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1. Phadke PA, Mercer RR, Harms JF, Jia Y, Frost AR, Jewell JL, Bussard KM, Nelson S, Moore C, Kappes JC, Gay CV, Mastro AM, Welch DR: Kinetics of metastatic breast cancer cell trafficking in bone. Clin Cancer Res; 2006 Mar 1;12(5):1431-40
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  • [Title] Kinetics of metastatic breast cancer cell trafficking in bone.
  • PURPOSE: In vivo studies have focused on the latter stages of the bone metastatic process (osteolysis), whereas little is known about earlier events, e.g., arrival, localization, and initial colonization.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: MDA-MB-435 human breast cancer cells engineered with green fluorescent protein were injected into the cardiac left ventricle of athymic mice.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Early arrest in metaphysis and minimal retention in diaphysis highlight the importance of the local milieu in determining metastatic potential.
  • These results extend the Seed and Soil hypothesis by demonstrating both intertissue and intratissue differences governing metastatic location.
  • Ours is the first in vivo evidence that tumor cells influence not only osteoclasts, as widely believed, but also eliminate functional osteoblasts, thereby restructuring the bone microenvironment to favor osteolysis.
  • The data may also explain why patients receiving bisphosphonates fail to heal bone despite inhibiting resorption, implying that concurrent strategies that restore osteoblast function are needed to effectively treat osteolytic bone metastases.

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  • (PMID = 16533765.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA089019; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA087728; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA87728; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50-CA89019
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / enhanced green fluorescent protein; 147336-22-9 / Green Fluorescent Proteins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS8474; NLM/ PMC1523260
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2. Kefeli M, Gonullu G, Can B, Malatyalioglu E, Kandemir B: Metastasis of adenocarcinoma of the gall bladder to an endometrial polyp detected by endometrial curettage: case report and review of the literature. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2009 Jul;28(4):343-6
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  • [Title] Metastasis of adenocarcinoma of the gall bladder to an endometrial polyp detected by endometrial curettage: case report and review of the literature.
  • Metastasis to the endometrial polyp from a distant primary tumor is rare.
  • Breast carcinoma is the most frequent extragenital cancer that metastasizes to the endometrial polyp.
  • We report the case of a 63-year-old with metastatic gall bladder adenocarcinoma involving endometrial polyps detected by endometrial curetting.
  • It was the first sign of her metastatic disease.
  • After this diagnosis, bone metastases were detected during radiologic screening.
  • Gastrointestinal tumor metastasis to an endometrial polyp is a very rare event, but if a patient with a known primary extragenital tumor has abnormal vaginal bleeding, the possibility of metastasis should be included in the differential diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Endometrial Neoplasms / secondary. Gallbladder Neoplasms / pathology. Polyps / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Dilatation and Curettage. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 19483630.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 24
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3. Aldridge SE, Lennard TW, Williams JR, Birch MA: Vascular endothelial growth factor acts as an osteolytic factor in breast cancer metastases to bone. Br J Cancer; 2005 Apr 25;92(8):1531-7
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  • [Title] Vascular endothelial growth factor acts as an osteolytic factor in breast cancer metastases to bone.
  • Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a proangiogenic cytokine that is expressed highly in many solid tumours often correlating with a poor prognosis.
  • In this study, we investigated the expression of VEGF and its receptors in bone metastases from primary human breast tumours and further characterised its effects on osteoclasts in vitro.
  • Breast cancer metastases to bone were immunohistochemically stained for VEGF, its receptors VEGFR1 and 2 (vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 and 2), demonstrating that breast cancer metastases express VEGF strongly and that surrounding osteoclasts express both VEGFR1 and VEGFR2.
  • RAW 264.7 cells (mouse monocyte cell line) and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were cultured with VEGF, RANKL and M-CSF.
  • VEGF and RANKL together induced differentiation of multinucleated, tartrate-resistant acid phophatase (TRAP)-positive cells in similar numbers to M-CSF and RANKL.
  • Vascular endothelial growth factor may therefore play a role in physiological bone resorption and in pathological situations.
