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1. Palmieri D, Smith QR, Lockman PR, Bronder J, Gril B, Chambers AF, Weil RJ, Steeg PS: Brain metastases of breast cancer. Breast Dis; 2006-2007;26:139-47
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  • [Title] Brain metastases of breast cancer.
  • Central nervous system or brain metastases traditionally occur in 10-16% of metastatic breast cancer patients and are associated with a dismal prognosis.
  • The development of brain metastases has been associated with young age, and tumors that are estrogen receptor negative, Her-2+ or of the basal phenotype.
  • Mouse experimental metastasis model systems have been developed for brain metastasis using selected sublines of human MDA-MB-231 breast carcinoma cells.
  • Using micron sized iron particles and MRI imaging, the fate of MDA-MB-231BR cells has been mapped: Approximately 2% of injected cells form larger macroscopic metastases, while 5% of cells remain as dormant cells in the brain.
  • New therapies with permeability for the blood-brain barrier are needed to counteract both types of tumor cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Breast Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17473372.001).
  • [ISSN] 0888-6008
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast disease
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
  • [Number-of-references] 88
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2. Imamura T, Hanyu A: [TGF-beta signaling during bone metastasis of breast cancer and in-vivo imaging]. Clin Calcium; 2008 Apr;18(4):460-5
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  • [Title] [TGF-beta signaling during bone metastasis of breast cancer and in-vivo imaging].
  • TGF-beta thus plays two distinct and opposing roles in cancer progression.
  • In the present study, we have developed a useful method that enables monitoring of tumor and its TGF-beta signaling within the same animal using in vivo bioluminescent imaging.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / genetics. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Diagnostic Imaging / methods. Signal Transduction / genetics. Transforming Growth Factor beta / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Female. Humans. Luciferases. Luminescent Proteins. Mice


3. Yoshioka S, Hojou S, Toyoda Y, Ogino T, Shimizu K, Yoshioka A, Fujie Y, Fukunaga H, Ota H, Endo W, Maeura Y: [Three cases of breast cancer with skin metastasis after mastectomy treated by radiotherapy]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2010 Nov;37(12):2766-8
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  • [Title] [Three cases of breast cancer with skin metastasis after mastectomy treated by radiotherapy].
  • We reported three cases of patient with triple negative skin metastasis after mastectomy of breast cancer.
  • All three cases had received radiotherapy for skin metastasis.
  • After radiotherapy, 2 patients died due to a distant metastasis.
  • Case 2 was no indication of chemotherapy because of dementia metastases.
  • It appears that a further consideration was needed for the timing of radiotherapy to be performed among the treatments of locoregional recurrence and distant metastasis of breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / therapy. Skin Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Skin Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Mastectomy. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 21224706.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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4. Zhang B, Cao WF, Zhao HM, Song YQ, Ning LS, Niu Y, Hao XS, Cao XC: [Clinical impact of extracapsular extension of axillary lymph node metastases in breast cancer]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi; 2009 Oct;31(10):790-4
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  • [Title] [Clinical impact of extracapsular extension of axillary lymph node metastases in breast cancer].
  • OBJECTIVE: To study the clinical significance of extracapsular extension (ECE) of axillary lymph node metastases in breast cancer.
  • METHODS: The clinicopathological data of 1230 cases of nodal positive breast cancer treated in our department from 1989 to 1995 were analyzed retrospectively.
  • The patients in ECE positive group had a larger tumor size (5.11 +/- 2.53 cm versus 3.90 +/- 1.80 cm, P < 0.001).
  • ECE was also a risk factor of distant metastasis, and the relapse time had a significant difference (P < 0.001).
  • The median metastasis free time was 30.0 (2 approximately 172) months in ECE positive group, while 37.5 (2 approximately 170) months in ECE negative group (P = 0.006).
  • CE occurred in 60.4% of the patients with firstly diagnosed bone, skin and distant lymph node metastasis, but in 42.0% of the patients with firstly diagnosed visceral metastasis (P = 0.001).
  • The metastasis-free survival rate, locoregional recurrence-free survival rate and overall survival rate of the ECE positive group were much shorter than that of the ECE negative group.
  • COX proportional hazard regression single factor analysis and multi-factor analysis suggested that ECE is an independent factor of metastasis-free survival, locoregional free recurrence and overall survival.
  • CONCLUSION: The presence of ECE in breast cancer is positively related with tumor size and the number of positive lymph nodes.
  • It is also a risk factor of locoregional recurrence and distant metastasis.
  • ECE positive group has a much shorter metastasis-free survival, locoregional recurrence-free survival and overall survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Lymph Nodes / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols. Axilla. Cisplatin. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Fluorouracil. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Mastectomy. Methotrexate. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Postmenopause. Proportional Hazards Models. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 20021837.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-3766
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate; CMF protocol
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6. Palmieri D, Bronder JL, Herring JM, Yoneda T, Weil RJ, Stark AM, Kurek R, Vega-Valle E, Feigenbaum L, Halverson D, Vortmeyer AO, Steinberg SM, Aldape K, Steeg PS: Her-2 overexpression increases the metastatic outgrowth of breast cancer cells in the brain. Cancer Res; 2007 May 1;67(9):4190-8
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  • [Title] Her-2 overexpression increases the metastatic outgrowth of breast cancer cells in the brain.
  • Retrospective studies of breast cancer patients suggest that primary tumor Her-2 overexpression or trastuzumab therapy is associated with a devastating complication: the development of central nervous system (brain) metastases.
  • Herein, we present Her-2 expression trends from resected human brain metastases and data from an experimental brain metastasis assay, both indicative of a functional contribution of Her-2 to brain metastatic colonization.
  • Of 124 archival resected brain metastases from breast cancer patients, 36.2% overexpressed Her-2, indicating an enrichment in the frequency of tumor Her-2 overexpression at this metastatic site.
  • Using quantitative real-time PCR of laser capture microdissected epithelial cells, Her-2 and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mRNA levels in a cohort of 12 frozen brain metastases were increased up to 5- and 9-fold, respectively, over those of Her-2-amplified primary tumors.
  • Co-overexpression of Her-2 and EGFR was also observed in a subset of brain metastases.
  • We then tested the hypothesis that overexpression of Her-2 increases the colonization of breast cancer cells in the brain in vivo.
  • A subclone of MDA-MB-231 human breast carcinoma cells that selectively metastasizes to brain (231-BR) overexpressed EGFR; 231-BR cells were transfected with low (4- to 8-fold) or high (22- to 28-fold) levels of Her-2.
  • In vivo, in a model of brain metastasis, low or high Her-2-overexpressing 231-BR clones produced comparable numbers of micrometastases in the brain as control transfectants; however, the Her-2 transfectants yielded 3-fold greater large metastases (>50 microm(2); P < 0.001).
  • Our data indicate that Her-2 overexpression increases the outgrowth of metastatic tumor cells in the brain in this model system.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / enzymology. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Breast Neoplasms / enzymology. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Receptor, ErbB-2 / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Adhesion / physiology. Cell Line, Tumor. Female. Humans. Mice. Mice, Inbred BALB C. Neoplasm Transplantation. RNA, Messenger / biosynthesis. RNA, Messenger / genetics. Transfection. Transplantation, Heterologous


7. Kim KY, Baek A, Park YS, Park MY, Kim JH, Lim JS, Lee MS, Yoon SR, Lee HG, Yoon Y, Yoon DY, Yang Y: Adipocyte culture medium stimulates invasiveness of MDA-MB-231 cell via CCL20 production. Oncol Rep; 2009 Dec;22(6):1497-504
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  • We explored whether adipocyte culture medium affects the secreted chemokine profile of tumor cells, because adipocytes stimulate progression or metastasis of breast cancer cells, and chemokines secreted from tumor cells are involved in these processes.
  • [MeSH-major] Adipocytes / cytology. Chemokine CCL20 / biosynthesis. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adipose Tissue / metabolism. Animals. Cell Line. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation. Chemokines / metabolism. Culture Media / pharmacology. Disease Progression. Humans. Mice. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 19885605.001).
  • [ISSN] 1791-2431
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CCL20 protein, human; 0 / Chemokine CCL20; 0 / Chemokines; 0 / Culture Media; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
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8. Pokala N, Kiran PR, Niazi M, Ehrlich F, Shah AK: Unusual lesions in the breast - recurrent metastasis in the breast from uterine sarcoma. Breast J; 2007 Jul-Aug;13(4):428-9
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  • [Title] Unusual lesions in the breast - recurrent metastasis in the breast from uterine sarcoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / secondary. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Sarcoma / pathology. Sarcoma / secondary. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Middle Aged


9. Zagha RM, Hamawy KJ: Solitary breast cancer metastasis to the bladder: an unusual occurrence. Urol Oncol; 2007 May-Jun;25(3):236-9
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  • [Title] Solitary breast cancer metastasis to the bladder: an unusual occurrence.
  • Breast carcinoma is the most common nondermatologic cancer diagnosis in women.
  • Common metastatic sites include lymph nodes, lung, liver, and bone.
  • Metastases to the bladder are exceedingly rare.
  • To date, there are a total of 31 reports of patients diagnosed with metastatic breast cancer to the bladder while living.
  • Only 5 of these patients were reported to have no other site of metastasis, other than axillary nodes at breast surgery.
  • We present the sixth reported case of metastatic breast carcinoma solely to the bladder in a living patient.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Female. Humans


10. Luo J, Feng J, Lu J, Wang Y, Tang X, Xie F, Li W: Aberrant methylation profile of 14-3-3 sigma and its reduced transcription/expression levels in Chinese sporadic female breast carcinogenesis. Med Oncol; 2010 Sep;27(3):791-7
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  • [Title] Aberrant methylation profile of 14-3-3 sigma and its reduced transcription/expression levels in Chinese sporadic female breast carcinogenesis.
  • To study the relation of 14-3-3 sigma gene promoter hypermethylation and its transcription expression levels in sporadic breast carcinogenesis.
  • The methylation frequencies of 14-3-3 sigma were 90% in 68 cases of sporadic breast cancer patients.
  • The methylation change of 14-3-3 sigma gene was markedly related with various types, grades, and lymph node metastases (P < 0.05), and no significant differences in methylation frequencies were seen between premenopause and postmenopause (P > 0.05).
  • Only was lymph node metastases strongly associated with poor outcome (P = 0.02).
  • Whether 14-3-3 sigma promoter methylation or not did not affect the 5 years survival rate of sporadic breast cancer patients (P > 0.05).
  • Epigenetics alterations of the 14-3-3 sigma can contribute to reducing or losing expression of 14-3-3 sigma protein, which play an important role in the development of sporadic breast carcinomas and involved in various types, grades, and lymph node metastases.
  • Otherwise, node metastases of breast carcinogenesis patients are strongly associated with poor outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] 14-3-3 Proteins / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Carcinoma / genetics. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / genetics. CpG Islands / genetics. DNA Methylation. DNA, Neoplasm / analysis. Exonucleases / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / genetics. Gene Silencing. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. Promoter Regions, Genetic / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. China / epidemiology. Epithelial Cells / metabolism. Exoribonucleases. Female. Fibrocystic Breast Disease / genetics. Fibrocystic Breast Disease / metabolism. Fibrocystic Breast Disease / pathology. Humans. Middle Aged. RNA, Messenger / biosynthesis. RNA, Neoplasm / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 19685192.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-131X
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical oncology (Northwood, London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 14-3-3 Proteins; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm; EC 3.1.- / Exonucleases; EC 3.1.- / Exoribonucleases; EC 3.1.- / SFN protein, human
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11. Singh V, Saunders C, Wylie L, Bourke A: New diagnostic techniques for breast cancer detection. Future Oncol; 2008 Aug;4(4):501-13
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  • [Title] New diagnostic techniques for breast cancer detection.
  • Breast imaging has made huge advances in the last decade, and along with newer techniques to diagnose primary breast cancer, many novel methods are being used and look promising in detecting distant metastasis, recurrent disease and assessing response to treatment.
  • MRI has a role in screening women at high risk for breast cancer.
  • It also aids in cancer management by assessing response to treatment and can help in deciding appropriate surgery by providing accurate information on the extent of the tumor.
  • PET/computed tomography has a role in detecting local disease recurrence and distant metastasis in breast cancer patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Diagnostic Imaging / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Breath Tests. Elasticity Imaging Techniques / methods. Endoscopy / methods. Female. Hair / chemistry. Humans. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Mammography / methods. Mass Screening / methods. Middle Aged. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Sensitivity and Specificity. Therapeutic Irrigation. Tomography, Optical Coherence / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods. X-Ray Diffraction


12. Ke Z, Lin H, Fan Z, Cai TQ, Kaplan RA, Ma C, Bower KA, Shi X, Luo J: MMP-2 mediates ethanol-induced invasion of mammary epithelial cells over-expressing ErbB2. Int J Cancer; 2006 Jul 1;119(1):8-16
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  • Ethanol is a tumor promoter and may enhance the metastasis of breast cancer.
  • We have previously demonstrated that over-expression of ErbB2 promoted ethanol-mediated invasion of mammary epithelial cells and breast cancer cells.
  • [MeSH-minor] Blotting, Western. Cell Culture Techniques. Epithelial Cells / enzymology. Female. Gene Expression Regulation. Humans. JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases / metabolism. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases / metabolism. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Reactive Oxygen Species / metabolism. Receptor, ErbB-2 / genetics. Transcription, Genetic. Up-Regulation. p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16450376.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-7136
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIAAA NIH HHS / AA / AA12968; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA96385
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Reactive Oxygen Species; 3K9958V90M / Ethanol; EC 2.7.1.- / Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2; EC 2.7.11.24 / JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases; EC 2.7.11.24 / p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases; EC 3.4.24.24 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 2; EC 3.4.24.35 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 9
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13. Corrêa ZM, Burmann TG, Freitas AM, Ramos GZ, Marcon IM: [Prevalence of ocular metastasis in patients with known metastatic disease: preliminary results]. Arq Bras Oftalmol; 2005 Mar-Apr;68(2):189-93
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  • [Title] [Prevalence of ocular metastasis in patients with known metastatic disease: preliminary results].
  • [Transliterated title] Prevalência de metástases oculares em pacientes com doença metastática reconhecida: resultados preliminares.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate, in a prospective fashion, the prevalence of intraocular metastasis: most frequent primary tumors and ocular tissue most frequently compromised by metastasis.
  • METHODS: In-patients with malignant neoplasm and metastatic disease from a tertiary Oncology Hospital (HSR) were consecutively evaluated between January 2001 and July 2002.
  • All patients underwent complete ophthalmologic examination, including indirect ophthalmoscopy under pharmacological mydriasis using a 28 diopter-lens and, in cases suspicious of neoplasia, ultrasonography and fluorescein angiography were performed.
  • The diagnosis of metastatic ocular tumor was established based on the clinical features and the results of the mentioned ancillary studies.
  • Twenty-one patients presented ocular lesions suggestive of metastasis.
  • The primary malignancy originating ocular metastasis most frequently was breast cancer (28.6%).
  • Evaluating the tumor type separately, lung cancer presented a highest prevalence of metastasis to the eye (71.5%).
  • CONCLUSION: The prevalence of ocular metastasis in patients with malignancy and metastatic disease seemed significant in the studied group.
  • The neoplasms more frequently causing ocular metastasis were: breast and lung carcinoma, and the choroid was involved more frequently.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / secondary. Eye Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Brazil / epidemiology. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prevalence. Prospective Studies. Visual Acuity

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  • (PMID = 15905939.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-2749
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos brasileiros de oftalmologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Bras Oftalmol
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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14. Fadda GM, Santeufemia DA, Cossu-Rocca P, Bardino G, Costantino S, Sanna G, Sarobba MG, Farris A: Fulminant liver failure in a patient affected by polycystic liver disease and liver metastases from breast carcinoma. Tumori; 2009 Jul-Aug;95(4):557-61
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  • [Title] Fulminant liver failure in a patient affected by polycystic liver disease and liver metastases from breast carcinoma.
  • CASE REPORT: We report a case of acute liver failure in a young woman with PLD and liver metastases from breast carcinoma.
  • RESULTS: No data are available in the literature about metastatic liver involvement in PLD patients affected by breast cancer.
  • The prognosis of patients with liver metastases is generally poor but fulminant liver failure is a very rare occurrence.
  • Estrogen stimulation seems to be a risk factor for breast cancer and severe PLD.
  • In the reported case, the presence of either the cysts or the metastatic lesions may have resulted in more extensive liver damage.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The adoption of drugs selected in relation to their hepatic toxicity together with careful monitoring of liver function is warranted in the management of breast cancer patients affected by PLD, in order to reduce the risk of liver failure.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / secondary. Liver Diseases / complications. Liver Failure, Acute / etiology. Liver Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Cysts / etiology. Cysts / pathology. Female. Humans. Mastectomy. Radiotherapy


