlie clinical drug resistance, and these largely stem from in vitro laboratory-based studies in human cancer cell lines.
  • Other studies have highlighted mechanisms whereby breast cancer cells show resistance to chemotherapeutic agents by altered regulation of DNA repair processes, with many other factors influencing drug detoxification processes and altering drug targets.
  • New developmental agents with improved specificity for tumour cells, such as trastuzumab, and those with low susceptibility to common tumour-resistance mechanisms, such as ixabepilone, have provided new hope for effective treatment of breast cancer.
  • With these developments in therapy, and the technology of gene expression profiling, the future holds more promise for the development of more effective treatment for metastatic breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm
  • [MeSH-minor] Carrier Proteins / metabolism. DNA Repair / drug effects. Drug Delivery Systems. Drug Resistance, Multiple. Female. Humans. Mitoxantrone / pharmacology. Models, Biological. Neoplasm Metastasis


69. Rubio IT: [Surgery of the primary tumour in metastatic breast cancer. Can we contribute to improve survival?]. Cir Esp; 2008 Feb;83(2):61-4
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  • [Title] [Surgery of the primary tumour in metastatic breast cancer. Can we contribute to improve survival?].
  • [Transliterated title] Cirugía del tumor primario en cáncer de mama metastásico: podemos contribuir a mejorar la supervivencia?
  • The primary treatment of metastatic breast cancer is chemotherapy and radiotherapy, while surgery is reserved for treating local complications associated with the tumour.
  • A series of retrospective studies have recently appeared which show an increase in the survival of patients with metastatic breast cancer when surgery has been performed on the primary tumour.
  • All these studies led us to the idea that there could be a group of patients with metastatic cancer whose survival improves if we add surgery to the chemo- and radiotherapy.
  • The idea that local treatment may influence survival in breast cancer patients can have implications in the future multidisciplinary management of these patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / secondary. Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Mastectomy, Radical
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Forecasting. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Multivariate Analysis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 18261410.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-739X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cirugía española
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cir Esp
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Number-of-references] 15
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70. Suehisa H, Aogi K, Hara F, Takabatake D, Takashima S, Ohsumi S, Takashima S, Komatsubara K: [Efficacy of vinorelbine monotherapy in advanced and metastatic breast cancer]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2008 Oct;35(10):1709-12
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  • [Title] [Efficacy of vinorelbine monotherapy in advanced and metastatic breast cancer].
  • Vinorelbine is a newanti-cancer drug that is available for advanced or metastatic breast cancer, approved by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare in May 2005.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Vinblastine / analogs & derivatives
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis / drug therapy. Neoplasm Metastasis / pathology. Neoplasm Staging


71. Allen-Brady K: Genetic polymorphisms and metastatic breast cancer survival. Future Oncol; 2007 Apr;3(2):155-8
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  • [Title] Genetic polymorphisms and metastatic breast cancer survival.
  • Variability of disease progression and survival exists among metastatic breast cancer patients.
  • They found that all three were significantly associated with disease progression and survival independently, and that combinations of these variants progressively worsened breast cancer survival.

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  • [CommentOn] J Clin Oncol. 2006 Dec 20;24(36):5645-51 [17116943.001]
  • (PMID = 17381415.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-6694
  • [Journal-full-title] Future oncology (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Future Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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72. Cianfrocca M, Gradishar WJ: Counterpoint: the argument for combination chemotherapy in the treatment of metastatic breast cancer. J Natl Compr Canc Netw; 2007 Sep;5(8):673-5
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  • [Title] Counterpoint: the argument for combination chemotherapy in the treatment of metastatic breast cancer.
  • The question of combination versus single-agent chemotherapy in the setting of metastatic breast cancer (MBC) is an often-debated issue.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Breast Neoplasms / mortality
  • [MeSH-minor] Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Metastasis. Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic. Survival Analysis