  • Consequently, VEGF signalling may be a therapeutic target for osteoclast inhibition in conditions such as tumour osteolysis.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / metabolism. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Osteolysis / metabolism. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 15812559.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / RANK Ligand; 0 / Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor-kappa B; 0 / TNFRSF11A protein, human; 0 / TNFSF11 protein, human; 0 / Tnfrsf11a protein, mouse; 0 / Tnfsf11 protein, mouse; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2362001
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4. Satoh H, Ishikawa H, Ohara G, Kikuchi N, Sekizawa K: Prolonged response to gefitinib in bone metastasis. Med Oncol; 2009;26(1):101-2
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  • [Title] Prolonged response to gefitinib in bone metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Quinazolines / therapeutic use. Spinal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Spinal Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 18607784.001).
  • [ISSN] 1357-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical oncology (Northwood, London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; 0 / Quinazolines; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel; S65743JHBS / gefitinib
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5. Daliakopoulos SI, Klimatsidas MN, Korfer R: Solitary metastatic adenocarcinoma of the sternum treated by total sternectomy and chest wall reconstruction using a Gore-Tex patch and myocutaneous flap: a case report. J Med Case Rep; 2010;4:75
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  • [Title] Solitary metastatic adenocarcinoma of the sternum treated by total sternectomy and chest wall reconstruction using a Gore-Tex patch and myocutaneous flap: a case report.
  • INTRODUCTION: The consequences of bone metastasis are often devastating.
  • Although the exact incidence of bone metastasis is unknown, it is estimated that 350,000 people die of bone metastasis annually in the United States.
  • This case report reviews the use of sternectomy for breast cancer recurrence, highlights the need for thorough clinical and radiologic evaluation to ensure the absence of other systemic diseases, and suggests the use of serratus anterior muscle flap as a pedicle graft to cover full-thickness defects of the anterior chest wall.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: We report the case of a 70-year-old Caucasian woman who was referred to our hospital for the management of a retrosternal mediastinal mass.
  • It may be performed to treat either benign conditions (osteoradionecrosis, osteomyelitis) or malignant diseases.
  • There are, however, very few reports on the results of full-thickness complete chest wall resections for locally recurrent breast cancer with sufficient safety margins, and even fewer reports that describe the operative technique of using the serratus anterior muscle as a pedicled flap.

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  • (PMID = 20193081.001).
  • [ISSN] 1752-1947
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medical case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2844379
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6. Buijs JT, Henriquez NV, van Overveld PG, van der Horst G, Que I, Schwaninger R, Rentsch C, Ten Dijke P, Cleton-Jansen AM, Driouch K, Lidereau R, Bachelier R, Vukicevic S, Clézardin P, Papapoulos SE, Cecchini MG, Löwik CW, van der Pluijm G: Bone morphogenetic protein 7 in the development and treatment of bone metastases from breast cancer. Cancer Res; 2007 Sep 15;67(18):8742-51
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  • [Title] Bone morphogenetic protein 7 in the development and treatment of bone metastases from breast cancer.
  • Bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP7) counteracts the physiological epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a process that is indicative of epithelial plasticity.
  • Because EMT is involved in cancer, we investigated whether BMP7 plays a role in breast cancer growth and metastasis.
  • In this study, we show that decreased BMP7 expression in primary breast cancer is significantly associated with the formation of clinically overt bone metastases in patients with > or = 10 years of follow-up.
  • In line with these clinical observations, BMP7 expression is inversely related to tumorigenicity and invasive behavior of human breast cancer cell lines.
  • Moreover, BMP7 decreased the expression of vimentin, a mesenchymal marker associated with invasiveness and poor prognosis, in human MDA-MB-231 (MDA-231)-B/Luc(+) breast cancer cells under basal and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta)-stimulated conditions.
  • Furthermore, in a well-established bone metastasis model using whole-body bioluminescent reporter imaging, stable overexpression of BMP7 in MDA-231 cells inhibited de novo formation and progression of osteolytic bone metastases and, hence, their metastatic capability.