15. Hrabalek L, Kalita O, Studentova H, Jankova J, Ehrmann J, Trojanec R, Hajduch M: Intramedullary spinal cord and cauda equina metastasis of breast carcinoma: case report. Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub; 2010 Jun;154(2):175-7
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  • [Title] Intramedullary spinal cord and cauda equina metastasis of breast carcinoma: case report.
  • AIM: We present a case report of a female patient with metastasis of breast carcinoma to the medullary conus and cauda equina.
  • METHODS: A 48-year-old woman with a history of breast tumor, suddenly felt severe weakness and numbness of the lower extremities.
  • Laminectomy was performed and partial resection of the medullary conus tumor and especially release of nerve roots of cauda equina was achieved using microsurgical techniques.
  • The histological picture and immunophenotype indicates the presence of metastatic ductal adenocarcinoma of the mammary gland.
  • CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this is the first report of successful surgical treatment of metastatic leptomeningeal infiltration of breast carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / secondary. Cauda Equina. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 20668501.001).
  • [ISSN] 1213-8118
  • [Journal-full-title] Biomedical papers of the Medical Faculty of the University Palacký, Olomouc, Czechoslovakia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
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16. Shimamura T, Amizuka N, Li M, Freitas PH, White JH, Henderson JE, Shingaki S, Nakajima T, Ozawa H: Histological observations on the microenvironment of osteolytic bone metastasis by breast carcinoma cell line. Biomed Res; 2005 Aug;26(4):159-72
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  • [Title] Histological observations on the microenvironment of osteolytic bone metastasis by breast carcinoma cell line.
  • Bone tissue, with its dynamic microenvironment featuring osteoclastic bone resorption, angiogenesis and matrix degradation, appears to facilitate proliferation of tumor cells after the onset of bone metastasis.
  • In this study, we examined metastatic lesions in the femora of BALB/c nu/nu mice two weeks after intracardiac injection with human breast carcinoma MDA-231 cells.
  • Histopathological observations showed the metastatic lesions close to the chondro-osseous junction, and revealed MDA-231 cells loosely intermingled with different cell types such as osteoblasts, fibroblastic stromal cells, osteoclasts and endothelial cells.
  • In the metastatic nest, many tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAPase)-positive osteoclasts accumulated in direct contact with or were close to alkaline phosphatase (ALPase)- or receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand (RANKL)-positive osteoblastic cells.
  • Formation of many capillaries lacking complete basal membranes and pericytes ratified the results of in situ hybridization, which revealed intense expression of VEGF in tumor nests, and therefore, indicated ongoing tumor-induced angiogenesis.
  • The tumor cells possessed matrix metallo-proteinases (MMPs)-1 and -9, and frequently extended their stout cytoplasmic processes into fragmented fibrillar components of the growth plate cartilage, implicating degradation of cartilaginous matrix.
  • Thus, osteolytic bone metastasis has demonstrated pathological features as tumor-induced angiogenesis and degradation of extracellular matrix, in addition to osteoclastogenesis.
  • This complex interplay between tumor cells and host tissues may enable and nourish the establishment of a microenvironment that facilitates tumor progression.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Resorption / physiopathology. Breast Neoplasms / physiopathology. Femoral Neoplasms / physiopathology. Neovascularization, Pathologic / metabolism. Osteoblasts / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Line, Tumor. Endothelial Cells / metabolism. Endothelial Cells / ultrastructure. Mice. Mice, Inbred BALB C. Mice, Nude. Osteoclasts / metabolism. Osteoclasts / ultrastructure. Stromal Cells / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16152732.001).
  • [ISSN] 0388-6107
  • [Journal-full-title] Biomedical research (Tokyo, Japan)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biomed. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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17. Sobel JM, Lai R, Mallery S, Levy MJ, Wiersema MJ, Greenwald BD, Gunaratnam NT: The utility of EUS-guided FNA in the diagnosis of metastatic breast cancer to the esophagus and the mediastinum. Gastrointest Endosc; 2005 Mar;61(3):416-20
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  • [Title] The utility of EUS-guided FNA in the diagnosis of metastatic breast cancer to the esophagus and the mediastinum.
  • BACKGROUND: Breast cancer can metastasize to the esophagus and the mediastinum.
  • EUS-guided FNA (EUS-FNA) is being used increasingly as a less invasive alternative to mediastinoscopy for procuring a tissue diagnosis of mediastinal disease and may be useful for the diagnosis of breast cancer metastatic to the esophagus and the mediastinum.
  • METHODS: Twelve women (age range 54-82 years) with a history of breast cancer presented with dysphagia or other symptoms between 1 and 15 years after initial diagnosis and treatment.
  • CT and endoscopy with biopsies suggested a mediastinal mass or lymphadenopathy with extrinsic esophageal compression but failed to provide a tissue diagnosis.
  • EUS-FNA was performed for diagnosis.
  • RESULTS: Cytologic evaluation of specimens obtained by EUS-FNA confirmed breast cancer metastases in 11 of 12 patients (91%).
  • CONCLUSIONS: EUS-FNA is safe and effective for the diagnosis of breast cancer metastases to the esophagus and the mediastinum.
  • EUS-FNA may be useful as a first-line method of evaluation when breast cancer metastasis to the esophagus and the mediastinum is suspected.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle / methods. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Endosonography. Esophageal Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Esophageal Neoplasms / secondary. Mediastinal Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Mediastinal Neoplasms / secretion
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Middle Aged


18. Vaccaro M, Borgia F, Barbuzza O, Gangemi S, Guarneri B: Dermatomyositis and cutaneous metastases from breast cancer: simultaneous development and parallel course. Rheumatol Int; 2010 Jun;30(8):1091-3
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  • [Title] Dermatomyositis and cutaneous metastases from breast cancer: simultaneous development and parallel course.
  • Cancer may appear before the onset of DM, concurrently with DM or after its onset.
  • In the present report, the occurrence of typical DM in concomitance with development of skin metastases from previously treated breast cancer is described, suggesting the role of DM as paraneoplastic marker not only in association with the primary tumor but also in case of cutaneous involvement by cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Dermatomyositis / diagnosis. Paraneoplastic Syndromes / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology


19. Kawase T, Fujii H, Nakahara T, Shigematsu N, Kubo A, Kosuda S: Intense accumulation of Tc-99m MDP in pericardial metastasis from breast cancer. Clin Nucl Med; 2009 Mar;34(3):173-4
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  • [Title] Intense accumulation of Tc-99m MDP in pericardial metastasis from breast cancer.
  • In a routine follow-up study on a 54-year-old female patient with breast cancer, we encountered a rare finding of pericardial metastasis clearly demonstrated by Tc-99m methylene diphosphonate bone scintigraphy.
  • In our case, an additional computed tomography examination of the chest was useful for making the definitive diagnosis of dystrophic calcification of the pericardium.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Heart Neoplasms / metabolism. Heart Neoplasms / secondary. Pericardium / metabolism. Pericardium / pathology. Technetium Tc 99m Medronate / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Bone and Bones / radionuclide imaging. Female. Humans. Incidental Findings. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 19352284.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-0229
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] X89XV46R07 / Technetium Tc 99m Medronate
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20. Amoretti N, Hovorka I, Marcy PY, Grimaud A, Brunner P, Bruneton JN: Aortic embolism of cement: a rare complication of lumbar percutaneous vertebroplasty. Skeletal Radiol; 2007 Jul;36(7):685-7
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  • An aortic embolus of cement occurred in a 72-year-old woman after lumbar percutaneous vertebroplasty for breast cancer metastasis.
  • This rare complication occurred because the collateral arterial supplies to the breast metastasis and the retrograde migration of cement during the vertebroplasty were not recognized.
  • [MeSH-major] Aortography / methods. Bone Cements / adverse effects. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Embolism / diagnosis. Embolism / etiology. Polymethyl Methacrylate / adverse effects. Spinal Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Fractures, Compression / etiology. Fractures, Compression / therapy. Humans. Lumbar Vertebrae / blood supply. Lumbar Vertebrae / diagnostic imaging. Postoperative Complications / diagnosis. Postoperative Complications / etiology. Rare Diseases. Spinal Fractures / etiology. Spinal Fractures / therapy. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • (PMID = 17396256.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2348
  • [Journal-full-title] Skeletal radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Skeletal Radiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bone Cements; 9011-14-7 / Polymethyl Methacrylate
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21. Chen ZH, Lü GM, Ji TH: [Expression of TBX3 mRNA and its role in the pathogenesis and metastasis of breast cancer]. Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao; 2009 Jan;29(1):87-9
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  • [Title] [Expression of TBX3 mRNA and its role in the pathogenesis and metastasis of breast cancer].
  • OBJECTIVE: To explore the role of TBX3 gene in the pathogenesis of breast cancer.
  • METHODS: The total RNA of 51 fresh breast cancer tissues and the corresponding adjacent tissues were extracted and reverse transcribed into cDNA to detect the expression of TBX3 mRNA by real-time PCR.
  • The correlation between TBX3 mRNA expression and the clinicopathologic parameters in relation to breast cancer metastasis was analyzed.
  • RESULT: Compared to that in the adjacent tissues, the expression of TBX3 mRNA was markedly increased in breast cancer tissues.
  • TBX3 mRNA expression was significantly higher in metastatic breast cancer than in non-metastatic tumors.
  • CONCLUSION: Increased expression of TBX3 mRNA suggests the involvement of TBX3 in the pathogenesis and metastasis of breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. T-Box Domain Proteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Neoplasm Metastasis / genetics. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19218121.001).
  • [ISSN] 1673-4254
  • [Journal-full-title] Nan fang yi ke da xue xue bao = Journal of Southern Medical University
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / T-Box Domain Proteins; 0 / TBX3 protein, human
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22. Ohlmann-Knafo S, Kirschbaum M, Fenzl G, Pickuth D: [Diagnostic value of whole-body MRI and bone scintigraphy in the detection of osseous metastases in patients with breast cancer--A Prospective Double-Blinded Study at two Hospital Centers]. Rofo; 2009 Mar;181(3):255-63
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  • [Title] [Diagnostic value of whole-body MRI and bone scintigraphy in the detection of osseous metastases in patients with breast cancer--A Prospective Double-Blinded Study at two Hospital Centers].
  • [Transliterated title] Diagnostischer Stellenwert der Ganzkörper-MRT und der Skelettszintigrafie in der ossären Metastasendetektion bei Mammakarzinompatientinnen--eine prospektive Doppelblindstudie an zwei Klinikzentren.
  • PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of whole-body MRI (WB-MRI) and bone scintigraphy (BS) for the screening of bone metastases for the first time in a large and homogeneous patient collective with breast cancer in a systematic and controlled study.
  • MATERIALS AND METHOD: 213 breast cancer patients were evaluated for bone metastases under randomized, double-blinded and prospective conditions at two hospitals.
  • RESULTS: In 66 % of cases bone metastases were excluded by both procedures, and bone metastases were detected concordantly in 2 % of cases.
  • In 5 / 7 cases BS was negative when WB-MRI identified bone metastases.
  • In 17 % of cases WB-MRI showed important (non-) tumor-associated findings.
  • CONCLUSION: It could be demonstrated that WB-MRI is superior to BS for detecting bone metastases in breast cancer patients.
  • These results should be considered for the next version of the S 3 guideline "Diagnosis, Therapy and Follow-Up of Breast Cancer".
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Radionuclide Imaging. Whole Body Imaging / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Bone and Bones / pathology. Breast Neoplasms, Male / diagnosis. Double-Blind Method. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity. Spinal Neoplasms / pathology. Spinal Neoplasms / secondary. Technetium Tc 99m Medronate / analogs & derivatives

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  • (PMID = 19229791.001).
  • [ISSN] 1438-9010
  • [Journal-full-title] RöFo : Fortschritte auf dem Gebiete der Röntgenstrahlen und der Nuklearmedizin
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rofo
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 72945-61-0 / technetium Tc 99m hydroxymethylene diphosphonate; X89XV46R07 / Technetium Tc 99m Medronate
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23. Wolf I, Levanon-Cohen S, Bose S, Ligumsky H, Sredni B, Kanety H, Kuro-o M, Karlan B, Kaufman B, Koeffler HP, Rubinek T: Klotho: a tumor suppressor and a modulator of the IGF-1 and FGF pathways in human breast cancer. Oncogene; 2008 Nov 27;27(56):7094-105
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  • [Title] Klotho: a tumor suppressor and a modulator of the IGF-1 and FGF pathways in human breast cancer.
  • As IGF-1 and insulin regulate proliferation, survival and metastasis of breast cancer, we studied klotho expression and activities in human breast cancer.
  • Immunohistochemistry analysis of klotho expression in breast tissue arrays revealed high klotho expression in normal breast samples, but very low expression in breast cancer.
  • In cancer samples, high klotho expression was associated with smaller tumor size and reduced KI67 staining.
  • Forced expression of klotho reduced proliferation of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells, whereas klotho silencing in MCF-7 cells, which normally express klotho, enhanced proliferation.
  • Moreover, forced expression of klotho in these cells, or treatment with soluble klotho, inhibited the activation of IGF-1 and insulin pathways, and induced upregulation of the transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta, a breast cancer growth inhibitor that is negatively regulated by the IGF-1-AKT axis.
  • Klotho is also a known modulator of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) pathway, a pathway that inhibits proliferation of breast cancer cells.
  • Studies in breast cancer cells revealed increased activation of the FGF pathway by basic FGF following klotho overexpression.
  • Klotho did not affect activation of the epidermal growth factor pathway in breast cancer cells.
  • These data suggest klotho as a potential tumor suppressor and identify it as an inhibitor of the IGF-1 pathway and activator of the FGF pathway in human breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Fibroblast Growth Factors / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Genes, Tumor Suppressor. Glucuronidase / physiology. Insulin-Like Growth Factor I / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation. Cell Survival. Humans. Insulin / metabolism. Ki-67 Antigen / biosynthesis. RNA, Small Interfering / metabolism. Tetrazolium Salts / pharmacology. Thiazoles / pharmacology. Tissue Array Analysis

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  • (PMID = 18762812.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-5594
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncogene
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncogene
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Insulin; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / RNA, Small Interfering; 0 / Tetrazolium Salts; 0 / Thiazoles; 298-93-1 / thiazolyl blue; 62031-54-3 / Fibroblast Growth Factors; 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I; EC 3.2.1.31 / Glucuronidase; EC 3.2.1.31 / klotho protein
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24. Zhang D, Wong LL, Koay ES: Phosphorylation of Ser78 of Hsp27 correlated with HER-2/neu status and lymph node positivity in breast cancer. Mol Cancer; 2007;6:52
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  • [Title] Phosphorylation of Ser78 of Hsp27 correlated with HER-2/neu status and lymph node positivity in breast cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Abnormal amplification/expression of HER-2/neu oncogene has been causally linked with tumorigenesis and metastasis in breast cancer and associated with shortened overall survival of patients.
  • RESULTS: Comparative phosphoproteomic studies of HER-2/neu positive and -negative breast tumors revealed that Hsp27, one of the identified phosphoproteins, was highly phosphorylated in HER-2/neu positive tumors.
  • The extent of Hsp27 phosphorylation at its Ser15, Ser78 and Ser82 residues were further evaluated with site-specific antibodies in tumor samples by tissue lysate array- and tissue microarray-based analyses, and in the BT474 breast cancer cell line treated with heregulin alpha1 (HRG alpha1) or the p38 MAPK inhibitor, SB203580.
  • Immunohistochemical staining of sections from a tissue microarray with 97 breast tumors showed that positive staining of pSer78 significantly correlated with HER-2/neu (p = 0.004) and lymph node positivity (p = 0.026).
  • CONCLUSION: This investigation demonstrated the significant correlation of enhanced phosphorylation of the Ser78 residue of Hsp27 with HER-2/neu and lymph node positivity in breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Genes, erbB-2. Heat-Shock Proteins / metabolism. Lymphatic Metastasis. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Serine / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Line, Tumor. HSP27 Heat-Shock Proteins. Humans. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Phosphorylation. Proteome. Signal Transduction. Tissue Array Analysis


25. Devitt B, McLachlan SA: Use of ibandronate in the prevention of skeletal events in metastatic breast cancer. Ther Clin Risk Manag; 2008 Apr;4(2):453-8
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  • [Title] Use of ibandronate in the prevention of skeletal events in metastatic breast cancer.
  • Bone metastasis from breast cancer often cause significant morbidity including pain, impaired mobility, pathological fracture, and spinal cord compression.
  • Bisphosphonates play an important role in preventing these skeletal related events and are the standard of care for patients with bone metastasis from breast cancer.
  • Early trials have shown ibandronate may also be effective in high doses for palliation of opioid-resistant pain from bone metastasis, and as a second-line agent in patients developing a skeletal complication whilst receiving another bisphosphonate.