73. Onyenadum A, Gogas H, Kosmidis P, Aravantinos G, Bafaloukos D, Bacoyiannis H, Markopoulos C, Koutras A, Tzorakoelefterakis E, Makatsoris T, Fountzilas G, Kalofonos HP, Hellenic Cooperative Oncology Group: Mitoxantrone plus gemcitabine in pretreated patients with metastatic breast cancer. J Chemother; 2006 Apr;18(2):192-8
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  • [Title] Mitoxantrone plus gemcitabine in pretreated patients with metastatic breast cancer.
  • Gemcitabine and mitoxantrone have both shown significant antitumor activity in patients with breast cancer.
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of this combination as second or third-line treatment in patients with metastatic breast cancer (MBC).
  • The authors conclude that the combination of mitoxantrone and gemcitabine is an effective regimen in pretreated patients with metastatic breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Salvage Therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Deoxycytidine / administration & dosage. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Mitoxantrone / administration & dosage. Remission Induction. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 16736889.001).
  • [ISSN] 1120-009X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of chemotherapy (Florence, Italy)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Chemother
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine; BZ114NVM5P / Mitoxantrone
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74. Slovacek L, Slovackova B, Slanska I, Petera J, Priester P: Quality of life and depression among metastatic breast cancer patients. Med Oncol; 2010 Sep;27(3):958-9
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  • [Title] Quality of life and depression among metastatic breast cancer patients.
  • Depression is seen in many cancer patients.
  • It is common in the general population and in adults and children with cancer and frequently coexists with anxiety and pain.
  • The pilot study evaluated the level of the global quality of life (QoL) and the incidence and the relevance of the depression among metastatic breast cancer patients in a programme of palliative cancer care.
  • The statistical evaluation presents that mean ZSDS (Zung self-rating depression score) certifies the presence of the signs of the moderate depression among metastatic breast cancer patients (ZSDS range was 60-69).
  • The global QoL among metastatic breast cancer patients is on very low level.
  • The results showed that subsist association between metastatic breast cancer, depression, and the low level of the global QoL.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / psychology. Depression / epidemiology. Depressive Disorder / epidemiology. Quality of Life
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cross-Sectional Studies. Czech Republic / epidemiology. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Palliative Care. Pilot Projects. Prospective Studies. Surveys and Questionnaires


75. Lower EE, Glass E, Blau R, Harman S: HER-2/neu expression in primary and metastatic breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat; 2009 Jan;113(2):301-6
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  • [Title] HER-2/neu expression in primary and metastatic breast cancer.
  • Introduction Trastuzumab is a highly effective therapy for the treatment of HER-2/neu positive breast cancer.
  • Currently HER-2/neu analysis is routinely performed only for primary invasive breast cancers, and trastuzumab therapy is recommended based on primary analysis only.
  • Methods Using immunohistochemistry, we performed a retrospective study comparing HER-2/neu expression in original primary to subsequent metastatic breast cancers.
  • Results Tumors from 382 patients with metastatic breast cancer were studied.
  • In 254 cases (66%) both primary and metastatic lesions were concordant.
  • In 90 cases the primary lesion was HER-2/neu positive with the metastatic lesion negative; whereas, in 37 cases the primary lesion was HER-2/neu negative and the metastatic lesion positive.
  • Although all four groups were similar at diagnosis, survival differences were noted with the best survival experienced by patients with initial primary lesions HER-2/neu negative and subsequent metastatic lesions positive.
  • Patients with hormone receptor and HER-2/neu positive primary lesions who received tamoxifen were more likely to have HER-2/neu positive metastasis.
  • Conclusions The significant discordance between HER-2/neu expression in primary and metastatic tumors suggests that determination of HER-2/neu status in metastatic disease should be attempted.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Breast Neoplasms / chemistry. Genes, erbB-2. Neoplasm Metastasis / genetics. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Protein Kinase Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Receptor, ErbB-2 / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cohort Studies. Female. Gene Amplification. Humans. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis. Survival Analysis. Tamoxifen / administration & dosage. Trastuzumab. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 18273700.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7217
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer research and treatment
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2; P188ANX8CK / Trastuzumab
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76. Mayer M: Lessons learned from the metastatic breast cancer community. Semin Oncol Nurs; 2010 Aug;26(3):195-202
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  • [Title] Lessons learned from the metastatic breast cancer community.
  • OBJECTIVE: To present findings from two large surveys that explored the needs for information, emotional support, provision of services, perceptions, and attitudes of women with metastatic breast cancer (MBC).
  • IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING PRACTICE: Much research has focused on coping with early breast cancer, but little has been studied about the needs and experiences of women living with MBC.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms. Oncology Nursing / methods. Patient Education as Topic / methods. Social Support
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Needs Assessment