  • Our data suggest that decreased BMP7 expression during carcinogenesis in the human breast contributes to the acquisition of a bone metastatic phenotype.
  • Because exogenous BMP7 can still counteract the breast cancer growth at the primary site and in bone, BMP7 may represent a novel therapeutic molecule for repression of local and bone metastatic growth of breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Morphogenetic Proteins / biosynthesis. Bone Morphogenetic Proteins / pharmacology. Bone Neoplasms / drug therapy. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Breast Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Bone Morphogenetic Protein 7. Cell Line, Tumor. Disease Progression. Epithelial Cells / pathology. Female. Humans. Mesoderm / pathology. Mice. Mice, Inbred BALB C. Mice, Nude. RNA, Messenger / biosynthesis. RNA, Messenger / genetics. Retrospective Studies. Signal Transduction. Transforming Growth Factor beta / metabolism. Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays


7. Korpela J, Tiitinen SL, Hiekkanen H, Halleen JM, Selander KS, Väänänen HK, Suominen P, Helenius H, Salminen E: Serum TRACP 5b and ICTP as markers of bone metastases in breast cancer. Anticancer Res; 2006 Jul-Aug;26(4B):3127-32
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  • [Title] Serum TRACP 5b and ICTP as markers of bone metastases in breast cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the value of serum tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRACP 5b) and carboxyterminal telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP) separately and in combination as markers of bone metastases compared to total alkaline phosphatase (tALP) in breast cancer.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two groups of patients were studied, one with verfied bone metastases (N=46) and one without bone metastases (N=141).
  • Bone marker levels were correlated with the presence or absence of bone metastases.
  • In multivariate regression analysis, all three markers were significant predictors of bone metastases.
  • CONCLUSION: Serum TRACP 5b, ICTP and tALP exhibited equal performances in the detection of bone metastases.
  • The combination of TRACP with ICTP did not significantly improve the detection of bone metastases over tALP.
  • [MeSH-major] Acid Phosphatase / blood. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Bone Neoplasms / blood. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Breast Neoplasms / blood. Isoenzymes / blood. Peptide Fragments / blood. Procollagen / blood

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  • (PMID = 16886645.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Collagen Type I; 0 / Isoenzymes; 0 / Peptide Fragments; 0 / Peptides; 0 / Procollagen; 0 / collagen type I trimeric cross-linked peptide; EC 3.1.3.- / tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase; EC 3.1.3.1 / Alkaline Phosphatase; EC 3.1.3.2 / Acid Phosphatase
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8. Heinroth S, Bilkenroth U, Eckert AW, Maurer P: [Bone metastases in the maxilla as first manifestation of renal cell cancer. A case report]. Mund Kiefer Gesichtschir; 2006 Jan;10(1):42-5
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  • [Title] [Bone metastases in the maxilla as first manifestation of renal cell cancer. A case report].
  • [Transliterated title] Die ossäre Metastase im Oberkiefer als Erstmanifestation eines Nierenzellkarzinoms. Ein Fallbericht.
  • BACKGROUND: Bone metastases in the upper jaw are relatively rare but not unusual in oral and maxillofacial surgery.
  • In many cases finding the primary tumour is difficult because of its occult location.
  • CASE REPORT: We describe a 53-year-old female patient who suffered from a tumor in the oral cavity.
  • The first histological and clinical diagnosis revealed a granuloma pyogenicum.
  • Because of the delayed healing process another biopsy became necessary showing a metastasis of an unknown primary tumor.
  • Diagnostic procedures detected an adenocarcinoma of the left kidney with pelvic metastases.
  • CONCLUSION: The present case report demonstrates how difficult it can be to provide the right pathological diagnosis in biopsy material even regarding obvious malignancy.