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  • (PMID = 18728841.001).
  • [ISSN] 1176-6336
  • [Journal-full-title] Therapeutics and clinical risk management
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ther Clin Risk Manag
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2504065
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; bone metastasis / breast cancer / ibandronate / oral bisphosphonate / skeletal complications
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26. Saito M, Mori A, Irie T, Tanaka M, Morioka M: [Therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia with 11q23 abnormality due to paclitaxel coexisting with bone marrow metastasis of breast cancer]. Rinsho Ketsueki; 2009 Mar;50(3):192-6
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  • [Title] [Therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia with 11q23 abnormality due to paclitaxel coexisting with bone marrow metastasis of breast cancer].
  • The usefulness of paclitaxel as a key drug in chemotherapy for breast cancer has been demonstrated.
  • In this study, we report a patient who developed t-AML with 11q23 abnormality and bone marrow metastasis after breast cancer treatment with paclitaxel.
  • The patient was a 61-year-old female who developed breast cancer at the age of 54 years.
  • Four years after resection, lung and bone metastases were detected.
  • Weekly therapy with paclitaxel at 80 mg/m2 was administered for 10 weeks (total dose: 1,200 mg), and radiotherapy was performed; thereafter, the extent of bone metastasis increased.
  • Histopathologically, bone marrow metastasis from breast cancer was detected in the same bone marrow specimen.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / adverse effects. Bone Marrow Neoplasms / secondary. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Chromosome Aberrations / drug effects. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 11 / genetics. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / etiology. Neoplasms, Second Primary. Paclitaxel / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Middle Aged


27. Razavi AR, Gill H, Ahlfeldt H, Shahsavar N: Predicting metastasis in breast cancer: comparing a decision tree with domain experts. J Med Syst; 2007 Aug;31(4):263-73
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Predicting metastasis in breast cancer: comparing a decision tree with domain experts.
  • Breast malignancy is the second most common cause of cancer death among women in Western countries.
  • In some situations, such as when access to experienced oncologists is not possible, decision support methods can be helpful in predicting the recurrence of cancer.
  • Three thousand six hundred ninety-nine breast cancer patients admitted in south-east Sweden from 1986 to 1995 were studied.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Decision Trees. Neoplasm Metastasis. Registries
  • [MeSH-minor] Data Interpretation, Statistical. Female. Humans. Models, Statistical. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Prognosis. Sweden

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  • (PMID = 17685150.001).
  • [ISSN] 0148-5598
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medical systems
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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28. Fatehi F, Basiri K, Mehr GK: Calcified brain metastasis of breast cancer. Acta Neurol Belg; 2010 Mar;110(1):124-5
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  • [Title] Calcified brain metastasis of breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Calcinosis / etiology

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  • (PMID = 20514944.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-9009
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neurologica Belgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neurol Belg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Belgium
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29. Chappard D, Libouban H, Legrand E, Ifrah N, Masson C, Baslé MF, Audran M: Computed microtomography of bone specimens for rapid analysis of bone changes associated with malignancy. Anat Rec (Hoboken); 2010 Jul;293(7):1125-33
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  • Breast and prostate cancers are specially metastasizing to bone.
  • Metastases from breast cancer usually exhibit a mixed osteolytic/osteosclerotic aspect, with osteolysis predominating.
  • Osteosclerosis is a common finding in prostatic cancer although osteolysis occurs within the sclerotic lesions.
  • Histopathological examination of bone biopsies was used for the diagnosis of malignancies and, prior to embedding, microcomputed tomography (microCT) was done on the bone specimens.
  • Patients (247) who presented either a bone metastasis, an overt myeloma, a lymphoma or a monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance were studied.
  • MicroCT data are obtained within 4 hr and suggest the malignant invasion of bone marrow when excess of bone resorption/formation is obtained.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / radiography. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Bone and Bones / radiography. X-Ray Microtomography
  • [MeSH-minor] Bone Resorption / radiography. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Female. Humans. Male. Osteolysis / radiography. Osteosclerosis / pathology. Osteosclerosis / radiography. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20583257.001).
  • [ISSN] 1932-8494
  • [Journal-full-title] Anatomical record (Hoboken, N.J. : 2007)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anat Rec (Hoboken)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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31. Amir E, Ooi WS, Simmons C, Kahn H, Christakis M, Popovic S, Kalina M, Chesney A, Singh G, Clemons M: Discordance between receptor status in primary and metastatic breast cancer: an exploratory study of bone and bone marrow biopsies. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol); 2008 Dec;20(10):763-8
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  • [Title] Discordance between receptor status in primary and metastatic breast cancer: an exploratory study of bone and bone marrow biopsies.
  • AIMS: The treatment of bone metastases in breast cancer is traditionally based upon the receptor status of the primary tumour.
  • However, retrospective studies have shown significant discordance in receptor expression between primary and metastatic tumours.
  • Therefore, the aim of this study was to prospectively assess the incidence of discordant receptor status in primary and metastatic disease and evaluate the role of bone marrow biopsies for the reassessment of receptor status.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Nine patients with known bone metastases were assessed with both a radiologically guided bone biopsy and a bone marrow aspirate and trephine.
  • The oestrogen receptor and progesterone receptor status of these samples was assessed and compared with the primary breast cancer.
  • RESULTS: Tumour cells were found in six of the nine bone metastasis specimens and five of the nine bone marrow samples.
  • It seems that bone marrow biopsy may be a simple, safe and well-tolerated way to obtain tissue to reassess the receptor status of metastatic breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Marrow / pathology. Bone Neoplasms / metabolism. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Receptor, ErbB-2 / biosynthesis. Receptors, Estrogen / metabolism. Receptors, Progesterone / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biopsy, Needle. Bone and Bones / metabolism. Bone and Bones / pathology. Diphosphonates / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging


32. Phadke PA, Vaidya KS, Nash KT, Hurst DR, Welch DR: BRMS1 suppresses breast cancer experimental metastasis to multiple organs by inhibiting several steps of the metastatic process. Am J Pathol; 2008 Mar;172(3):809-17
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  • [Title] BRMS1 suppresses breast cancer experimental metastasis to multiple organs by inhibiting several steps of the metastatic process.
  • Breast cancer metastasis suppressor 1 (BRMS1) inhibits formation of macroscopic lung metastases in breast, ovary, and melanoma xenograft models.
  • Because it is unclear which step(s) of the metastatic cascade are affected by BRMS1, the major aim of this study was to determine when and how BRMS1 acts to suppress metastasis.
  • We also examined whether BRMS1 expression globally blocks metastasis or selectively inhibits metastatic outgrowths in specific tissues.
  • Metastatic human breast carcinoma cell lines MDA-MB-231 and -435 expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP; 231 GFP and 435 GFP) and cell lines transduced with the BRMS1 gene (231 GFP-BRMS1 and 435 GFP-BRMS1) were injected into the left cardiac ventricle to achieve the widest possible cellular distribution, by minimizing first-pass clearance in the lungs.
  • Compared with parental cells, BRMS1-expressing clones formed significantly fewer metastases in all organs tested.
  • Most of the BRMS1-expressing cells reaching secondary sites failed to proliferate, suggesting that BRMS1 also inhibits colonization.
  • Coupled with previous reports showing modest effects of BRMS1 on adhesion and invasion, our results indicate that BRMS1 inhibits metastases in multiple organs by blocking several steps in the metastatic cascade.

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  • (PMID = 18276787.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9440
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Pathol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / F32 CA113037; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA087728; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA087728; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA113037
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BRMS1 protein, human; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Recombinant Fusion Proteins; 0 / Repressor Proteins; 147336-22-9 / Green Fluorescent Proteins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2258257
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33. Wang XB, Peng WQ, Yi ZJ, Zhu SL, Gan QH: [Expression and prognostic value of transcriptional factor sp1 in breast cancer]. Ai Zheng; 2007 Sep;26(9):996-1000
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  • [Title] [Expression and prognostic value of transcriptional factor sp1 in breast cancer].
  • BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: Transcriptional factor Sp1 is involved in many biological processes, such as cell proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation and transformation, and plays an important role in invasion and metastasis of tumors.
  • This study was to investigate the correlations of Sp1 expression to metastasis, invasion, and prognosis of breast cancer.
  • METHODS: The expression of Sp1 in 60 specimens of breast cancer and 12 specimens of adjacent breast tissue was detected by EnVision immunohistochemistry.
  • Its correlation to clinicopathologic features of breast cancer was analyzed by Cox regression analysis.
  • RESULTS: The positive rate of Sp1 was 71.67% in breast cancer tissues, and 33.33% in adjacent tissues.
  • Sp1 staining in cancer tissue was positively correlated to TNM stage (r=0.349, P<0.05), tumor invasion (r=0.407, P<0.01), and lymph node metastasis (r=0.314, P<0.05).
  • Cox multivariate analysis showed that Sp1 expression, TNM stage, invasion and lymph node metastasis were independent prognostic factors of breast cancer.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Sp1 maybe participate in the invasion and metastasis of breast cancer, and is one of the valuable markers indicating poor prognosis of breast cancer.
  • Sp1 detection, with consideration of tumor invasion and clinical stage, may increase the accuracy of predicting prognosis of patients with breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / metabolism. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / metabolism. Sp1 Transcription Factor / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Breast / metabolism. Carcinoma, Lobular / metabolism. Carcinoma, Lobular / pathology. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Proportional Hazards Models. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 17927860.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Ai zheng = Aizheng = Chinese journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ai Zheng
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Sp1 Transcription Factor
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34. Proschek D, Kurth A, Proschek P, Vogl TJ, Mack MG: Prospective pilot-study of combined bipolar radiofrequency ablation and application of bone cement in bone metastases. Anticancer Res; 2009 Jul;29(7):2787-92
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  • [Title] Prospective pilot-study of combined bipolar radiofrequency ablation and application of bone cement in bone metastases.
  • BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy and safety of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of bone metastases of breast cancer and to compare RFA alone and RFA with additional bone cement application.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Sixteen female patients with painful spinal bone metastases of human breast cancer were included in this prospective pilot study (mean age 59.5 years, range 52 - 69 years).
  • Imaging showed a complete ablation of the bone tumor in all patients.
  • No local tumor progression was seen.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Cements. Bone Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Breast Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Pilot Projects. Prospective Studies. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19596962.001).
  • [ISSN] 1791-7530
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bone Cements
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35. Liu W, Palma-Diaz F, Alasio TM: Primary small cell carcinoma of the lung initially presenting as a breast mass: a fine-needle aspiration diagnosis. Diagn Cytopathol; 2009 Mar;37(3):208-12
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  • [Title] Primary small cell carcinoma of the lung initially presenting as a breast mass: a fine-needle aspiration diagnosis.
  • The incidence of metastases to the breast from extramammary sites is relatively low compared with the incidence of primary breast carcinoma.
  • Primary sites which have a predilection for metastases to the breast include, in the order of decreasing frequency, malignant melanoma, lymphoma, lung carcinoma, ovarian carcinoma, and soft tissue sarcoma, followed by gastrointestinal and genitourinary primaries.
  • Most lung primaries metastasizing to breast represent adenocarcinoma.
  • We report a case of lung small cell carcinoma metastasizing to the breast and initially presenting with a breast mass in a 50-year-old female.
  • The tumor was first diagnosed on a fine-needle aspiration biopsy specimen (FNAB) from the breast lesion and subsequently supported by core biopsy.
  • Because of the difference in treatment for primary small cell carcinoma of breast versus primary small cell carcinoma of the lung, as well as the difference in prognosis for both malignancies, determining the site of primary malignancy is crucial to adequate patient care.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Small Cell Lung Carcinoma / diagnosis. Small Cell Lung Carcinoma / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 19170174.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0339
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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36. Ono M, Watanabe T, Shimizu C, Hiramoto N, Goto Y, Yonemori K, Kouno T, Ando M, Tamura K, Katsumata N, Fujiwara Y: Therapy-related acute promyelocytic leukemia caused by hormonal therapy and radiation in a patient with recurrent breast cancer. Jpn J Clin Oncol; 2008 Aug;38(8):567-70
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  • [Title] Therapy-related acute promyelocytic leukemia caused by hormonal therapy and radiation in a patient with recurrent breast cancer.
  • A 36-year-old Japanese woman developed right breast cancer and underwent breast-conserving surgery and regional radiation to the right breast without adjuvant systemic therapy because she wished to preserve her fertility.
  • Two years later, she developed multiple bone metastases of breast cancer and received hormonal therapy.
  • During the second line hormonal therapy, she developed APL and received induction and consolidation chemotherapy with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and a combination of anthracycline and cytarabine.
  • After she achieved a complete remission (CR) of the APL, her bone metastases of breast cancer progressed.
  • However, 9 months later, her APL relapsed; she achieved a second CR after undergoing ATRA therapy again.
  • This patient is thought to be a rare case of secondary leukemia, since the leukemia might have been caused by hormonal therapy and regional radiation without chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Breast Neoplasms / therapy. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / chemically induced. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Second Primary / chemically induced
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Leukemia, Radiation-Induced / etiology


37. Bortnik S, Cohen DJ, Leider-Trejo L, Ron IG: Breast metastasis from a renal cell carcinoma. Isr Med Assoc J; 2008 Oct;10(10):736-7
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  • [Title] Breast metastasis from a renal cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / secondary. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Mammography. Mastectomy / methods. Middle Aged. Nephrectomy

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  • (PMID = 19009958.001).
  • [ISSN] 1565-1088
  • [Journal-full-title] The Israel Medical Association journal : IMAJ
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Isr. Med. Assoc. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Israel
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38. Hurkens KP, Hupperets PS, Creemers GJ, Erdkamp FL, van de Vijver KK, Tjan-Heijnen VC: [Brain metastases in breast cancer: a special disease course for HER2 positive tumors]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd; 2008 Dec 13;152(50):2701-6
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  • [Title] [Brain metastases in breast cancer: a special disease course for HER2 positive tumors].
  • HER2 positive breast cancers are characterized by their aggressive course of disease.
  • It has become clear that patients receiving trastuzumab more frequently develop brain metastases than patients with a HER2 negative tumor.
  • It is important to realize that patients with brain metastases from a HER2 positive breast tumor have a more favorable prognosis than patients with brain metastases from a HER2 negative tumor.
  • Recently, lapatinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, was registered by EMEA for patients with a HER2 positive tumor after previous treatment with anthracyclines, taxanes and trastuzumab.
  • In combination with capacitabine, this agent leads to partial responses of cerebral metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Genes, erbB-2
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Receptor, ErbB-2 / antagonists & inhibitors. Receptor, ErbB-2 / genetics. Receptor, ErbB-2 / metabolism. Trastuzumab. Treatment Outcome