77. Edwards AG, Hulbert-Williams N, Neal RD: Psychological interventions for women with metastatic breast cancer. Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 2008;(3):CD004253
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  • [Title] Psychological interventions for women with metastatic breast cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Systematic reviews of psychological interventions for patients with cancer are conflicting, some showing benefits for patients and others not.
  • One early study appeared to show significant survival and psychological benefits from a psychological intervention given to women with metastatic breast cancer.
  • OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of psychological interventions (educational, individual cognitive behavioural or psychotherapeutic, or group support) on psychological and survival outcomes for women with metastatic breast cancer.
  • SEARCH STRATEGY: For this update, the Cochrane Breast Cancer Group Specialised Register was searched (September 2007).
  • SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of psychological interventions for women with metastatic breast cancer.
  • AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There is insufficient evidence to advocate that group psychological therapies (either cognitive behavioural or supportive-expressive) should be made available to all women diagnosed with metastatic breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / psychology. Cognitive Therapy. Psychotherapy, Group / methods. Self-Help Groups
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans

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  • [UpdateIn] Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;6:CD004253 [23737397.001]
  • [UpdateOf] Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2004;(2):CD004253 [15106244.001]
  • (PMID = 18646104.001).
  • [ISSN] 1469-493X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Cochrane database of systematic reviews
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cochrane Database Syst Rev
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Meta-Analysis; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 87
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78. Ghersi D, Wilcken N, Simes J, Donoghue E: Taxane containing regimens for metastatic breast cancer. Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 2005;(2):CD003366
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  • [Title] Taxane containing regimens for metastatic breast cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: It is generally accepted that taxanes are among the most active chemotherapy agents in the management of metastatic breast cancer.
  • OBJECTIVES: To identify and review the randomised evidence comparing taxane containing chemotherapy regimens with regimens not containing a taxane in the management of women with metastatic breast cancer.
  • SEARCH STRATEGY: The specialised register maintained by the Editorial Base of the Cochrane Breast Cancer Group was searched on 2nd May 2003 using the codes for "advanced breast cancer", "chemotherapy".
  • SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised trials comparing taxane-containing chemotherapy regimens with regimens not containing taxanes in women with metastatic breast cancer.
  • AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: When all trials are considered, taxane-containing regimens appear to improve overall survival, time to progression and overall response in women with metastatic breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Taxoids / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Bridged Compounds / therapeutic use. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Paclitaxel / therapeutic use. Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic. Tamoxifen / therapeutic use

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  • [UpdateIn] Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015;6:CD003366 [26058962.001]
  • [UpdateOf] Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2003;(3):CD003366 [12917963.001]
  • (PMID = 15846659.001).
  • [ISSN] 1469-493X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Cochrane database of systematic reviews
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cochrane Database Syst Rev
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Meta-Analysis; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / Bridged Compounds; 0 / Taxoids; 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
  • [Number-of-references] 35
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79. Aapro MS, Conte P, Esteban González E, Trillet-Lenoir V: Oral vinorelbine: role in the management of metastatic breast cancer. Drugs; 2007;67(5):657-67
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  • [Title] Oral vinorelbine: role in the management of metastatic breast cancer.
  • The treatment of advanced breast cancer is continually evolving, with the aim of improving the quality and duration of remission and, in some instances, survival.
  • Vinorelbine seems to represent both an active and a well tolerated treatment for metastatic breast cancer.
  • Early findings also suggest that oral vinorelbine, when administered together with another new oral agent, capecitabine, may be a valid choice in metastatic breast cancer treatment.
  • Furthermore, vinorelbine plus the monoclonal antibody trastuzumab, with or without oral capecitabine, appears to be another regimen that may be worthy of additional study in patients with human epidermal growth factor-2 positive advanced breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Vinblastine / analogs & derivatives
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / therapeutic use. Humans. Neoplasm Metastasis. Treatment Outcome


80. Telli ML, Carlson RW: First-line chemotherapy for metastatic breast cancer. Clin Breast Cancer; 2009 Jun;9 Suppl 2:S66-72
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  • [Title] First-line chemotherapy for metastatic breast cancer.
  • The selection of first-line chemotherapy for metastatic breast cancer (MBC) is complex because of the myriad of treatment options available and the inherent biologic heterogeneity of the disease.
  • The potential treatment options are greatly influenced by estrogen and progesterone receptor and HER2 status of the tumor, and biopsy with reassessment of these markers at the time of disease recurrence is strongly recommended.
  • Metastatic breast cancer is generally an incurable disease, with survival that could range from months to several years.
  • The addition of trastuzumab to chemotherapy for women with HER2-positive breast cancer represents a clear standard of care.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Breast Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Metastasis. Receptor, ErbB-2 / genetics. Receptors, Steroid / genetics