  • Therefore thorough diagnostic efforts are indispensable to facilitate the causal treatment of an unknown primary tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Renal Cell / secondary. Kidney Neoplasms / diagnosis. Maxillary Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Bone Neoplasms / diagnosis. Bone Neoplasms / pathology. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Bone Neoplasms / therapy. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Kidney / pathology. Maxilla / pathology. Middle Aged. Pelvic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pelvic Neoplasms / pathology. Pelvic Neoplasms / secondary. Pelvic Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 16402238.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-9417
  • [Journal-full-title] Mund-, Kiefer- und Gesichtschirurgie : MKG
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mund Kiefer Gesichtschir
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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9. Gao Y, Lu H, Luo Q, Wu X, Sheng S: Predictive value of osteocalcin in bone metastatic differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Clin Biochem; 2010 Feb;43(3):291-5
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  • [Title] Predictive value of osteocalcin in bone metastatic differentiated thyroid carcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the diagnostic value of serum osteocalcin in the detection of bone metastases from differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC).
  • DESIGN AND METHODS: Serum samples from DTC patients with (DTC BM+, n=19) or without bone metastases (DTC BM-, n=19), and matched healthy volunteers (n=30) were tested for serum osteocalcin with electrochemiluminescent immunoassay.
  • RESULTS: Osteocalcin was higher in DTC BM+ than in DTC BM- patients (+35.8%, p=0.002), acting as an independent risk factor for bone metastases (R(2)=0.142, p=0.039).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Serial measurements of osteocalcin could be useful in the detection of bone metastases from DTC.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Bone Neoplasms. Osteocalcin / blood. Thyroid Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Alkaline Phosphatase / blood. Collagen Type I / blood. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Procollagen / blood

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2009 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19732762.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-2933
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical biochemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Biochem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Collagen Type I; 0 / Procollagen; 104982-03-8 / Osteocalcin; EC 3.1.3.1 / Alkaline Phosphatase
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10. Rusu D, Rusu V, Stefănescu C, Rusu M, Răileanu I, Stătescu AM: [A comparaison between the total PSA, the Gleason score and the bone scintiscan results for different age groups]. Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat Iasi; 2010 Apr-Jun;114(2):476-83
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  • [Title] [A comparaison between the total PSA, the Gleason score and the bone scintiscan results for different age groups].
  • [Transliterated title] O comparaţie între valoarea PSA total, scorul Gleason şi rezultatele scintigrafiei osoase la diferite grupe de vârstă.
  • The aim of the study is to compare de results of the bone scintigraphy of prostate cancer patients in different age groups with their total PSA (PSAt) and with their histopathological test results.
  • MATERIALS AND METODS: Of the 180 patients with prostate cancer who were analyzed by Scintiscan in the last five years in our laboratory, 86 have a known PSAt value, and of these, 55 have a known Gleason Score.
  • The scintigraphy results included all the patients in 3 groups, according to the presence, the absence or the likelihood of having bone metastasis.
  • The 33 patients with proven bone metastasis were divided, according to their numbers, into the four Soloway groups.
  • RESULTS: Among the patients with PSAt >20 ng/mL, considered high risk for bone metastases, according to the Recomandations of CCAF, 21 (32.81%) of the 64 patients do not show the presence of bone metastases.
  • For PSAt >50 ng/mL, all 5 patients <60 years of age have metastases, while only 15 (62.5%) of the 24 patients over 70 years old have metastases and 1 (4%) has low likelihood.
  • 6 (21.42%) of the 28 patients with PSAt > sau egal 100 ng/mL do not have metastases.
  • 10 (43.4 %) of the 23 patients with a Gleason Score <7, considered low risk, do have metastases (6 patients--26%) or low probability of metastases (4 patients--17.4%).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our study confirms that the probability of bone metastasis for a high PSAt value is reversely proportional to age.
  • In our study there is no direct correlation between Gleason Score and the bone scan results.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Bone Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Bone and Bones / radionuclide imaging. Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis. Severity of Illness Index

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  • (PMID = 20700990.001).
  • [ISSN] 0048-7848
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista medico-chirurgicală̆ a Societă̆ţ̜ii de Medici ş̧i Naturaliş̧ti din Iaş̧i
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat Iasi
  • [Language] rum
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Romania
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen
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11. Wang YP, Liu BY: High expression of osteopontin and CD44v6 in odontogenic keratocysts. J Formos Med Assoc; 2009 Apr;108(4):286-92
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  • BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Odontogenic keratocysts (OKCs) are more aggressive and more osteolytic lesions than dentigerous cysts (DCs) and radicular cysts (RCs).