39. Tomao F, Miele E, Spinelli GP, Caprio G, Ranieri E, Mingazzini P, Zullo A, Tomao S: Axillary and subcutaneous breast metastases from rhinopharyngeal carcinoma: a case report and literature review. Anticancer Res; 2008 Jan-Feb;28(1B):419-23
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  • [Title] Axillary and subcutaneous breast metastases from rhinopharyngeal carcinoma: a case report and literature review.
  • The incidence of rhinopharyngeal carcinoma is fewer than one person per 100,000 population but it is one of the most common types of cancer in Southern China.
  • Lung metastases are the most frequent, accounting for 66% of distant metastases.
  • Other metastatic sites include bone (22%) and liver (10%).
  • We report a case with breast skin and axillary nodes involvement.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / secondary. Nasopharynx / pathology. Pharyngeal Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 18383879.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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40. Stange R, Jänsch A, Schrag S, Pflugbeil C, Schlodder D, Pandey-Hoffmann U, Uehleke B: [Favourable course of persisting malignant ascites]. Forsch Komplementmed; 2009 Feb;16(1):49-53
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  • [Title] [Favourable course of persisting malignant ascites].
  • Malignant ascites is a frequent complication in oncological diseases.
  • We report the case of a woman, aged 49 years at the time of primary diagnosis, who suffered from recurrent ascites resulting from liver metastasis of breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Ascites. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / complications. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Mistletoe / chemistry. Phytotherapy. Plant Extracts / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Carboplatin / therapeutic use. Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Humans. Immunologic Factors / therapeutic use. Middle Aged. Paclitaxel / therapeutic use. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19295230.001).
  • [ISSN] 1661-4127
  • [Journal-full-title] Forschende Komplementärmedizin (2006)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Forsch Komplementmed
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunologic Factors; 0 / Plant Extracts; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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41. Bhattacharjee RN, Timoshenko AV, Cai J, Lala PK: Relationship between cyclooxygenase-2 and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 in vascular endothelial growth factor C up-regulation and lymphangiogenesis in human breast cancer. Cancer Sci; 2010 Sep;101(9):2026-32
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  • [Title] Relationship between cyclooxygenase-2 and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 in vascular endothelial growth factor C up-regulation and lymphangiogenesis in human breast cancer.
  • Both cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER)-2 promote breast cancer progression; however, the relationship between the two molecules remains unclear.
  • We utilized human breast cancer tissues and cell lines to examine whether COX-2 and HER-2 played independent or interdependent roles in vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C up-regulation and lymphangiogenesis.
  • A paired correlation of immunodetectable levels of COX-2, VEGF-C, and HER-2 proteins and lymphovascular density (LVD; D2-40-immunolabeled) in 55 breast cancer specimens revealed a positive correlation between COX-2 and HER-2 irrespective of clinicopathological status.
  • These findings implicate COX-2, but not HER-2, in breast cancer-associated lymphangiogenesis.
  • Manipulation of the COX-2 or HER-2 genes in breast cancer cell lines varying widely in COX-2 and HER-2 expression revealed a direct role of COX-2 and an indirect COX-2 dependent role of HER-2 in VEGF-C up-regulation: (i) high VEGF-C expression in high COX-2/low HER-2 expressing MDA-MB-231 cells was reduced by siRNA-mediated down-regulation of COX-2, but not HER-2;.
  • These findings of the primary role of COX-2 and the COX-2-dependent role of HER-2, if any, in VEGF-C up-regulation and lymphangiogenesis suggest that COX-2 inhibitors may abrogate lymphatic metastasis in breast cancer irrespective of HER-2 status.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Cyclooxygenase 2 / metabolism. Lymphangiogenesis. Receptor, ErbB-2 / metabolism. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor C / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Line, Tumor. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. RNA Interference. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Up-Regulation. Vesicular Transport Proteins / genetics. Vesicular Transport Proteins / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] © 2010 Japanese Cancer Association.
  • [ErratumIn] Cancer Sci. 2010 Oct;101(10):2293
  • (PMID = 20608938.001).
  • [ISSN] 1349-7006
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / LYVE1 protein, human; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor C; 0 / Vesicular Transport Proteins; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2; EC 2.7.10.1 / ERBB2 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
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42. Leidenius MH, Vironen JH, Heikkilä PS, Joensuu H: Influence of isolated tumor cells in sentinel nodes on outcome in small, node-negative (pT1N0M0) breast cancer. Ann Surg Oncol; 2010 Jan;17(1):254-62
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  • [Title] Influence of isolated tumor cells in sentinel nodes on outcome in small, node-negative (pT1N0M0) breast cancer.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate the prognostic significance of isolated tumor cells found on sentinel node biopsy.
  • METHODS: The study is based on a prospectively followed up cohort of 1,865 consecutive patients diagnosed with pT1 (tumor size <or=20 mm) breast cancer in one university breast unit between February 2001 and August 2005.
  • Of the 1,390 patients who received no neoadjuvant therapy and who underwent sentinel node biopsy, 63 had isolated tumor cells in the sentinel nodes (stage pT1N0i + M0, verified by axillary node dissection) and 868 did not (pT1N0i - M0).
  • There was no significant difference between the groups in terms of 5-year recurrence-free survival (90.3 versus 93.2%, respectively; P = 0.32) or overall survival, but patients with pN0i+ cancer had less favorable 5-year breast-cancer-specific survival (95.2 versus 98.4%; P = 0.035) than those with pN0i- cancer, and they were more frequently diagnosed with distant metastases from breast cancer during the first 5 years of follow-up (8.1 versus 1.9%, respectively; P = 0.001).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that presence of isolated tumor cells in the sentinel nodes is an adverse prognostic factor in early breast cancer, but its prognostic significance in association with standard factors may be limited.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Lymph Nodes / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cohort Studies. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prospective Studies. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19816743.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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43. Gómez FM, Palussière J, Santos E, Tourdias T, Cornélis F, Sáiz V, Montes H, Eker O: Radiofrequency thermocoagulation of lung tumours. Where we are, where we are headed. Clin Transl Oncol; 2009 Jan;11(1):28-34
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  • Primary tumours usually concerning lung metastasis are breast, colon, kidney, uterus/cervix, prostate, and head and neck tumours.
  • Indications for lung RFA must be individually evaluated by lung cancer committees.
  • Percutaneous lung RFA may be useful in patients with pulmonary primary tumours and metastases, especially in those with nodules smaller than 3 cm and a peripheral location (>1 cm from the hilum).

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  • (PMID = 19155201.001).
  • [ISSN] 1699-048X
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical & translational oncology : official publication of the Federation of Spanish Oncology Societies and of the National Cancer Institute of Mexico
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Transl Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 51
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44. Hassan S, Baccarelli A, Salvucci O, Basik M: Plasma stromal cell-derived factor-1: host derived marker predictive of distant metastasis in breast cancer. Clin Cancer Res; 2008 Jan 15;14(2):446-54
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  • [Title] Plasma stromal cell-derived factor-1: host derived marker predictive of distant metastasis in breast cancer.
  • PURPOSE: Homing of breast cancer cells to metastatic sites may be regulated by the production of stromal cell-derived factor (SDF)-1 by specific target organs, which attracts CXCR4-expressing breast cancer cells.
  • We investigated the value of SDF-1 as a predictive blood marker of distant metastasis in breast cancer, together with a common polymorphism of SDF-1, SDF-1-3'A.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Plasma samples were collected prospectively for 270 consecutive primary breast cancer patients with a median follow-up of 3.3 years.
  • Patients with low SDF-1 showed an increased risk of developing distant metastasis (relative risk, 1.94; P = 0.02) and poorer breast cancer-specific survival [adjusted hazard ratio (AHR), 3.92; P = 0.007].
  • Patients with both low plasma SDF-1 levels and the SDF-1-3'A polymorphism showed a poorer breast cancer-specific survival (AHR, 3.98; P = 0.001) and distant disease-free survival (AHR, 2.88; P = 0.003).
  • In a separate cohort of 22 breast cancer patients, we found no significant difference in SDF-1 levels before and posttumor resection.
  • CONCLUSION: We found that low plasma SDF-1 is an independent host-derived predictive marker of distant metastasis in breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / blood. Chemokine CXCL12 / blood. Neoplasm Metastasis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Genotype. Humans. Middle Aged. Polymorphism, Genetic. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 18223219.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chemokine CXCL12
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45. Tokugawa T, Kobayashi A, Okubo K, Matsuyama T, Imai S, Koyama H: [A patient with multiple skin metastases from breast cancer responding to S-1 effectively under treatment with trastuzumab]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2009 Apr;36(4):679-82
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  • [Title] [A patient with multiple skin metastases from breast cancer responding to S-1 effectively under treatment with trastuzumab].
  • We report a case of a 52-year-old female with multiple skin metastases from breast cancer who responded to S-1.
  • She underwent surgery of her right breast in March 2000 and the left in June 2006.
  • Multiple skin metastases were later detected.
  • Thoracic CT at the end of the three courses revealed the disappearance of the multiple skin metastases.
  • It was concluded from these findings that S-1 could be safely and effectively administered to advanced breast cancer patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Oxonic Acid / therapeutic use. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / secondary. Tegafur / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Disease Progression. Drug Combinations. Female. Humans. Immunotherapy. Middle Aged. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Trastuzumab

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  • (PMID = 19381048.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Drug Combinations; 150863-82-4 / S 1 (combination); 1548R74NSZ / Tegafur; 5VT6420TIG / Oxonic Acid; P188ANX8CK / Trastuzumab
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46. Jordan JL, Nowak A, Lee TD: Activation of innate immunity to reduce lung metastases in breast cancer. Cancer Immunol Immunother; 2010 May;59(5):789-97
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  • [Title] Activation of innate immunity to reduce lung metastases in breast cancer.
  • Breast cancer continues to be one of the leading causes of cancer death in women.
  • Mortality is primarily due to the development of metastases.
  • Although therapies exist, they lack efficacy in preventing metastatic growth.
  • The objectives of this study were: to investigate the ability of Cs to activate macrophages to produce factors that will induce protective responses against tumour growth; to study the ability of Cs to reduce primary tumour growth in vivo; and to examine the ability of Cs to reduce lung metastasis growth in vivo.
  • We found that oral Cs does not reduce primary tumour growth but can reduce lung metastasis occurrence in a surgical excision model of metastatic mammary carcinoma.
  • The evidence we have shown to date suggests that the reduction in metastases growth may be due to the effects of macrophage-derived factors on tumour cell cycle.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / immunology. Cordyceps / chemistry. Immunity, Innate. Lung Neoplasms / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Female. Macrophage Activation / immunology. Macrophages / drug effects. Macrophages / immunology. Mice. Mice, Inbred BALB C

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  • (PMID = 19956948.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-0851
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer immunology, immunotherapy : CII
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Immunol. Immunother.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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47. Madrigrano A, Beach B, Wheeler A, Wapnir I: Metastases to the breast: alveolar soft part sarcoma in adolescents. Clin Breast Cancer; 2008 Feb;8(1):92-3
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  • [Title] Metastases to the breast: alveolar soft part sarcoma in adolescents.
  • Metastases to the breast comprise 0.5%-2% of breast neoplasms.
  • This is a case report of an 18-year-old woman with an alveolar soft part sarcoma metastatic to the breast.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / secondary. Sarcoma, Alveolar Soft Part / secondary. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Female. Humans


48. Perhavec A, Perme MP, Hocevar M, Besić N, Zgajnar J: Ljubljana nomograms for predicting the likelihood of non-sentinel lymph node metastases in breast cancer patients with a positive sentinel lymph node. Breast Cancer Res Treat; 2010 Jan;119(2):357-66
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Ljubljana nomograms for predicting the likelihood of non-sentinel lymph node metastases in breast cancer patients with a positive sentinel lymph node.
  • Several tools for predicting the likelihood of non-sentinel lymph node (non-SLN) involvement in SLN positive breast cancer patients have been created so far.The aim of our study was to create and validate different nomograms for predicting the likelihood of non-SLN involvement that would be applicable in different institutions and that would also include the results of the preoperative US examination of the axilla.
  • From January 2000 to January 2009, 534 breast cancer patients underwent axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) due to metastatic SLN at our institution.
  • Other variables included(different in different nomograms) were tumor size, lymphovascular invasion, metastasis size in SLN, number of negative and number of positive SLNs.
  • Mean absolute error and mean area under the ROC curve equals to 0.016 and 0.77 for the first, 0.023 and 0.75 for the second and 0.014 and 0.79 for the third nomogram.
  • Three nomograms for predicting the likelihood of non-SLN metastases including the results of the preoperative US examination of the axilla were created at our institution.
  • The validation results seem promising and omission of completion ALND might be considered in patients with the probability of having non-SLN metastases of 10% or less.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / secondary. Likelihood Functions. Nomograms. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Logistic Models. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests. ROC Curve. Reproducibility of Results. Risk Assessment. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 19787449.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7217
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer research and treatment
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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49. Moritani S, Ichihara S, Hasegawa M, Endo T, Oiwa M, Yoshikawa K, Sato Y, Aoyama H, Hayashi T, Kushima R: Serous papillary adenocarcinoma of the female genital organs and invasive micropapillary carcinoma of the breast. Are WT1, CA125, and GCDFP-15 useful in differential diagnosis? Hum Pathol; 2008 May;39(5):666-71
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  • [Title] Serous papillary adenocarcinoma of the female genital organs and invasive micropapillary carcinoma of the breast. Are WT1, CA125, and GCDFP-15 useful in differential diagnosis?
  • Serous papillary adenocarcinoma of the female genital organs and invasive micropapillary carcinoma of the breast have close histologic similarities.
  • We examined 23 serous papillary adenocarcinomas (16 ovarian, 5 endometrial, and 2 peritoneal) and 37 invasive micropapillary carcinomas of the breast (12 pure and 25 mixed types) on immunohistochemical expression of Wilm's tumor antigen-1 (WT1), CA125, and gross cystic disease fluid protein-15 (GCDFP-15), which have been reported to be useful in the differential diagnosis of primary ovarian carcinomas versus metastatic breast cancer to the ovary.
  • The CA125-positive rate of invasive micropapillary carcinoma was higher than the rate reported for other types of breast carcinomas.
  • We consider CA125 to be not always useful in the differential diagnosis of serous papillary adenocarcinoma and invasive micropapillary carcinoma.
  • WT1 and GCDFP-15 could be useful markers for the differential diagnosis of ovarian and peritoneal serous papillary adenocarcinoma versus breast invasive micropapillary adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. CA-125 Antigen / analysis. Carrier Proteins / analysis. Endometrial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Genital Neoplasms, Female / diagnosis. Glycoproteins / analysis. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. WT1 Proteins / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 18339419.001).
  • [ISSN] 0046-8177
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CA-125 Antigen; 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / Glycoproteins; 0 / PIP protein, human; 0 / WT1 Proteins
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50. Krichen Makni S, Abbes K, Khanfir A, Frikha M, Sellami Boudawara T: [Metastatic signet ring cell carcinoma to the breast from stomach]. Cancer Radiother; 2007 Sep;11(5):276-9
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  • [Title] [Metastatic signet ring cell carcinoma to the breast from stomach].
  • [Transliterated title] Métastase mammaire d'un adénocarcinome à cellules en bague à chaton gastrique.
  • Metastatic tumors in the breast are quite rare and constitute 0.5 to 6% of all breast malignancies.
  • The most frequent primitive tumors are lymphoma, leukaemia and malignant melanoma.
  • A gastric tumor was discovered intraoperatively with ovarian metastasis and peritoneal carcinosis.
  • Four months later, the patient presented with a lump of the right breast.
  • The histologic examination corresponded to a mammary metastasis by a signet ring cell carcinoma from stomach.
  • The objective of our work is to discuss through this observation the anatomoclinical and evolutionary characteristics of breast metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Signet Ring Cell / secondary. Stomach Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Breast / pathology. Female. Gastric Mucosa / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Krukenberg Tumor / pathology. Mastectomy. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / secondary. Stomach / pathology. Time Factors. Ultrasonography, Mammary


51. Zabuawala T, Taffany DA, Sharma SM, Merchant A, Adair B, Srinivasan R, Rosol TJ, Fernandez S, Huang K, Leone G, Ostrowski MC: An ets2-driven transcriptional program in tumor-associated macrophages promotes tumor metastasis. Cancer Res; 2010 Feb 15;70(4):1323-33
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  • [Title] An ets2-driven transcriptional program in tumor-associated macrophages promotes tumor metastasis.
  • Tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) are implicated in breast cancer metastasis, but relatively little is known about the underlying genes and pathways that are involved.
  • We conditionally deleted Ets in TAMs to determine its function at this level on mouse mammary tumor growth and metastasis.
  • Ets2 deletion in TAMs decreased the frequency and size of lung metastases in three different mouse models of breast cancer metastasis.
  • An Ets2-TAM expression signature consisting of 133 genes was identified within human breast cancer expression data which could retrospectively predict overall survival of patients with breast cancer in two independent data sets.
  • In summary, we identified Ets2 as a central driver of a transcriptional program in TAMs that acts to promote lung metastasis of breast tumors.