81. Mezi S, Primi F, Orsi E, Capoccetti F, Scopinaro F, Schillaci O: Somatostatin receptor scintigraphy in metastatic breast cancer patients. Oncol Rep; 2005 Jan;13(1):31-5
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  • [Title] Somatostatin receptor scintigraphy in metastatic breast cancer patients.
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS) in imaging metastases in patients with advanced breast cancer (BC), and assess the relationship between exposure to chemotherapy and hormonotherapy with overexpression of somatostatin receptor (SS-R) on the breast cancer cell surface.
  • Twelve patients with metastatic breast cancer were intravenously (i.v.) injected with In-111 pentatreotide (120 MBq).
  • Metastatic breast cancer can be visualized with SRS.
  • Global sensitivity of imaging was 80% and specificity for correct prediction of tumor absence was 100%.
  • Sensitivity was significantly higher for bone and lung metastases.
  • SRS results related to the expression of SS-R on metastatic cell surfaces did not evidence a relationship with the biologic characteristics of the primary BC and drug exposure.
  • In our series, SRS quantitative analysis demonstrated that tumor metastases differ greatly in uptake levels.
  • Fifteen percent of metastatic sites in our series showed strong uptake.
  • Our data support the important specificity of SRS in identifying BC metastases, mostly in cases of bone and lung disease, as well as the role of SRS in predicting responsiveness of metastatic BC cells to treatment with somatostatin analogues (SS), when SS-Rs are overexpressed on cell surfaces.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Receptors, Somatostatin / analysis. Somatostatin / analogs & derivatives
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Bone Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Female. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Middle Aged. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon

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  • (PMID = 15583798.001).
  • [ISSN] 1021-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; G083B71P98 / pentetreotide
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82. Alvarez López I, de la Haba Rodríguez J, Ruiz Simón A, Bellet Ezquerra M, Calvo Martínez L, García Estévez L, Rodríguez Lescure Á, Isla Casado D, SEOM (Spanish Society for Medical Oncology): SEOM clinical guidelines for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer. Clin Transl Oncol; 2010 Nov;12(11):719-23
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  • [Title] SEOM clinical guidelines for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer.
  • Patients with metastatic breast cancer have a wide number of treatment options, including medical, surgical, and supportive care measures.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma / therapy. Practice Guidelines as Topic
  • [MeSH-minor] Algorithms. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Metastasis. Prognosis. Societies, Medical. Spain

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  • (PMID = 20974562.001).
  • [ISSN] 1699-3055
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical & translational oncology : official publication of the Federation of Spanish Oncology Societies and of the National Cancer Institute of Mexico
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Transl Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Practice Guideline
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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83. Ampil FL, Baluna R, Burton G, Nanda A: Paraplegia of spinal epidural compression by metastatic breast cancer and urgent radiotherapy-timeliness for naught? J Neurooncol; 2009 Oct;95(1):101-3
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  • [Title] Paraplegia of spinal epidural compression by metastatic breast cancer and urgent radiotherapy-timeliness for naught?
  • Four patients who became paraplegic because of spinal epidural compression by metastatic breast cancer were treated for palliation by external beam radiation.
  • Our findings place in question the urgent need for radiotherapy in these paralytic people with the disorder, especially when they are pain-free.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Paraplegia / radiotherapy. Spinal Cord Compression
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Radiotherapy Dosage. Retrospective Studies


84. Ershler WB: Capecitabine monotherapy: safe and effective treatment for metastatic breast cancer. Oncologist; 2006 Apr;11(4):325-35
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  • [Title] Capecitabine monotherapy: safe and effective treatment for metastatic breast cancer.
  • Optimal management for metastatic breast cancer frequently involves cytotoxic chemotherapy.
  • Capecitabine (an orally administered fluoropyrimidine carbamate) is one such agent that has been proven to be effective when used alone for metastatic breast cancer, metastatic colorectal cancer, and adjuvant colon cancer.
  • In this review, published (or reported in abstract form) data examining various aspects of clinical response and tolerability with single-agent capecitabine for (primarily) first- and second-line metastatic breast cancer are examined.
  • Nonetheless, the drug administered alone is a reasonable choice when single-agent chemotherapy is entertained as a treatment option for metastatic breast cancer, including in the first-line setting.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives
  • [MeSH-minor] Capecitabine. Clinical Trials as Topic. Cost-Benefit Analysis. Female. Fluorouracil / analogs & derivatives. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Quality of Life. Treatment Outcome. United States