  • Osteopontin (OPN) is related to cancer metastasis and bone destruction.
  • Binding of OPN to its cell membrane receptors integrin alphav and CD44v6 can enhance tumor cell motility, migration, invasion and spread.
  • This study assessed the possible contribution of OPN, integrin alphav and CD44v6 to the local aggressive behavior and osteolytic ability of OKCs.
  • CONCLUSION: Binding of OPN to osteoclast cell membrane receptor integrin alphav can activate the osteoclasts and increase their osteolytic activity.
  • In addition, binding of OPN to OKC lining epithelial cell membrane receptor CD44v6 can enhance the motility, migration, invasion and spread of lining epithelial cells into the surrounding cancellous bone.
  • Therefore, we suggest that the local aggressive behavior and high osteolytic ability of OKCs in the jawbone can be explained at least partially by high expression of OPN and CD44v6 in lining epithelial cells of OKCs and high expression of integrin alphav in osteoclasts.

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  • (PMID = 19369175.001).
  • [ISSN] 0929-6646
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Formosan Medical Association = Taiwan yi zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Formos. Med. Assoc.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Singapore
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD44; 0 / CD44v6 antigen; 0 / Integrin alphaV; 106441-73-0 / Osteopontin
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12. Krupski TL, Foley KA, Baser O, Long S, Macarios D, Litwin MS: Health care cost associated with prostate cancer, androgen deprivation therapy and bone complications. J Urol; 2007 Oct;178(4 Pt 1):1423-8
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  • [Title] Health care cost associated with prostate cancer, androgen deprivation therapy and bone complications.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using data from the MarketScan Medicare Supplemental and Coordination of Benefits Database, we identified cases with International Classification of Disease, 9th Revision codes indicating a diagnosis of prostate cancer who initiated androgen deprivation therapy between 1999 and 2002.
  • The control group consisted of patients with prostate cancer with no androgen deprivation therapy use, matched by age, geographic region, insurance plan and index year.
  • The occurrence and cost of osteoporosis and any bone fracture were assessed using a propensity score matched sample.
  • RESULTS: Of the 8,577 eligible men with prostate cancer, 3,055 initiated androgen deprivation therapy and 5,522 did not.
  • At the time of androgen deprivation therapy initiation those on androgen deprivation therapy had more severe comorbidity (3.1 vs 2.6, p <0.001) and proportionally more bone metastases (2.8% vs less than 0.6%, p <0.001) but no difference in fracture rate.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Among men with prostate cancer, those on androgen deprivation therapy cost the health care system almost twice as much as those not on androgen deprivation therapy.
  • After controlling for differences in health status, the majority of the excess cost is attributable to androgen deprivation therapy and then to a lesser extent, the fractures.
  • These results suggest that the bone complications of osteoporosis and fractures in men on androgen deprivation therapy have important economic consequences.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Bone Density / drug effects. Bone Neoplasms / drug therapy. Bone Neoplasms / economics. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Costs and Cost Analysis. Follow-Up Studies. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / agonists. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / antagonists & inhibitors. Humans. Insurance Claim Review / statistics & numerical data. Male. Medicare / economics. Medicare / statistics & numerical data. United States


13. Chow E, Makhani L, Culleton S, Makhani N, Davis L, Campos S, Sinclair E: Would larger radiation fields lead to a faster onset of pain relief in the palliation of bone metastases? Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2009 Aug 1;74(5):1563-6
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  • [Title] Would larger radiation fields lead to a faster onset of pain relief in the palliation of bone metastases?