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  • (PMID = 20145133.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7445
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA097189-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA053271-17A1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA097189-01A20003; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA097189-01A2; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA097189; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA097189-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA097189-01A20003; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA097189-020003; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA097189-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA097189-020003; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA097189-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA053271-18; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA053271-18; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA097189-030003; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA097189-040003; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA097189-050003; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA097189-030003; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA097189-040003; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA097189-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA053271-19; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA097189-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA097189-050003; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA053271-19; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA053271-17A1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA097189-01A2; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA097189-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA053271
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Ets2 protein, mouse; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Protein c-ets-2
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS165052; NLM/ PMC2822898
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52. Hasteh F, Pu R, Michael CW: A metastatic renal carcinoid tumor presenting as breast mass: a diagnostic dilemma. Diagn Cytopathol; 2007 May;35(5):306-10
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  • [Title] A metastatic renal carcinoid tumor presenting as breast mass: a diagnostic dilemma.
  • We present clinicopathological and cytological findings of a well-defined breast mass in a patient with history of primary renal carcinoid tumor.
  • Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology showed monotonous tumor cells with plasmacytoid appearance arranged singly and in small clusters.
  • Occasional tumor cells were arranged in acinar architecture resembling glandular differentiation.
  • Tumor cells showed fine speckled chromatin.
  • The unusual location for metastasis of this rare type of carcinoid tumor and overlapping cytological features with primary mammary carcinoma led to an erroneous preliminary cytological diagnosis of primary breast carcinoma with plasmacytoid features.
  • Tumor cells in the corresponding cell block showed strong diffuse positivity for synapthophysin and pan-cytokeratin with weak focal positivity for chromogranin markers.
  • These patterns of immunostaining were similar to the original renal carcinoid tumor.
  • To the best of our knowledge, a few cases of carcinoid tumor metastatic to the breast have been reported in the literature and more than half of these cases were initially misdiagnosed as primary breast carcinoma causing unnecessary surgical treatment.
  • This is a first reported case of metastatic renal carcinoid tumor into breast diagnosed with FNA biopsy.
  • This report highlights the cytological features of well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumor (carcinoid tumor) and its potential diagnostic pitfalls.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Breast Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoid Tumor / secondary. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Chromogranins / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Keratins / analysis. Middle Aged. Synaptophysin / analysis

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 17427210.001).
  • [ISSN] 8755-1039
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Chromogranins; 0 / Synaptophysin; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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53. Luh SP, Kuo C, Tsao TC: Breast metastasis from small cell lung carcinoma. J Zhejiang Univ Sci B; 2008 Jan;9(1):39-43
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  • [Title] Breast metastasis from small cell lung carcinoma.
  • Breast metastases from extramammary neoplasms are very rare.
  • We presented a 66 year-old female with metastasis of small cell lung carcinoma to the breast.
  • The left breast lumps were noted 4 months later, and she underwent a modified radical mastectomy under the impression of primary breast carcinoma.
  • An accurate diagnosis to distinguish a primary breast carcinoma from metastatic one is very important because the therapeutic planning and the outcome between them are different.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Bronchoscopy. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 18196611.001).
  • [ISSN] 1673-1581
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Zhejiang Univ Sci B
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2170467
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54. Kanner WA, Galgano MT, Stoler MH, Mills SE, Atkins KA: Distinguishing breast carcinoma from Müllerian serous carcinoma with mammaglobin and mesothelin. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2008 Oct;27(4):491-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Distinguishing breast carcinoma from Müllerian serous carcinoma with mammaglobin and mesothelin.
  • Differentiation of Müllerian serous carcinoma from metastatic breast carcinoma is a challenging and frequent diagnostic dilemma, particularly in the setting of a pelvic mass or peritoneal carcinomatosis.
  • This study evaluated the utility of mesothelin and mammaglobin antibodies in differentiating breast carcinoma (particularly those with a papillary morphology) from Müllerian serous carcinomas.
  • Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded archival tissue from 21 breast carcinomas (10 micropapillary, 11 usual type ductal carcinomas) and 20 serous carcinomas (12 ovarian and 8 uterine) in addition to 6 cases of metastatic breast cancer to the ovary (5 cases) and cervix (1 case) were evaluated for the pattern and intensity of reactivity to antibodies to mesothelin, mammaglobin, and GCDFP-15.
  • None of the breast carcinomas stained for mesothelin, whereas 8/12 and 3/8 ovarian and uterine serous carcinomas were positive; however, 7 of these had less than 10% positivity.
  • When compared with GCDFP-15, mammaglobin was more frequently and diffusely expressed in breast carcinomas (GCDFP-15 positivity in 8/21 and mammaglobin positivity in 14/21).
  • This study indicates that the addition of mammaglobin to immunohistochemical panels is useful in distinguishing metastatic breast carcinoma from a new primary ovarian or uterine malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Membrane Glycoproteins / analysis. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Uterine Neoplasms / diagnosis. Uteroglobin / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies, Monoclonal / chemistry. Carcinoma, Ductal / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Ductal / metabolism. Carcinoma, Ductal / secondary. Carrier Proteins / analysis. Carrier Proteins / biosynthesis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. GPI-Linked Proteins. Glycoproteins / analysis. Glycoproteins / biosynthesis. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Mammaglobin A. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 18753974.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / GPI-Linked Proteins; 0 / Glycoproteins; 0 / Mammaglobin A; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / PIP protein, human; 0 / SCGB2A2 protein, human; 0 / mesothelin; 9060-09-7 / Uteroglobin
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55. Pastore AL, Pelleschi G, Tubaro A, De Nunzio C, Stoppaciaro A, Silvestri L, Serafini GM, Stagnitti F, Carbone A: Synchronous urinary tract metastases from breast cancer. Urologia; 2009 Apr-Jun;76(2):66-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Synchronous urinary tract metastases from breast cancer.
  • Breast carcinoma has a metastatic potential to any organ system.
  • However, breast carcinoma metastases to the urinary tract have very rarely been described.
  • The authors present the case of a patient with a synchronous right ureteral and vesical metastasis of a breast cancer.
  • This is the unique case reported in Literature of synchronous urinary metastatic localization from breast invasive lobular carcinoma.

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  • (PMID = 21086298.001).
  • [ISSN] 1724-6075
  • [Journal-full-title] Urologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urologia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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56. Zaghloul MS, Boutrus R, El-Hossieny H, Kader YA, El-Attar I, Nazmy M: A prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of zoledronic acid in bony metastatic bladder cancer. Int J Clin Oncol; 2010 Aug;15(4):382-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of zoledronic acid in bony metastatic bladder cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Zoledronic acid treatment reduces the incidence of skeletal-related events (SREs) in patients with bone metastases from breast, lung, and urologic cancers including prostate and renal cancer.
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of zoledronic acid on SREs in patients with bone metastases from bladder cancer.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with bone metastases from bladder cancer who were receiving palliative radiotherapy were randomized to placebo or zoledronic acid (4 mg intravenous monthly) for 6 months.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Zoledronic acid therapy decreased the incidence of SREs and improved the 1-year survival rate of patients with bone metastases from bladder cancer, potentially through its anticancer activity.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Drug Administration Schedule. Egypt. Female. Fractures, Bone / etiology. Fractures, Bone / prevention & control. Humans. Hypercalcemia / etiology. Hypercalcemia / prevention & control. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Middle Aged. Pain / etiology. Pain / prevention & control. Placebo Effect. Prospective Studies. Risk Assessment. Risk Factors. Spinal Cord Compression / etiology. Spinal Cord Compression / prevention & control. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20354750.001).
  • [ISSN] 1437-7772
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Bone Density Conservation Agents; 0 / Diphosphonates; 0 / Imidazoles; 6XC1PAD3KF / zoledronic acid
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57. Sarzi Amadè D, Tallarico M, Loreti MC, Montecchi PP, Niccoli A: Clinical guidelines for prevention of osteonecrosis of the jaws in patients in treatment with bisphosphonates: literature review and report of three cases. Minerva Stomatol; 2008 Sep;57(9):429-46
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  • Lately clinical evidence has suggested that the development of osteonecrosis of the jaws (ONJ) might be associated to assumption of high doses of nitrogen-bisphosphonate (N-BPs), quite common in the treatment of multiple myeloma and skeletal metastasis due to breast and prostate cancer.
  • Bisphosphonates are used for the treatment of several pathologies such as osteoporosis, Paget's disease, multiple myeloma, malignant hypercalcemia, breast and prostate tumours, and other tumours associated with bone metastasis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 18923378.001).
  • [ISSN] 0026-4970
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva stomatologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Stomatol
  • [Language] eng; ita
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Diphosphonates
  • [Number-of-references] 61
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58. Matsushima S, Sasaki F, Yamaura H, Iwata H, Ohsaki H, Era S, Sogami M, Inaba T, Uike M, Kinosada Y: Equivalent cross-relaxation rate imaging for sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast carcinoma. Magn Reson Med; 2005 Nov;54(5):1300-4
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  • [Title] Equivalent cross-relaxation rate imaging for sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast carcinoma.
  • Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is an important technique for detecting axillary lymph node metastasis in breast carcinoma patients.
  • Regions without metastases showed a higher ECR value.
  • On the other hand, regions with metastases showed a lower ECR value.
  • The ECR images were compared with macroscopic histology images in which the presence or absence of axillary lymph node metastasis could be evaluated.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal / secondary. Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted / methods. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Algorithms. False Negative Reactions. Female. Humans. Image Enhancement / methods. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Reproducibility of Results. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 16217778.001).
  • [ISSN] 0740-3194
  • [Journal-full-title] Magnetic resonance in medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Magn Reson Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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59. Perrone G, Altomare V, Zagami M, Vulcano E, Muzii L, Battista C, Rabitti C, Muda AO: Breast-like vulvar lesion with concurrent breast cancer: a case report and critical literature review. In Vivo; 2009 Jul-Aug;23(4):629-34
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  • [Title] Breast-like vulvar lesion with concurrent breast cancer: a case report and critical literature review.
  • In the current report, we describe an intriguing case of a breast-like cancer lesion located in the vulvar region in a woman lacking a remarkable past medical or family history of breast cancer but with concurrent breast cancer.
  • Consequently, a differential diagnosis between a primary synchronous breast and vulvar cancer or a metastatic breast carcinoma to the vulva is a key point in terms of the clinical approach.
  • In a review of the literature, 39 cases of breast-like cancer lesion have been described: 23 cases of primary infiltrating carcinoma of the vulva and 16 cases of vulvar metastases of breast carcinoma.
  • To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a clinically synchronous vulvar metastasis from an invasive ductal carcinoma.
  • The main diagnostic criteria for differential diagnosis between primary or metastatic breast-like vulvar carcinoma are also discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal / secondary. Vulvar Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans


60. Tanaka F, Li M, Hanaoka N, Bando T, Fukuse T, Hasegawa S, Wada H: Surgery for pulmonary nodules in breast cancer patients. Ann Thorac Surg; 2005 May;79(5):1711-4; discussion 1714-5
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  • [Title] Surgery for pulmonary nodules in breast cancer patients.
  • BACKGROUND: The nature of pulmonary nodules that appeared in patients who had received surgery for breast cancer, as well as the role of surgery for such pulmonary nodules, remains unclear.
  • METHODS: A total of 52 consecutive patients who underwent surgery for pulmonary nodules between 1992 and 2001 after curative operation for breast cancer were reviewed.
  • RESULTS: The pathologic diagnoses of pulmonary nodules were pulmonary metastases of breast cancer in 39 patients, primary lung cancer in 6, and other diagnoses in 7 (tuberculosis and hamartoma in 2 each; sclerosing hemangioma, organizing pneumonia, and paragohimiasis in 1 each).
  • The incidence of multiple pulmonary nodules was significantly higher in metastatic breast cancer patients (64.1%), but 33.3% of primary lung cancer patients and 28.6% of other histology patients had multiple pulmonary nodules.
  • The average disease-free interval from the initial mastectomy was significantly shorter in metastatic breast cancer patients (66.8 months), but disease-free intervals were longer than 5 years in 41.0% of metastatic breast cancer patients.
  • The 5-year survival rate after pulmonary metastectomy of metastatic breast cancer patients was 30.8%, which was not better than those documented in metastatic breast cancer patients treated with modern chemotherapy.
  • There was no significant difference in postmetastectomy survival according to the number or sites of pulmonary metastases or the disease-free interval.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Pulmonary metastectomy may not be the primary therapeutic option in metastatic breast cancer patients, and patients should be treated principally with chemotherapy.
  • As pulmonary nodules that appear in breast cancer patients are not always pulmonary metastases, the pathologic diagnosis should be confirmed, and surgery is an option for the pathologic confirmation.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 15854960.001).
  • [ISSN] 1552-6259
  • [Journal-full-title] The Annals of thoracic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Thorac. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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61. Nakajima T, Sekoguchi S, Nishikawa T, Takashima H, Watanabe T, Minami M, Itoh Y, Mizuta N, Nakajima H, Mazaki T, Yanagisawa A, Okanoue T: Multifocal intraportal invasion of breast carcinoma diagnosed by laparoscopy-assisted liver biopsy. World J Gastroenterol; 2005 Apr 21;11(15):2360-3
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  • [Title] Multifocal intraportal invasion of breast carcinoma diagnosed by laparoscopy-assisted liver biopsy.
  • Hepar lobatum carcinomatosum (HLC) is defined as an acquired hepatic deformity consisting of an irregularly lobulated hepatic contour caused by intravascular infiltration of metastatic carcinoma.
  • We report a case of a 68-year-old woman showing hepatic metastasis of breast carcinoma in radiologically unidentified form.
  • Initially, she received left partial mastectomy for breast cancer but solid hepatic metastases were identified in S(2) and S(6), 9 mo after surgery.
  • Furthermore, a wide scar was observed on the surface of S(2) possibly at the site where the metastatic tumor existed before chemotherapy.
  • Liver biopsy from the wide scar lesion showed intraportal tumor thrombi with desmoplastic change.
  • Because of its similarity to the histology of the original breast cancer, we concluded that the hepatic functional abnormalities and slightly deformed liver surface were derived from the circulatory disturbance caused by microscopic tumor thrombi.
  • Besides, since the wide scar was located at the site of the pre-existing tumor, it is probable that chemotherapy was an important cause of fibrous scarring as a result of tumor regression.
  • Laparoscopy-assisted liver biopsy was useful to make definite diagnosis, even though the hepatic deformity was radiologically undetectable.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Portal System / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biopsy. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Laparoscopy. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 15818755.001).
  • [ISSN] 1007-9327
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4305828
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62. Hsu W, Sheen-Chen SM, Wang JL, Huang CC, Ko SF: Squamous cell lung carcinoma metastatic to the breast. Anticancer Res; 2008 Mar-Apr;28(2B):1299-301
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  • [Title] Squamous cell lung carcinoma metastatic to the breast.
  • Secondary malignancy metastatic to the breast is uncommon with an incidence of 0.5% to 3% of patients with extramammary malignancy.
  • Here, an intriguing, rare case with metastasis to the breast from squamous cell lung carcinoma is reported.
  • The histological diagnosis, a achieved by bionchoscopic biopsy was squamous cell lung carcinoma.
  • Unfortunately, a left breast lump was noted eight months later and metastatic squamous cell lung carcinoma to the breast was diagnosed by surgical biopsy.
  • Secondary malignancy metastatic to the breast is uncommon, yet this entity does exist.
  • In view of the therapeutic implication, a metastatic breast lesion should not be mistaken for a primary breast carcinoma.
  • Only with the awareness of such a possibility can prompt diagnosis and optimal treatment be achieved.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Middle Aged