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  • (PMID = 16614228.001).
  • [ISSN] 1083-7159
  • [Journal-full-title] The oncologist
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncologist
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; 6804DJ8Z9U / Capecitabine; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
  • [Number-of-references] 84
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85. Azim HA Jr, Peccatori FA: Treatment of metastatic breast cancer during pregnancy: we need to talk! Breast; 2008 Aug;17(4):426-8
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  • [Title] Treatment of metastatic breast cancer during pregnancy: we need to talk!
  • Metastatic breast cancer during pregnancy is a challenging situation.
  • Here, we report a case of metastatic breast cancer initially diagnosed during pregnancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / secondary. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / therapy. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / diagnosis. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Directive Counseling. Female. Humans. Patient Care Team. Patient Participation. Pregnancy


86. Miller K, Wang M, Gralow J, Dickler M, Cobleigh M, Perez EA, Shenkier T, Cella D, Davidson NE: Paclitaxel plus bevacizumab versus paclitaxel alone for metastatic breast cancer. N Engl J Med; 2007 Dec 27;357(26):2666-76
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  • [Title] Paclitaxel plus bevacizumab versus paclitaxel alone for metastatic breast cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: In an open-label, randomized, phase 3 trial, we compared the efficacy and safety of paclitaxel with that of paclitaxel plus bevacizumab, a monoclonal antibody against vascular endothelial growth factor, as initial treatment for metastatic breast cancer.
  • The primary end point was progression-free survival; overall survival was a secondary end point.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Initial therapy of metastatic breast cancer with paclitaxel plus bevacizumab prolongs progression-free survival, but not overall survival, as compared with paclitaxel alone. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00028990 [ClinicalTrials.gov].).
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Paclitaxel / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Angiogenesis Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Bevacizumab. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis / drug therapy. Proportional Hazards Models. Quality of Life. Receptor, ErbB-2 / analysis. Survival Analysis

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2007 Massachusetts Medical Society.
  • [CommentIn] Curr Oncol Rep. 2009 Jan;11(1):5-6 [19080734.001]
  • [CommentIn] N Engl J Med. 2008 Apr 10;358(15):1637; author reply 1637-8 [18411431.001]
  • [CommentIn] N Engl J Med. 2008 Apr 10;358(15):1637; author reply 1637-8 [18403775.001]
  • (PMID = 18160686.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-4406
  • [Journal-full-title] The New England journal of medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] N. Engl. J. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] ClinicalTrials.gov/ NCT00028990
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA16116; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA21115; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA23318; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA49883; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA66636
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase III; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 2S9ZZM9Q9V / Bevacizumab; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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87. Chan A, Verrill M: Capecitabine and vinorelbine in metastatic breast cancer. Eur J Cancer; 2009 Sep;45(13):2253-65
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  • [Title] Capecitabine and vinorelbine in metastatic breast cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: As anthracyclines and taxanes are frequently used in the adjuvant and first-line metastatic settings, capecitabine and vinorelbine are frequently used as monotherapy and in combination for metastatic breast cancer (MBC).
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Fluorouracil / analogs & derivatives. Vinblastine / analogs & derivatives
  • [MeSH-minor] Capecitabine. Clinical Trials as Topic. Female. Humans. Practice Guidelines as Topic


88. Higgins MJ, Wolff AC: Therapeutic options in the management of metastatic breast cancer. Oncology (Williston Park); 2008 May;22(6):614-23; discussion 623, 627-9
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  • [Title] Therapeutic options in the management of metastatic breast cancer.
  • Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related death in women in the United States, and for nearly all with metastatic disease at presentation or relapse it will be incurable.
  • Initial palliation with endocrine therapy should be the primary consideration for patients with metastatic hormone receptor-positive tumors.
  • If a tumor overexpresses HER2, targeted treatment with trastuzumab (Herceptin) or lapatinib (Tykerb) is possible.
  • This review offers an approach to the selection of individualized and rational therapies for patients with metastatic breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Metastasis. Receptor, ErbB-2 / analysis. Receptor, ErbB-2 / drug effects. Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators / therapeutic use


89. Lloyd A, Nafees B, Narewska J, Dewilde S, Watkins J: Health state utilities for metastatic breast cancer. Br J Cancer; 2006 Sep 18;95(6):683-90
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  • [Title] Health state utilities for metastatic breast cancer.
  • The aim of the study was to obtain United Kingdom-based societal preferences for distinct stages of metastatic breast cancer (MBC) and six common toxicities.
  • This may be the largest preference study in breast cancer designed to survey a representative general public sample.
  • [MeSH-major] Attitude to Health. Breast Neoplasms / psychology. Health Status. Quality of Life. Sickness Impact Profile
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Disease Progression. Female. Great Britain / epidemiology. Humans. Male. Pilot Projects. Recurrence. Sex Factors