63. Wang Y, Yang XJ, Li YY, Hei Y, Xiao LH: [Diagnosis and management of orbital metastatic tumors]. Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi; 2008 Aug;44(8):687-90
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  • [Title] [Diagnosis and management of orbital metastatic tumors].
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the type, clinical features and diagnostic methods of orbital metastatic tumors.
  • METHODS: In a retrospective study, the records of 30 consecutive cases with orbital metastatic tumors as confirmed by pathologic examination were analyzed with special attention to the epidemiology, clinical manifestations and imaging findings.
  • RESULTS: Most orbital metastatic tumors in China originated from the breast, followed, in order, by the lung and liver.
  • The metastatic tumors of the orbit most frequently originated from the liver and lung in males, and from the breast and lung in females.
  • The male or female ratio of patients with orbital metastasis was 1:1.
  • The orbital metastases were more common in the children and the elderly.
  • The longest course was seen in metastasis from the breast and the shortest from various types of blastomas.
  • Orbital metastases could occur unilaterally or bilaterally.
  • The most common symptoms of orbital metastatic tumors included diplopia and orbital pain.
  • Based on the images of computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging, orbital metastatic tumors could be divided into four different types according to the location and morphology of the tumors.
  • Follow-up results revealed that 60% of orbital metastasis had poor prognosis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The spectrum of orbital metastatic tumors in China is different from that in western countries.
  • Familiarity with the clinical manifestation and diagnostic methods of orbital metastatic tumors can be helpful to relief the ocular symptoms and prolong the life of patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Orbital Neoplasms / diagnosis. Orbital Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] China. Female. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 19115629.001).
  • [ISSN] 0412-4081
  • [Journal-full-title] [Zhonghua yan ke za zhi] Chinese journal of ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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64. Derin D, Eralp Y, Guney N, Ozlük Y, Topuz E: Ovarian carcinoma with simultaneous breast and rectum metastases. Onkologie; 2008 Apr;31(4):200-2
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  • [Title] Ovarian carcinoma with simultaneous breast and rectum metastases.
  • BACKGROUND: Metastatic involvement of the breast and the rectum from ovarian carcinoma are very rare events.
  • CASE REPORT: We report a case of ovarian carcinoma with metastasis to the breast and rectum simultaneously, 6 years after initial diagnosis.
  • RESULTS: Morphologic and immunohistochemical findings from pathologic samples of all involved sites confirmed the ovarian origin, which spared the patient unnecessary breast and rectal surgery.
  • To our knowledge, this is the first case of ovarian carcinoma with simultaneous metastases to the breast and rectum reported to date.
  • CONCLUSION: Accurate differential diagnosis from primary breast and rectal carcinoma is very important because the prognosis and treatment differ significantly.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / secondary. Cystadenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Cystadenocarcinoma, Papillary / secondary. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Rectal Neoplasms / pathology. Rectal Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Longitudinal Studies. Middle Aged

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  • [Copyright] 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 18418023.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0240
  • [Journal-full-title] Onkologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Onkologie
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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66. Hsu EL, Yoon D, Choi HH, Wang F, Taylor RT, Chen N, Zhang R, Hankinson O: A proposed mechanism for the protective effect of dioxin against breast cancer. Toxicol Sci; 2007 Aug;98(2):436-44
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  • [Title] A proposed mechanism for the protective effect of dioxin against breast cancer.
  • Although it is causative for many types of cancers, experimental and epidemiological evidence suggest that 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (dioxin) may in fact protect against breast cancer.
  • We found that dioxin downregulated the messenger RNAs for the G-protein-coupled receptor, CXCR4, as well as its unique chemokine ligand, CXCL12, in MCF-7 breast cancer cells.
  • The interaction between CXCR4 and CXCL12 plays a central role in the metastasis of breast cancer, as disruption of the CXCL12/CXCR4 axis has been shown to limit the metastasis of breast cancer cells to the lung in mice.
  • Finally, as the CXCR4/CXCL12 axis is implicated in the progression of numerous types of cancer, we identified several other cancer cell lines in which dioxin modulates CXCR4 and CXCL12 levels.
  • We therefore propose that one mechanism whereby dioxin may protect against breast cancer is via downregulation of CXCR4 and CXCL12, thereby inhibiting progression of the disease.

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  • (PMID = 17517823.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-6080
  • [Journal-full-title] Toxicological sciences : an official journal of the Society of Toxicology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Toxicol. Sci.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA028868; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA28868
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CXCL12 protein, human; 0 / Chemokine CXCL12; 0 / Chemokines, CXC; 0 / Environmental Pollutants; 0 / Protective Agents; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, CXCR4; 0 / corneal protein 54, bovine; DO80M48B6O / Tetrachlorodibenzodioxin; EC 1.2.1.3 / Aldehyde Dehydrogenase
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67. Hu SE, Zhang YJ, Cui YM, Zhang HQ: [Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor A and C in human breast cancer and their significance]. Ai Zheng; 2005 Sep;24(9):1076-9
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  • [Title] [Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor A and C in human breast cancer and their significance].
  • VEGF-A and VEGF-C are closely related to tumorigenesis and lymphatic metastasis.
  • This study was to detect the expression of VEGF-A and VEGF-C in breast cancer, and explore their correlation to cell proliferation, microvessel density (MVD), and lymphatic metastasis of breast cancer.
  • METHODS: The expression of VEGF-A, VEGF-C, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and CD34 in 98 samples of breast cancer were detected by SP immunohistochemistry.
  • The positive rates of VEGF-A and VEGF-C were significantly higher in cancers with lymph node metastasis than in cancers without lymph node metastasis (P<0.05).
  • MVD was significantly higher in cancers with lymph node metastasis than in cancers without lymph node metastasis(64.26+/-26.40 vs. 50.29+/-29.35, P<0.05).
  • CONCLUSIONS: VEGF-A mainly mediates angiogenesis, cell proliferation, and metastasis of human breast cancer.
  • VEGF-C promotes cell proliferation of human breast cancer; it is correlated to lymph node metastasis, but has no correlation to MVD.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Carcinoma in Situ / metabolism. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / metabolism. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / metabolism. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor C / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antigens, CD34 / metabolism. Cell Proliferation. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Microcirculation / pathology. Middle Aged. Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16159428.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Ai zheng = Aizheng = Chinese journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ai Zheng
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD34; 0 / Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen; 0 / VEGFA protein, human; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor C
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68. Mousavi A, Karimi Zarchi M: Isolated cervical metastasis of breast cancer: a case report and literature review. J Low Genit Tract Dis; 2007 Oct;11(4):276-8
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  • [Title] Isolated cervical metastasis of breast cancer: a case report and literature review.
  • Metastasis of distant malignancies to the cervix is a rare event.
  • We present 56-year-old woman with a history of intraductal breast cancer that presented with vaginal bleeding.
  • Colposcopic pathology and fractional curettage revealed a lesion similar to her primary breast cancer.
  • Cervical metastasis should be considered in women with a history of breast cancer who present with vaginal bleeding.
  • Aggressive treatment of isolated cervical metastasis from breast cancer is warranted in appropriate patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Colposcopy. Fallopian Tubes / surgery. Female. Humans. Hysterectomy. Middle Aged. Ovariectomy. Postmenopause. Uterine Hemorrhage / etiology


69. Tanaka Y, Koga M, Yokomizo Y, Inokuchi S, Koga C, Kusukawa J: [A case of breast cancer with extensive osteonecrosis of maxilla induced by a bisphosphonate]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2010 Apr;37(4):681-5
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  • [Title] [A case of breast cancer with extensive osteonecrosis of maxilla induced by a bisphosphonate].
  • Here, we report a case of extensive osteonecrosis of the maxilla associated with a history of bisphosphonate (BP) therapy for management of bone metastases from breast cancer.
  • The patient had a medical history of breast cancer with bone metastasis that was treated by chemotherapy with 45 mg pamidronate in 2 weekly courses for 16 months.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Diphosphonates / adverse effects. Maxillary Diseases / chemically induced. Osteonecrosis / chemically induced
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Bone Neoplasms / drug therapy. Bone Neoplasms / radiography. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Female. Humans. Palliative Care. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 20414026.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Diphosphonates; OYY3447OMC / pamidronate
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70. Luh SP, Chiang CC, Chuang MT: Second primary lung carcinoma in patients with first primary breast carcinoma: two case reports and review of the literature. Cases J; 2009;2:7993
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  • [Title] Second primary lung carcinoma in patients with first primary breast carcinoma: two case reports and review of the literature.
  • INTRODUCTION: Patients undergoing complete treatments of breast carcinoma can be found with pulmonary nodules during the follow up period.
  • Either metastasis from breast carcinoma or second primary bronchogenic carcinoma should be considered as a possible diagnosis.
  • CASE PRESENTATIONS: Two female patients with ages of 66 and 64, underwent modified radical mastectomy for breast carcinoma 5 and 2 years ago, were found with single pulmonary nodule, 1.0 cm and 0.8 cm from the left lower and right upper lobe.
  • There was no other site of metastasis being noted after systemic survey.
  • They underwent low dose chemotherapy postoperatively because of increased risk of tumor occurrence for these patients.
  • Patients with smoking or irradiation history usually favor the diagnosis of second primary lung carcinoma.
  • However, these two treated breast carcinoma cases, which didn't have smoking or irradiation history, developed second primary lung carcinomas.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Pulmonary nodules in patients with prior breast carcinomas were usually regarded as metastatic lesions.
  • However, the possibility of second primary still cannot be excluded, especially to the solitary type.
  • Video assisted thoracic surgery can provide early and accurate diagnosis as well as effective treatment.

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  • (PMID = 19830039.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-1626
  • [Journal-full-title] Cases journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cases J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2740295
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71. Noguera J, Martínez-Miravete P, Idoate F, Díaz L, Pina L, Zornoza G, Martínez-Regueira F: Metastases to the breast: a review of 33 cases. Australas Radiol; 2007 Apr;51(2):133-8
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  • [Title] Metastases to the breast: a review of 33 cases.
  • The aim of the study was to show the clinical and radiological manifestations of metastases to the breast (MB).
  • Of the 33 cases, 31 presented as a palpable breast lump.
  • Mammograms were normal in six cases (all of them showed dense breast tissue).
  • The appearance on magnetic resonance was similar to primary breast cancer (one case).
  • Metastases to the breast showed a wide range of mammographic and ultrasonographic appearances, resembling both benign and malignant lesions.
  • Any patient who presents with a breast lump with a history of cancer should undergo a core-needle biopsy in order to determine the histology of the lump.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Mammography. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Ultrasonography, Mammary

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  • (PMID = 17419856.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-8461
  • [Journal-full-title] Australasian radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Australas Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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72. Nonaka D, Chiriboga L, Soslow RA: Expression of pax8 as a useful marker in distinguishing ovarian carcinomas from mammary carcinomas. Am J Surg Pathol; 2008 Oct;32(10):1566-71
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  • The ovary is a common site of involvement for metastasis and the breast is one of the most common sources.
  • Metastatic breast carcinoma can mimic a primary ovarian carcinoma.
  • Pax8 is a crucial transcription factor for organogenesis of the thyroid gland, kidney, and Müllerian system, and it also regulates Wilms tumor suppressor gene (WT1) expression.
  • A total of 124 cases of ovarian carcinomas (84 serous papillary, 18 endometrioid, 12 mucinous, 10 clear cell) and 243 cases of invasive breast carcinomas (178 ductal, 65 lobular) were immunostained with Pax8 and WT1 by tissue microarrays to see the differential expression.
  • Pax8 is a useful marker in the differential diagnosis of ovarian and breast carcinomas, and it seems to be superior to WT1 for the diagnosis of all types of nonmucinous ovarian carcinomas, notably clear cell and endometrioid types where WT1 expression is generally negative or only focal.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Breast Neoplasms / chemistry. Ovarian Neoplasms / chemistry. Paired Box Transcription Factors / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Predictive Value of Tests. Sensitivity and Specificity. Tissue Array Analysis. WT1 Proteins / analysis

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  • (PMID = 18724243.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / PAX8 protein, human; 0 / Paired Box Transcription Factors; 0 / WT1 Proteins
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73. Gnant M: Bisphosphonates in the prevention of disease recurrence: current results and ongoing trials. Curr Cancer Drug Targets; 2009 Nov;9(7):824-33
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  • Bisphosphonates are the standard of care for preventing skeletal morbidity and treating hypercalcemia of malignancy in patients with bone metastases.
  • Zoledronic acid (intravenous; 4 mg monthly) is approved to prevent skeletal-related events (SREs) in patients with bone metastases from several tumor types, and can improve survival in some subsets of patients with skeletal metastases and high baseline bone turnover.
  • In the adjuvant setting, bisphosphonates have shown clinical efficacy for preventing cancer treatment-induced bone loss and promise for reducing disease recurrence.
  • For example, early studies of clodronate showed the potential for bisphosphonates to prevent bone metastases and prolong survival, but results with clodronate have been inconsistent.
  • Recently, the more active bisphosphonate zoledronic acid (4 mg every 6 months) prevented bone loss and significantly reduced the risk of disease-free survival events by 36% (P = .01) compared with adjuvant endocrine therapy alone in a large phase III trial (N = 1,803) in premenopausal women with early breast cancer.
  • Similarly, twice-yearly zoledronic acid has reduced disease recurrence in large phase III trials in more than 1,600 postmenopausal women with early breast cancer.
  • Several ongoing trials (involving more than 20,000 patients altogether) are evaluating the efficacy of bisphosphonates for prevention of metastases in breast, prostate, and lung cancers; and multiple myeloma.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Density Conservation Agents / administration & dosage. Bone Neoplasms / prevention & control. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Diphosphonates / administration & dosage. Neoplasm Metastasis / prevention & control

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  • (PMID = 20025570.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-5576
  • [Journal-full-title] Current cancer drug targets
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Cancer Drug Targets
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bone Density Conservation Agents; 0 / Diphosphonates
  • [Number-of-references] 47
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74. Cserni G: Axillary sentinel lymph node micrometastases with extracapsular extension: a distinct pattern of breast cancer metastasis? J Clin Pathol; 2008 Jan;61(1):115-8
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  • [Title] Axillary sentinel lymph node micrometastases with extracapsular extension: a distinct pattern of breast cancer metastasis?
  • AIMS: To examine the frequency of extracapsular extension (ECE) of sentinel lymph node (SLN) metastases in breast cancer according to metastasis size, and to characterise ECE in micometastases.
  • Positive axillary SLNs were analysed for metastasis size and the presence of ECE.
  • Of the latter, 107 underwent axillary dissection, and 63 (59%) of these demonstrated non-SLN metastases.
  • The presence of ECE correlated with metastasis size (coefficient 0.92).
  • Eight (10%) of the 84 micrometastatic SLN cases had ECE, and two of these were associated with non-SLN metastases.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The frequency of ECE increases with increasing nodal metastasis size.
  • Minimal nodal metastases with ECE may represent a distinct pattern of nodal involvement with a predominant capsular and extracapsular, but only minimal or no nodal parenchymal component, predominantly seen in non-poorly differentiated and/or tubular carcinomas.
  • This presentation of nodal metastasis can sometimes pose differential diagnostic problems, and should be distinguished from massive metastases presenting with ECE because it does not seem to be so commonly associated with non-SLN metastases or a massive metastatic load to the axilla as ECE of SLN metastases in general.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Axilla. Biopsy. Female. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy

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  • (PMID = 17468292.001).
  • [ISSN] 1472-4146
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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75. Salman T, Massiah N, Burns S, Mills S: Metastatic breast cancer to the cervix and myometrium. J Obstet Gynaecol; 2007 Oct;27(7):753-4
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  • [Title] Metastatic breast cancer to the cervix and myometrium.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Lobular / secondary. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / secondary. Uterine Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Female. Humans. Myometrium / pathology


76. Huyge V, Garcia C, Vanderstappen A, Alexiou J, Gil T, Flamen P: Progressive osteoblastic bone metastases in breast cancer negative on FDG-PET. Clin Nucl Med; 2009 Jul;34(7):417-20
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  • [Title] Progressive osteoblastic bone metastases in breast cancer negative on FDG-PET.
  • Positron emission tomography using F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) is increasingly used in breast cancer.
  • There is presently a controversy on the clinical significance of osteoblastic bone metastases in breast cancer which are not detected on FDG-PET.
  • We report a case of a 65-year-old woman with a suspicion of recurrent breast cancer based on an increasing serum tumor marker.
  • Serial PET/CT showed progressive blastic bone metastases on the CT without FDG uptake.
  • This case report shows: first, that progressive osteoblastic lesions can lack FDG-avidity, leading to a false-negative PET; and secondly, that bone scintigraphy should not be replaced by FDG-PET/CT for the detection of bone metastases in breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Osteoblasts / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Female. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Humans. Positron-Emission Tomography. Radiopharmaceuticals. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19542943.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-0229
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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77. Whittemore AS, Stearman B, Venne V, Halpern J, Felberg A, McGuire V, Daly M, Buys SS: No evidence of familial correlation in breast cancer metastasis. Breast Cancer Res Treat; 2009 Dec;118(3):575-81
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  • [Title] No evidence of familial correlation in breast cancer metastasis.
  • Animal experiments support the hypothesis that the metastatic potential of breast cancer is a heritable trait of the host.
  • Our objective was to evaluate correlations in metastasis occurrence in large families with multiple cases of breast cancer.
  • We evaluated correlation among pairs of relatives in the occurrence and timing of distant metastasis using retrospective cohort data from 743 female breast cancer patients in 242 families.
  • We adjusted for correlation in their age at diagnosis, year of diagnosis, educational level, lymph node involvement, and estrogen receptor status.
  • Distant metastasis occurred in 255 patients (34.3%) during mean followup of 11.7 years.
  • None of the correlation coefficients for metastasis in blood relatives differed significantly from zero.
  • These findings suggest that a family history of metastatic breast cancer does not contribute substantially to risk of metastasis for breast cancer patients.