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  • (PMID = 16967055.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2360509
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90. Martínez-Prieto M, Flores de la Torre CB, Rivera Rivera S, Cruz Esquivel I: [Hormonal therapy in metastatic breast cancer]. Ginecol Obstet Mex; 2009 Oct;77(10):482-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Hormonal therapy in metastatic breast cancer].
  • [Transliterated title] Hormonoterapia en cáncer de mama metastásico.
  • The primary objective in metastatic breast cancer is tumor control and symptom palliation.
  • [MeSH-major] Aromatase Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / therapy. Estrogen Receptor Modulators / therapeutic use. Ovariectomy
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Neoplasm Metastasis

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  • (PMID = 19902677.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-9041
  • [Journal-full-title] Ginecología y obstetricia de México
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ginecol Obstet Mex
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Mexico
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aromatase Inhibitors; 0 / Estrogen Receptor Modulators
  • [Number-of-references] 17
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91. Carella AM, Beltrami G, Corsetti MT, Nati S, Musto P, Scalzulli P, Gonella R, Ballestrero A, Patrone F: Reduced intensity conditioning for allograft after cytoreductive autograft in metastatic breast cancer. Lancet; 2005 Jul 23-29;366(9482):318-20
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  • [Title] Reduced intensity conditioning for allograft after cytoreductive autograft in metastatic breast cancer.
  • The benefits of allografting noted in some malignant diseases might be safely extended to metastatic breast cancer by a combination of cytoreduction with high-dose chemotherapy (HDT) and autologous stem-cell transplant (ASCT) with graft-versus-tumour effect mediated by transplanted donor immune cells with nonmyeloablative allografting (reduced intensity conditioning transplantation, RICT).
  • Three had partial remission after HDT and ASCT and complete remission after RICT; they achieved full chimerism and all developed graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) before regression of cancer.
  • This two-step approach is feasible in patients with metastatic breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Transplantation Conditioning
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Chimerism. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Graft vs Host Disease. Graft vs Tumor Effect. Humans. Lymphocyte Transfusion. Middle Aged. Mitoxantrone / administration & dosage. Thiotepa / administration & dosage. Transplantation, Autologous. Transplantation, Homologous


92. Meriggi F, Di Biasi B, Zaniboni A: The Renaissance of platinum-based chemotherapy for metastatic breast cancer. J Chemother; 2008 Oct;20(5):551-60
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  • [Title] The Renaissance of platinum-based chemotherapy for metastatic breast cancer.
  • Although anthracyclines and the taxanes comprise the most active first-line cytotoxic treatments in patients with hormone-insensitive or life-threatening metastatic breast cancer, many patients progress and require other chemotherapeutic agents.
  • For patients with metastatic breast cancer resistant to anthracyclines or taxanes, or who have received anthracyclines with or without taxanes in the adjuvant or neoadjuvant setting, no standard regimen exists and platinum-based chemotherapy is one of the several options available.
  • Moreover, platinum compounds have shown synergistic activity with trastuzumab, a monoclonal antibody against overexpressing HER2 breast cancer.
  • However, the definitive role of platinum compounds in the treatment of breast cancer is not yet well established and further trials are needed.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Platinum Compounds / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Clinical Trials as Topic. Female. Humans


93. Vlastos G, Rapiti E, Verkooijen HM, Bouchardy C: [Role of surgery for metastatic breast cancer at diagnosis]. Rev Med Suisse; 2007 Oct 24;3(130):2413-6
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  • [Title] [Role of surgery for metastatic breast cancer at diagnosis].
  • [Transliterated title] Place de la chirurgie dans le traitement du cancer du sein métastatique d'emblée.
  • Metastatic breast cancer is considered as incurable.
  • Surgery of the primary tumor is usually indicated for palliation of local complications.
  • However recently published studies seem to demonstrate that the surgical excision of the primary tumor increase survival, in particular for patients with negative surgical margins or with only bone metastases.
  • As these studies have been adjusted for factors that may induce biais, only a prospective clinical randomized trial may confirm the role of surgery in the management of metastatic breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / secondary. Breast Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Clinical Trials as Topic. Female. Humans


94. Dufresne A, Pivot X, Tournigand C, Facchini T, Altweegg T, Chaigneau L, De Gramont A: Impact of chemotherapy beyond the first line in patients with metastatic breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat; 2008 Jan;107(2):275-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Impact of chemotherapy beyond the first line in patients with metastatic breast cancer.
  • PURPOSE: The goal of this study was to determine which benefit could be brought by the succession of chemotherapy lines in patients treated for metastatic breast cancer and to identify patients who benefit from these treatments.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Nine hundred and thirty four patients with metastatic breast cancer diagnosed between 1992 and 2002 were studied.
  • A total of 772, 505, 283, 127 and 55 patients received a first, second, third, fourth and fifth line of chemotherapy, respectively.
  • RESULTS: Medians duration of TDC are 9.3 [0-120], 5.9 [0-83.6], 4.63 [0-37.2], 4.1 [0-36.7] and 0.23 months [0-15] in first, second, third, fourth and fifth lines, respectively.
  • More interestingly, TDC was longer than 6 months in 50.5% of patients treated with second line, 40% with third line, 35% with fourth line and 23.5% with fifth line.
  • These results justify the therapeutic succession of chemotherapy lines in metastatic breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Breast Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Medical Oncology / methods. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Neoplasm Metastasis. Proportional Hazards Models. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome


95. Brandes AA, Franceschi E, Tosoni A, Degli Esposti R: Trastuzumab and lapatinib beyond trastuzumab progression for metastatic breast cancer: strategies and pitfalls. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther; 2010 Feb;10(2):179-84
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Trastuzumab and lapatinib beyond trastuzumab progression for metastatic breast cancer: strategies and pitfalls.
  • The discovery of HER2 gene amplification and protein overexpression in approximately 15-20% of breast cancers and access to the tailored humanized antibody, trastuzumab (Herceptin), have heralded a new era in breast cancer therapy.
  • Trastuzumab combined with chemotherapy has caused marked tumor responses and increased overall survival in patients with metastatic breast cancer, and has also increased survival in the adjuvant setting after radical surgery.
  • New-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors, which have a broader target, are now considered the key to treatment for breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Quinazolines / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Metastasis. Trastuzumab


96. Savio G, Laudani A, Leonardi V, Pepe A, Scianna C, Gebbia V, Agostara B: Treatment of metastatic breast cancer with vinorelbine and docetaxel. Am J Clin Oncol; 2006 Jun;29(3):276-80
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Treatment of metastatic breast cancer with vinorelbine and docetaxel.
  • OBJECTIVE: A phase II study was performed to evaluate efficacy and safety of the combination vinorelbine and docetaxel in patients with metastatic breast cancer previously treated with anthracycline-based regimens.
  • Sixty-five percent of patients had >2 metastatic sites.
  • Previous treatments included neo-adjuvant chemotherapy in 7.3% of cases, adjuvant chemotherapy in 71%, and front-line chemotherapy for advanced disease in 50% of cases.
  • CONCLUSION: In patients with metastatic breast cancer previously treated with anthracyclines the combination vinorelbine-docetaxel is very active and well tolerated representing a valid therapeutic option for the management of this patient population.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Infusions, Intravenous. Middle Aged. Survival Analysis. Taxoids / administration & dosage. Treatment Outcome. Vinblastine / administration & dosage. Vinblastine / analogs & derivatives

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  • (PMID = 16755181.001).
  • [ISSN] 1537-453X
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Taxoids; 15H5577CQD / docetaxel; 5V9KLZ54CY / Vinblastine; Q6C979R91Y / vinorelbine
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97. Botteri E, Sandri MT, Bagnardi V, Munzone E, Zorzino L, Rotmensz N, Casadio C, Cassatella MC, Esposito A, Curigliano G, Salvatici M, Verri E, Adamoli L, Goldhirsch A, Nolè F: Modeling the relationship between circulating tumour cells number and prognosis of metastatic breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat; 2010 Jul;122(1):211-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Modeling the relationship between circulating tumour cells number and prognosis of metastatic breast cancer.
  • Circulating tumor cell (CTC) count has been shown to be an independent predictor of progression in metastatic breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer.
  • In this study, we propose an approach in which the number of CTCs is analyzed as a continuous predictor, to detect the shape of the relationship between CTCs and prognosis of metastatic breast cancer.
  • We evaluated the association of baseline CTC with progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in a series of 80 patients treated for advanced breast cancer at the European Institute of Oncology, Milan.
  • At baseline, median age was 55 years; 33 patients were newly diagnosed with metastatic breast cancer (41%), while 28 (35%) and 19 (24%) were pretreated with one and two previous chemotherapy lines, respectively.
  • CTCs represent a robust prognostic factor in the metastatic breast cancer setting.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / mortality. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / secondary. Models, Biological. Neoplastic Cells, Circulating
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Lobular / blood. Carcinoma, Lobular / mortality. Carcinoma, Lobular / pathology. Carcinoma, Lobular / secondary. Cell Count. Disease Progression. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Italy / epidemiology. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Risk