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  • (PMID = 19296215.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7217
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer research and treatment
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA069417; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA069417-14; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-95-011
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS111386; NLM/ PMC2783315
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78. Motomura K, Egawa C, Komoike Y, Nagumo S, Koyama H, Inaji H: Three-axillary lymph node sampling for the prediction of nonsentinel node metastases in breast cancer patients with sentinel node metastases. Ann Surg Oncol; 2006 Jul;13(7):985-9
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  • [Title] Three-axillary lymph node sampling for the prediction of nonsentinel node metastases in breast cancer patients with sentinel node metastases.
  • BACKGROUND: In half of breast cancer patients with positive sentinel nodes, the sentinel nodes are the only metastatic nodes.
  • Such patients have no more metastatic nonsentinel nodes and do not need to undergo axillary lymph node dissection.
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate whether three-axillary lymph node sampling after sentinel node biopsy predicts the status of nonsentinel nodes in patients with sentinel node metastases.
  • When the sentinel nodes were diagnosed as metastasis positive by using intraoperative imprint cytology, three-axillary lymph node sampling was performed, followed by axillary lymph node dissection.
  • RESULTS: Of 47 cases with positive imprint cytology, 43 (91%) were diagnosed as metastasis positive on their final histological examination and were analyzed.
  • Only 2 (7%) of 29 patients whose sampled nodes were negative were found to have additional nodal metastases.
  • The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the sampled nodes for the prediction of nonsentinel node metastases were 87.5%, 100%, and 95.3%, respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated that three-node sampling may be useful for predicting the status of nonsentinel nodes and avoiding axillary lymph node dissection in patients with only sentinel node metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Lymph Nodes / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Axilla. Biopsy. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis / diagnosis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Prognosis. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy

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  • (PMID = 16788761.001).
  • [ISSN] 1068-9265
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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79. Kolwijck E, Boss EA, van Altena AM, Beex LV, Massuger LF: Stage IV epithelial ovarian carcinoma in an 18 year old patient presenting with a Sister Mary Joseph's nodule and metastasis in both breasts: a case report and review of the literature. Gynecol Oncol; 2007 Dec;107(3):583-5
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  • [Title] Stage IV epithelial ovarian carcinoma in an 18 year old patient presenting with a Sister Mary Joseph's nodule and metastasis in both breasts: a case report and review of the literature.
  • In children and adolescents, it is very rare, and in such cases it mostly concerns tumors of low malignant potential or low stage I tumors.
  • CASE: We describe an 18-year-old girl presenting with umbilical metastasis as a first sign of an extremely aggressive stage IV ovarian serous papillary adenocarcinoma without an objective response to chemotherapy and endocrine therapy.
  • She developed metastasis in both breasts and died 28 months after the initial diagnosis.
  • CONCLUSION: This is the first case of a stage IV epithelial ovarian cancer under the age of 20 years.
  • Furthermore, uncommon breast metastasis and a Sister Mary Joseph's nodule have never been described at such young age.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / secondary. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Umbilicus / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / secondary. Adolescent. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / pathology. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / secondary. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 17904207.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-6859
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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80. Sauer T: Fine-needle aspiration cytology of extra mammary metastatic lesions in the breast: A retrospective study of 36 cases diagnosed during 18 years. Cytojournal; 2010;7:10
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  • [Title] Fine-needle aspiration cytology of extra mammary metastatic lesions in the breast: A retrospective study of 36 cases diagnosed during 18 years.
  • BACKGROUND: Metastatic tumors in the breast require treatment according to origin and type of tumor.
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytological features of metastatic tumors and possible criteria that could alert us as to the possibility of a metastasis from an extra mammary malignancy.
  • METHODS: The material included 36 confirmed or suspected metastases in the breast registered in the pathology files at Oslo University Hospital, Ulleval, during 1990-2007.
  • There were a total of 6,325 cases of malignant breast FNAC, representing 30 men and 6,295 women.
  • The primary tumor was known in 22 cases (22/36 = 61.1%).
  • No other primary tumor was known and metastatic lesion was not initially suspected in 14 cases (14/36 = 38.9%).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Metastases from extra mammary sites are (relatively) common in males (23.3%).
  • In women, metastatic lesions are rare (0.46%).
  • Unusual clinical and/or radiological presentation in combination with high-grade malignant cells should alert us to consider the possibility of a metastasis.

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  • (PMID = 20806071.001).
  • [ISSN] 1742-6413
  • [Journal-full-title] CytoJournal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cytojournal
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2924528
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Breast / FNAC / cytological features / extra mammary / grade / metastases
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81. Smid M, Wang Y, Klijn JG, Sieuwerts AM, Zhang Y, Atkins D, Martens JW, Foekens JA: Genes associated with breast cancer metastatic to bone. J Clin Oncol; 2006 May 20;24(15):2261-7
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  • [Title] Genes associated with breast cancer metastatic to bone.
  • In this study, we initiated a search for genes that are implicated in tumors relapsing to bone in breast cancer.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: We analyzed 107 primary breast tumors in patients who were all lymph node negative at the time of diagnosis and all had experienced relapse.
  • Total RNA isolated from frozen tumor samples was used to gather gene expression data using oligo microarrays.
  • Our differentially expressed genes, combined with a recently reported gene set relevant to tumors relapsing to bone in an animal model system, pointed to the involvement of the fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling pathway in preference of tumor cells that relapse to bone.
  • CONCLUSION: Our study identifies a panel of genes relevant to bone metastasis in breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / genetics. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Gene Expression Profiling. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis / genetics. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Peptides. Predictive Value of Tests. Risk


82. Zhang Y, Zhu G, Gu S, Chen X, Hu H, Weng S: Genistein inhibits osteolytic bone metastasis and enhances bone mineral in nude mice. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol; 2010 Jul;30(1):37-44
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  • [Title] Genistein inhibits osteolytic bone metastasis and enhances bone mineral in nude mice.
  • In this study, the effective activity of genistein on osteolytic bone metastasis and bone mineral was investigated.
  • Female BALB/c-nu/nu mice were injected with estrogen receptor-negative human breast cancer cells, MDA-MB-231, into left cardiac ventricle to form osteolytic bone metastases, and administered genistein subcutaneously after radiologically small but defined osteolytic metastases had been observed (protocol 1), simultaneously with cancer cells inoculation (protocol 2) and prophylactically 7 days before inoculation of cancer cells (protocol 3).
  • In all protocols, genistein (10mg/kg/day) markedly reduced the number and volume of osteolytic bone metastases assessed by radiography and the number of osteoclasts.
  • These results thus demonstrate that genistein could inhibit osteolytic bone metastases, suppress bone resorption, increase bone mass and improve bone microstructure in bone metastases of breast cancer.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 21787627.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-7077
  • [Journal-full-title] Environmental toxicology and pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Environ. Toxicol. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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83. Begić A, Kucukalić-Selimović E, Obralić N, Durić O, Lacević N, Begović S, Dzubur-Aganović M: Role of bone scintigraphy and tumor marker-Ca 15-3 in detection of bone metastases in patients with breast cancer. Bosn J Basic Med Sci; 2005 Feb;5(1):23-6
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  • [Title] Role of bone scintigraphy and tumor marker-Ca 15-3 in detection of bone metastases in patients with breast cancer.
  • Breast cancer is one of the most frequent types of cancer affecting women.
  • After hematogenous spreading of cancer, axial skeleton is most frequently involved.
  • Bone scintigraphy is commonly performed in detection and evaluation of bone metastases.
  • In breast cancer, marker Ca 15-3 is widely accepted in follow-up and detection of disease recurrence.
  • Aim of the study was to correlate levels of tumor marker Ca 15-3 and presence of bone metastases detected by bone scintigraphy.
  • Study included 25 patients with breast cancer, previously surgically treated.
  • Presence, number and location of bone metastases were correlated with Ca 15-3 levels.
  • Bone scintigraphy revealed bone metastases in 16 (64%) patients.
  • 11 (44%) patients with metastases and 1 patient (4%) without scintigraphically visible metastases had elevated Ca 15-3 levels.
  • Significant difference in distribution of metastases was found for spine (t=3.930, p=0.008).
  • A weak correlation was found between number of metastases and level of Ca 15-3 (r=0.139).
  • Significant differences in Ca 15-3 level was found in patients with metastases compared to patients without metastases (chi square 0, p =1.0).
  • Since no significant correlation was found between level of Ca 15-3 and number of metastases, we consider scintigraphy an appropriate method for assessment of bone metastases in breast cancer.


84. Motomura K, Nagumo S, Komoike Y, Koyama H, Inaji H: Intraoperative imprint cytology for the diagnosis of sentinel node metastases in breast cancer. Breast Cancer; 2007;14(4):350-3
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  • [Title] Intraoperative imprint cytology for the diagnosis of sentinel node metastases in breast cancer.
  • Accurate intraoperative diagnosis of sentinel node metastases enables the selection of patients for axillary lymph node dissection, thus avoiding an unnecessary additional operation in patients with false-negative results.
  • Imprint cytology can be recommended for the intraoperative examination of sentinel nodes in breast cancer patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy
  • [MeSH-minor] Cytodiagnosis / methods. False Negative Reactions. Humans. Intraoperative Period. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17986799.001).
  • [ISSN] 1880-4233
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer (Tokyo, Japan)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 20
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85. Zhang T, Wang H, Chen BP, Zhang HS, Wei XL, Fu Y, Li Z, Hu GK: Risk factors for non-sentinel lymph node metastases in breast cancer patients with positive sentinel lymph nodes. Chin Med J (Engl); 2008 Oct 20;121(20):2107-9
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  • [Title] Risk factors for non-sentinel lymph node metastases in breast cancer patients with positive sentinel lymph nodes.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Axilla. Female. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 19080285.001).
  • [ISSN] 0366-6999
  • [Journal-full-title] Chinese medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chin. Med. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
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86. Shamsadin S, Esfandiarpoor I, Zeinali H, Kalantari B, Ebrahimi H: Multifocal scalp hair loss. Dermatol Online J; 2006;12(4):24
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  • BACKGROUND: Cutaneous metastases from internal cancer are relatively uncommon in clinical practice, but they are very important to recognize.
  • Metastases of skin may be a herald sign in the diagnosis of internal malignancy.
  • Scalp metastasis from breast carcinoma is reported but it is rare.
  • She was a known case of breast carcinoma 10 years prior.
  • An incision biopsy of an alopecic patch was done revealing metastases of breast carcinoma to the scalp.
  • Her workup failed to find metastatic involvement of other organs.
  • This represents a case of breast carcinoma metastatic to the scalp mimicking alopecia areata, almost 10 years after radical mastectomy, and 8 years after chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Alopecia Areata / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms. Carcinoma / secondary. Diagnostic Errors. Head and Neck Neoplasms / secondary. Scalp / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biopsy. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Mastectomy, Radical

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  • (PMID = 17083879.001).
  • [ISSN] 1087-2108
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatology online journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol. Online J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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87. Dose-Schwarz J, Mahner S, Schirrmacher S, Jenicke L, Müller V, Habermann CR, Brenner W: [Detection of metastases in breast cancer patients: comparison of FDG PET with chest X-ray, bone scintigraphy and ultrasound of the abdomen]. Nuklearmedizin; 2008;47(3):97-103
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  • [Title] [Detection of metastases in breast cancer patients: comparison of FDG PET with chest X-ray, bone scintigraphy and ultrasound of the abdomen].
  • Distant metastases at primary diagnosis are a prognostic key factor in breast cancer patients and play a central role in therapeutic decisions.
  • Although FDG PET detects metastatic disease with high accuracy, its diagnostic value in breast cancer still needs to be defined.
  • PATIENTS, METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 119 breast cancer patients who presented for staging was performed.
  • Each imaging modality was independently assessed and classified for metastasis (negative, equivocal and positive.
  • RESULTS: FDG-PET detected distant metastases with a sensitivity of 87.3% and a specificity of 83.3%.
  • Regarding different locations of metastases the sensitivity of FDG PET was superior in the detection of pulmonary metastases and lymph node metastases of the mediastinum in comparison to chest x-ray, whereas the sensitivity of FDG PET in the detection of bone and liver metastases was comparable with bone scintigraphy and ultrasound of the abdomen.
  • CONCLUSIONS: FDG-PET is more sensitive than conventional imaging procedures for detection of distant breast cancer metastases and should be considered for additional staging especially in patients with high risk primary breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Abdomen / ultrasonography. Breast Neoplasms / radiography. Breast Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Breast Neoplasms / secondary. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis / radiography. Neoplasm Metastasis / radionuclide imaging. Radiography, Thoracic. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 18493688.001).
  • [ISSN] 0029-5566
  • [Journal-full-title] Nuklearmedizin. Nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nuklearmedizin
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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88. Seok JW, Choi YS, Chong S, Kwon GY, Chung YJ, Kim BG, Park SJ: Sentinel lymph node identification with radiopharmaceuticals in patients with breast cancer: a comparison of 99mTc-tin colloid and 99mTc-phytate efficiency. Breast Cancer Res Treat; 2010 Jul;122(2):453-7
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  • [Title] Sentinel lymph node identification with radiopharmaceuticals in patients with breast cancer: a comparison of 99mTc-tin colloid and 99mTc-phytate efficiency.
  • Sentinel lymph node biopsy with lymphoscintigraphy has become the standard method for the detection of axillary lymph node metastasis in breast cancer patients.
  • For the detection of axillary lymph node metastasis by lymphoscintigraphy and sentinel node biopsy in patients with breast cancer, we compared the results between subareolar injection of (99m)Tc-tin colloid and injection of (99m)Tc-phytate.
  • This study included 516 breast cancer patients who underwent surgery between 2001 and 2010.
  • The identification rates by lymphoscintigraphy and gamma probe were superior with (99m)Tc-phytate, as compared with (99m)Tc-tin colloid, with a statistically significant difference (P < 0.05 for both methods). (99m)Tc-phytate is a better choice than (99m)Tc-tin colloid for identification of the sentinel node in breast cancer patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Lymph Nodes / radionuclide imaging. Organotechnetium Compounds. Phytic Acid. Radiopharmaceuticals. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy / methods. Technetium Compounds. Tin Compounds
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Injections. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests. Republic of Korea. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20532977.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7217
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer research and treatment
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Organotechnetium Compounds; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0 / Technetium Compounds; 0 / Tin Compounds; 0 / technetium Tc 99m tin colloid; 0 / technetium phytate; 7IGF0S7R8I / Phytic Acid
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89. Min Y, Ren X, Vaught DB, Chen J, Donnelly E, Lynch CC, Lin PC: Tie2 signaling regulates osteoclastogenesis and osteolytic bone invasion of breast cancer. Cancer Res; 2010 Apr 1;70(7):2819-28
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  • [Title] Tie2 signaling regulates osteoclastogenesis and osteolytic bone invasion of breast cancer.
  • Breast to bone metastasis is a common occurrence in the majority of patients with advanced breast cancer.
  • The metastases are often incurable and are associated with bone destruction and high rates of morbidity.
  • Understanding the underlying mechanisms of how metastatic tumor cells induce bone destruction is critically important.
  • We previously reported that Tie2, a receptor tyrosine kinase, is significantly increased in human breast cancer tissues compared with normal and benign breast tumors and regulates tumor angiogenesis.
  • In this study, we identify a new function of Tie2 in osteoclastogenesis and osteolytic bone invasion of breast cancer.
  • Consistently, neutralization of Tie2 activity in vivo significantly inhibited osteolytic bone invasion and tumor growth in a mammary tumor model, which correlated with a significant reduction of osteoclasts and tumor angiogenesis.
  • These findings identify Tie2 as a therapeutic target for controlling not only tumor angiogenesis but also osteolytic bone metastasis in breast cancer.