98. Fernández Y, Cueva J, Palomo AG, Ramos M, de Juan A, Calvo L, García-Mata J, García-Teijido P, Peláez I, García-Estévez L: Novel therapeutic approaches to the treatment of metastatic breast cancer. Cancer Treat Rev; 2010 Feb;36(1):33-42
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Novel therapeutic approaches to the treatment of metastatic breast cancer.
  • Metastatic breast cancer is ultimately an incurable disease, although recent data have shown that its incidence is decreasing and that patients with metastatic breast cancer live longer.
  • Our increasing understanding of the molecular biology of metastatic disease has allowed the development of therapies aimed at specific molecular targets.
  • Some of these have already been approved for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer in combination with cytotoxics, and others have shown promising results regarding disease-free survival, overall response rates and time to disease progression.
  • Given the enormous amount of information about drug discovery in cancer, it is important to be familiar with the present state of the treatment of metastatic breast cancer.
  • The purpose of this review is to provide an update on the development of some of the most promising novel agents and treatment strategies in metastatic breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Neoplasm Metastasis. Retrospective Studies

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  • [Copyright] 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19883980.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-1967
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer treatment reviews
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Treat. Rev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal
  • [Number-of-references] 99
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99. Allen JM: Economic/societal burden of metastatic breast cancer: a US perspective. Am J Manag Care; 2010 Sep;16(9):697-704
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Economic/societal burden of metastatic breast cancer: a US perspective.
  • OBJECTIVE: To review the issues surrounding the economic and societal burden of metastatic breast cancer to provide a context for understanding the value of newly introduced high-cost drug treatments.
  • STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: The PubMed database and relevant congress abstract databases were searched to identify cost-of-illness data with relevance to metastatic breast cancer and the cost of therapies emerging within the last 5 years.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The most current estimates of direct costs for metastatic breast cancer do not represent the full societal impact of the disease.
  • Further research is needed to fully understand how different treatment options for metastatic breast cancer affect overall societal costs in the United States, and how outcomes in the palliative setting are valued by society.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / economics. Cost of Illness. Neoplasm Metastasis
  • [MeSH-minor] Cost-Benefit Analysis. Databases, Factual. Drug Costs. Female. Humans. United States

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  • (PMID = 20873957.001).
  • [ISSN] 1936-2692
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of managed care
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Manag Care
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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100. Gelmon K, Chan A, Harbeck N: The role of capecitabine in first-line treatment for patients with metastatic breast cancer. Oncologist; 2006;11 Suppl 1:42-51
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  • [Title] The role of capecitabine in first-line treatment for patients with metastatic breast cancer.
  • Capecitabine is an important drug in the therapeutic armamentarium for metastatic breast cancer.
  • A comprehensive worldwide clinical trial program involving >10,000 patients with locally advanced and metastatic breast cancer has provided evidence for the current treatment strategies.
  • On the basis of data demonstrating consistent activity across several trials in patients with heavily pretreated breast cancer, capecitabine was approved in the U.S. in 1998 for the treatment of patients with metastatic disease resistant to paclitaxel and anthracycline-containing therapy, with later European Union approval for single-agent capecitabine in the metastatic setting.
  • Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer in 2001 on the basis of the large phase III trial comparing XT with docetaxel alone, which showed a survival advantage for combination therapy compared with single-agent therapy.
  • This was shortly followed by European approval for the combination in metastatic breast cancer.
  • The clinical utility of capecitabine in the management of breast cancer is supported by its convenient oral dosing schedule and favorable safety profile, as well as its excellent clinical activity in primary and metastatic breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Fluorouracil / analogs & derivatives
  • [MeSH-minor] Anthracyclines / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bridged Compounds / administration & dosage. Capecitabine. Clinical Trials as Topic. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm / drug effects. Female. Humans. Taxoids / administration & dosage

  • Genetic Alliance. consumer health - Breast Cancer.
  • Genetic Alliance. consumer health - Metastatic cancer.
  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Breast Cancer.
  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. CAPECITABINE .
  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. FLUOROURACIL .
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  • (PMID = 16971739.001).
  • [ISSN] 1083-7159
  • [Journal-full-title] The oncologist
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncologist
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anthracyclines; 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Bridged Compounds; 0 / Taxoids; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; 1605-68-1 / taxane; 6804DJ8Z9U / Capecitabine; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
  • [Number-of-references] 65
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