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  • (PMID = 20233869.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7445
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA108856; United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / R01 AR053718-04; United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / R01 AR053718; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS45888; United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / AR053718-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA108856-05; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS045888-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA108856-05; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS045888; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS045888-04; United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / AR053718; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA108856
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.1.- / Tek protein, mouse; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, TIE-2
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS174219; NLM/ PMC2848896
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90. Skírnisdóttir I, Garmo H, Holmberg L: Non-genital tract metastases to the ovaries presented as ovarian tumors in Sweden 1990-2003: occurrence, origin and survival compared to ovarian cancer. Gynecol Oncol; 2007 Apr;105(1):166-71
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  • [Title] Non-genital tract metastases to the ovaries presented as ovarian tumors in Sweden 1990-2003: occurrence, origin and survival compared to ovarian cancer.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of this register study was to determine occurrence of non-genital ovarian metastasis detected by gynecologic surgery presented as ovarian neoplasm in Sweden from 1 January 1990 to 31 December 2003.
  • Origin of metastases and time of detection in relation to surgery were recorded.
  • Age at diagnosis, survival for ovarian metastasis compared to ovarian cancer and prognostic factors were evaluated.
  • METHODS: Utilizing the population-based Swedish In-Patient Registry, Cancer Registry and Causes of Death Registry, we identified 255 cases with non-genital tract metastases to the ovaries detected at gynecological surgery.
  • During the study period, 10,955 newly diagnosed cases of ovarian cancer were reported to the Swedish Cancer Registry.
  • RESULTS: The proportion of ovarian metastases detected at surgery of all ovarian neoplasm increased from 1.7% to 3.0% during the study period.
  • The patients with ovarian metastasis of non-GI origin were younger than patients with primary ovarian cancer.
  • The most common primary diseases were breast cancer (29%), colon cancer (27%) and gastric cancer (16%).
  • Ovarian metastasis of GI origin preceded primary diagnosis in 51% of patients but for women with disease of non-GI origin the primary diagnosis was made in 18% of patients after surgery.
  • Five-year survival for patients with ovarian metastasis of GI origin was 11% and it was 24% if metastases were of non-GI origin.
  • Five-year survival for women with ovarian metastases from breast cancer was 26%.
  • In a multivariate analysis, GI surgery at primary surgery for ovarian metastasis was unfavorable prognostic factor.
  • Diagnosis of primary disease known before surgery, primary disease of non-GI or unknown origin and operation at university hospital all had favorable prognostic impact for overall survival.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Detection of non-genital ovarian metastasis at gynecologic surgery is associated with poor prognosis, and prognosis is worse in tumors with GI origin and if the primary is not detected prior to surgery.
  • The results indicate that a thorough patient evaluation is very important before surgery for suspected ovarian neoplasm.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Incidence. Middle Aged. Proportional Hazards Models. Registries. Survival Rate. Sweden / epidemiology

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  • [ErratumIn] Gynecol Oncol. 2007 Jul;106(1):276
  • (PMID = 17184826.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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91. Mao J, Hai J, Shu HP, Wu YH, Ou HY, Luo SY, Wang SM: [Expressions of survivin and nm23 and the relationship among the expressions and the axillary lymph node metastasis in breast cancer]. Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban; 2005 Jun;30(3):312-4, 334
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  • [Title] [Expressions of survivin and nm23 and the relationship among the expressions and the axillary lymph node metastasis in breast cancer].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expressions of Survivin protein and nm23 protein and the relationship among the expressions and axillary lymph node metastasis in breast cancer.
  • METHODS: The expression of Survivin and nm23 in 80 cases of breast cancer tissues were detected by immunohistochemistry SP method, and their correlation with axillary lymph node metastasis and 5-year disease free survival (DFS) were analysed.
  • RESULTS: Survivin protein positive expression rate was 68.75% (55/80) in breast cancer tissues, which had positive correlation with the axillary lymph nodes metastasis but negative correlation with 5 years FS (P < 0.05); nm23 protein expression had negative correlation with the axillary lymph nodes metastasis but positive to 5 years FS (P < 0.05).
  • Survivin and nm23 proteins expression had no obvious correlation with the breast cancer pathology type, patient age and clinical stage (P > 0.05).
  • CONCLUSION: The anti-apoptosis effect of Survivin protein and the anti-metastasis effect of nm23 protein may be important in the occurrence and advancement of breast cancer, suggesting that it may be a new indicator of prognostic and judgement in breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Microtubule-Associated Proteins / biosynthesis. Neoplasm Proteins / biosynthesis. Nucleoside-Diphosphate Kinase / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Axilla. Biomarkers, Tumor. Female. Humans. Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins. Lymphatic Metastasis. Mastectomy. Middle Aged. NM23 Nucleoside Diphosphate Kinases. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 16045021.001).
  • [ISSN] 1672-7347
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhong nan da xue xue bao. Yi xue ban = Journal of Central South University. Medical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BIRC5 protein, human; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins; 0 / Microtubule-Associated Proteins; 0 / NM23 Nucleoside Diphosphate Kinases; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; EC 2.7.4.6 / NME1 protein, human; EC 2.7.4.6 / Nucleoside-Diphosphate Kinase
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92. Tresserra F, Rodriguez I, García-Yuste M, Grases PJ, Ara C, Fabregas R: Tumor size and lymph node status in multifocal breast cancer. Breast J; 2007 Jan-Feb;13(1):68-71
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  • [Title] Tumor size and lymph node status in multifocal breast cancer.
  • Tumor size correlates with lymph node metastasis in breast cancer.
  • In multifocal lesions there is controversy about considering the summation of the largest diameter of each tumor.
  • A total of 122 patients with multifocal breast cancer were compared in a retrospective study with 177 patients with unifocal tumors, correlating tumor size with lymph node metastasis.
  • In multifocal tumors, two sizes were considered: the diameter of the largest tumor and the combined diameter of all lesions.
  • At a same size of the largest diameter of a unifocal or multifocal lesions and the combined diameter of a multifocal lesion, the latter shows less probability of nodal metastasis indicating that combined diameter is an overestimation of the lesion size.
  • Our results indicate that in multifocal breast cancer, only the diameter of the largest tumor breast cancer has relationship with lymph node metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Medical Records. Middle Aged. Models, Statistical. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Spain / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 17214796.001).
  • [ISSN] 1075-122X
  • [Journal-full-title] The breast journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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93. Norooz MT, Montaser-Kouhsari L, Ahmadi H, Zavarei MJ, Daryaei P: Breast mass as the initial presentation of esophageal carcinoma: a case report. Cases J; 2009;2:7049
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  • [Title] Breast mass as the initial presentation of esophageal carcinoma: a case report.
  • INTRODUCTION: Esophageal cancer is considered as a fatal malignancy.
  • It mostly metastasizes to lung, liver, and bone while breast metastasis has been rarely reported.
  • This is the fifth report of metastatic breast cancer from esophageal cancer, which differs from previous reported cases in terms of initial presentation with metastatic breast mass and no metastatic involvement of other organs.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: We present a 35-year-old Caucasian woman who initially complained of a painful breast mass.
  • Squamous pearls on cytologic evaluation suggested a metastatic lesion.
  • CONCLUSION: In this case, breast lesion as an unusual presentation of esophageal carcinoma emphasizes the great role of thorough medical history taking and cytologic study in evaluating an accidentally detected breast mass.
  • The increasing reports of breast metastasis in patients with esophageal carcinoma necessitate the careful breast examination in visits after treatment of the primary tumor.

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  • (PMID = 19829901.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-1626
  • [Journal-full-title] Cases journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cases J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2740305
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94. Singh A, Khare IC, Dixit AK, Pandey KC, Mittal DK, Singh P: Successfully treated synchronous double malignancy of the breast and esophagus: a case report. J Med Case Rep; 2010;4:169
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Successfully treated synchronous double malignancy of the breast and esophagus: a case report.
  • The second primary lesion is identified either simultaneously with the primary lesion (synchronous) or after a period of time (metachronous).
  • Few cases of metastasis of breast carcinoma to the esophagus and vice versa have been reported in the past.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: We report an extremely rare case of a 55-year-old Indian woman who had carcinomas in both the esophagus and the breast simultaneously.

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  • (PMID = 20525235.001).
  • [ISSN] 1752-1947
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medical case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2890621
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95. Keshtgar MR, Chicken DW, Austwick MR, Somasundaram SK, Mosse CA, Zhu Y, Bigio IJ, Bown SG: Optical scanning for rapid intraoperative diagnosis of sentinel node metastases in breast cancer. Br J Surg; 2010 Aug;97(8):1232-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Optical scanning for rapid intraoperative diagnosis of sentinel node metastases in breast cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Intraoperative diagnosis of sentinel node metastases enables an immediate decision to proceed to axillary lymph node dissection, avoiding a second operation in node-positive women with breast cancer.
  • This algorithm was used to create false colour-coded maps of scans from an independent set of nodes, and the optimal criteria for discriminating between normal and cancer spectra were defined statistically.
  • RESULTS: The discriminant algorithm was developed from a training set of 2989 spectra obtained from 30 metastatic and 331 normal nodes.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Computer-Assisted / methods. Intraoperative Care / methods. Lymphatic Metastasis / diagnosis. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy. Spectrum Analysis / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Algorithms. Equipment Design. Female. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. ROC Curve. Scattering, Radiation. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2010 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • (PMID = 20593429.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2168
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U54 CA104677
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
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96. Hiraga T, Nakamura H: Imatinib mesylate suppresses bone metastases of breast cancer by inhibiting osteoclasts through the blockade of c-Fms signals. Int J Cancer; 2009 Jan 1;124(1):215-22
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  • [Title] Imatinib mesylate suppresses bone metastases of breast cancer by inhibiting osteoclasts through the blockade of c-Fms signals.
  • Bone metastases of breast cancer are frequently associated with osteoclastic bone destruction.
  • Furthermore, several lines of evidence suggest that osteoclasts play central roles in the development and progression of bone metastases.
  • Thus, in the present study, we examined the effects of imatinib on bone metastases of breast cancer.
  • Coimmunoprecipitation assays showed that imatinib inhibited the M-CSF-induced phosphorylation of c-Fms in osteoclast precursor cells as well as the PDGF-induced PDGFR phosphorylation in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells.
  • We then examined the effects of imatinib on bone metastases of MDA-MB-231 cells in a nude mouse model.
  • Radiographic and histomorphometric analyses demonstrated that imatinib significantly decreased bone metastases associated with the reduced number of osteoclasts.
  • In support of the notion that the inhibition of c-Fms acts to suppress the development of bone metastases, we found that a specific inhibitor of c-Fms Ki20227 also decreased bone metastases.
  • In conclusion, these results collectively suggest that imatinib reduced bone metastases, at least in part, by inhibiting osteoclastic bone destruction through the blockade of c-Fms signals.
  • Our results also suggest that imatinib may have a protective effect against cancer treatment-induced bone loss.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Bone Neoplasms / drug therapy. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Neoplasm Metastasis. Osteoclasts / metabolism. Piperazines / pharmacology. Pyrimidines / pharmacology. Receptor, Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Benzamides. Bone and Bones / metabolism. Cell Line. Cell Line, Tumor. Female. Humans. Imatinib Mesylate. Mice. Mice, Nude


97. Rundqvist H, Johnson RS: Hypoxia and metastasis in breast cancer. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol; 2010;345:121-39
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  • [Title] Hypoxia and metastasis in breast cancer.
  • In this review we summarize the evidence for a role for hypoxic response in the biology of metastasis, with a particular emphasis on the metastasis of breast cancer and the function of the hypoxia inducible factor (HIF).
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Cell Hypoxia
  • [MeSH-minor] Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors / physiology. Female. Humans. Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1 / physiology. Neoplasm Metastasis

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  • (PMID = 20549469.001).
  • [ISSN] 0070-217X
  • [Journal-full-title] Current topics in microbiology and immunology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors; 0 / Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1; 0 / endothelial PAS domain-containing protein 1
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98. Kurabayashi T, Minamikawa T, Nishijima S, Tsuneki I, Tamura M, Yanase T, Hashidate H, Shibuya H, Motoyama T: Primary strumal carcinoid tumor of the ovary with multiple bone and breast metastases. J Obstet Gynaecol Res; 2010 Jun;36(3):567-71
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  • [Title] Primary strumal carcinoid tumor of the ovary with multiple bone and breast metastases.
  • Although primary carcinoid tumor of the ovary is an extremely rare neoplasm, survival is excellent if the disease is confined to one ovary.
  • Herein, we present a case of primary strumal carcinoid tumor of the ovary, stage IA, borderline malignancy, in a 34-year-old woman.
  • Three and a half years postoperatively, multiple bone and breast metastases were found and anticancer chemotherapy was ineffective.
  • The results in the present case indicate that an ovarian carcinoid tumor found to be 'atypical carcinoid' according to pulmonary carcinoid criteria or immunohistochemical staining (i.e. highly positive for topoisomerase IIalpha and Ki-67) may have a poor prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Breast Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoid Tumor / secondary. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Struma Ovarii / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Chromogranin A / metabolism. Female. Humans. Synaptophysin / metabolism


99. Leeming DJ, Delling G, Koizumi M, Henriksen K, Karsdal MA, Li B, Qvist P, Tankó LB, Byrjalsen I: Alpha CTX as a biomarker of skeletal invasion of breast cancer: immunolocalization and the load dependency of urinary excretion. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 2006 Jul;15(7):1392-5
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  • [Title] Alpha CTX as a biomarker of skeletal invasion of breast cancer: immunolocalization and the load dependency of urinary excretion.
  • We recently showed that increased urinary excretion of the cross-linked, nonisomerized form of the C-telopeptide of collagen type I (alphaalphaCTX) could be a sensitive indicator of the presence of bone metastases in breast cancer patients.
  • The present study was sought to investigate (a) the localization of alphaCTX epitopes in the proximity of a bone metastasis and (b) the relationship between number of metastases and the urinary excretion of alphaalphaCTX.
  • Adjacent bone sections from breast cancer patients were stained for the presence of tumor cells (anti-cytokeratin antibody), osteoclasts (TRAcP activity), and alphaCTX (anti-alphaCTX antibody).
  • The association between the extent of metastatic bone disease and urinary excretion of alphaalphaCTX measured with ELISA was assessed in 90 breast cancer patients (45 with bone metastasis and 45 without bone metastasis).
  • Immunohistochemistry revealed accumulation of TRAcP-positive osteoclasts and intense staining for alphaCTX epitopes in the proximity of cytokeratin-positive bone metastasis.
  • In addition, there was a significant linear association between the number of bone metastases and the urinary levels of alphaalphaCTX in breast cancer patients with metastatic bone disease, independent of age and body mass index (r = 0.56, P < 0.001).
  • The estimated relative increases in alphaalphaCTX associated with the presence of one, two, or three metastases are 38%, 57%, and 81%, respectively.
  • Taken into account the 17% intraindividual variation of the assay, alphaalphaCTX could be a sensitive biochemical marker for the close monitoring of cancer patients aiming the facilitation of early metastasis detection.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / urine. Bone Neoplasms / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Collagen Type I / urine. Neoplasm Invasiveness / diagnosis. Peptides / urine
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Osteoclasts / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16835341.001).
  • [ISSN] 1055-9965
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Collagen Type I; 0 / Peptides; 0 / collagen type I trimeric cross-linked peptide
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100. Kurul S, Taş F, Büyükbabani N, Mudun A, Baykal C, Camlica H: Different manifestations of malignant melanoma in the breast: a report of 12 cases and a review of the literature. Jpn J Clin Oncol; 2005 Apr;35(4):202-6
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  • [Title] Different manifestations of malignant melanoma in the breast: a report of 12 cases and a review of the literature.
  • BACKGROUND: The breast is associated with a large number of diseases.
  • Besides being the host of many benign and malignant tumors, breast skin and parenchyma are also metastatic sites for various tumors such as leukemia, lung cancer and melanoma.
  • METHODS: Malign melanoma has different manifestations in the breast.
  • RESULTS: This study reports on 12 cases of cutaneous malignant melanoma in breast skin and tissue.
  • Nine of these cases are primary cutaneous melanomas, while the others are breast metastases from a distant site cutaneous melanoma.
  • In two of the nine primary cutaneous melanomas in-transit metastasis to the breast developed during the follow-up period.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In this paper, the diagnostic and surgical approach to primary and metastatic melanoma of the breast, and the importance of the breast during the follow-up period are reviewed.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / secondary. Melanoma / diagnosis. Melanoma / surgery. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biopsy, Needle. Breast. Female. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Mastectomy, Segmental. Middle Aged. Skin Transplantation

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  • (PMID = 15845569.001).
  • [ISSN] 0368-2811
  • [Journal-full-title] Japanese journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Jpn. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 21
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