  • PURPOSE: Hemibody irradiation has been shown to relieve bony metastatic pain within 24-48 hours of treatment, whereas for local external beam radiation, onset of pain relief is 1-4 weeks after radiation.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: From Jan 1999 to Jan 2002, a total of 653 patients with symptomatic bone metastases were treated with external beam radiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Pain / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 19131183.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-355X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Analgesics
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14. Fournier PG, Daubiné F, Lundy MW, Rogers MJ, Ebetino FH, Clézardin P: Lowering bone mineral affinity of bisphosphonates as a therapeutic strategy to optimize skeletal tumor growth inhibition in vivo. Cancer Res; 2008 Nov 1;68(21):8945-53
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  • [Title] Lowering bone mineral affinity of bisphosphonates as a therapeutic strategy to optimize skeletal tumor growth inhibition in vivo.
  • Bisphosphonates bind avidly to bone mineral and are potent inhibitors of osteoclast-mediated bone destruction.
  • Here, we used a mouse model of human breast cancer bone metastasis to examine the effects of risedronate and NE-10790, a phosphonocarboxylate analogue of the bisphosphonate risedronate, on osteolysis and tumor growth.
  • Tumor burden was measured by fluorescence imaging and histomorphometry.
  • NE-10790 had a 70-fold lower bone mineral affinity compared with risedronate.
  • It was 7-fold and 8,800-fold less potent than risedronate at reducing, respectively, breast cancer cell viability in vitro and bone loss in ovariectomized animals.
  • We next showed that risedronate given at a low dosage in animals bearing human B02-GFP breast tumors reduced osteolysis by inhibiting bone resorption, whereas therapy with higher doses also inhibited skeletal tumor burden.
  • Conversely, therapy with NE-10790 substantially reduced skeletal tumor growth at a dosage that did not inhibit osteolysis, a higher dosage being able to also reduce bone destruction.
  • The in vivo antitumor activity of NE-10790 was restricted to bone because it did not inhibit the growth of subcutaneous B02-GFP tumor xenografts nor the formation of B16-F10 melanoma lung metastases.
  • Moreover, NE-10790, in combination with risedronate, reduced both osteolysis and skeletal tumor burden, whereas NE-10790 or risedronate alone only decreased either tumor burden or osteolysis, respectively.
  • In conclusion, our study shows that decreasing the bone mineral affinity of bisphosphonates is an effective therapeutic strategy to inhibit skeletal tumor growth in vivo.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Diphosphonates / therapeutic use. Etidronic Acid / analogs & derivatives. Pyridines / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Cell Line, Tumor. Drug Therapy, Combination. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Female. Humans. Mice. Risedronate Sodium. Structure-Activity Relationship

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  • (PMID = 18974139.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7445
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 2-(3-pyridinyl)-1-hydroxyethylidene-1,1-phosphonocarboxylic acid; 0 / Diphosphonates; 0 / Pyridines; M2F465ROXU / Etidronic Acid; OFG5EXG60L / Risedronate Sodium
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15. Ogilvie CM, Fox EJ, Lackman RD: Current surgical management of bone metastases in the extremities and pelvis. Semin Oncol; 2008 Apr;35(2):118-28
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  • [Title] Current surgical management of bone metastases in the extremities and pelvis.
  • Surgical management of metastases to the extremities and pelvis has benefited from advances in the technology of internal fixation, as well as the increased availability of options for large endoprostheses.
  • Contoured periarticular plates and the screws that attach rigidly to the plates have made fixation into weakened bone more reliable and easier to provide.
  • For massive bone loss, modular endoprostheses are now widely available.
  • These options supplemented with bone cement (polymethylmethacrylate) give patients the ability to have most bone defects reinforced or replaced such that the patient can begin using the affected limb almost immediately.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Extremities / pathology. Pelvis / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18396197.001).
  • [ISSN] 0093-7754
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 10
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16. Burdach S, Thiel U, Schöniger M, Haase R, Wawer A, Nathrath M, Kabisch H, Urban C, Laws HJ, Dirksen U, Steinborn M, Dunst J, Jürgens H, Meta-EICESS Study Group: Total body MRI-governed involved compartment irradiation combined with high-dose chemotherapy and stem cell rescue improves long-term survival in Ewing tumor patients with multiple primary bone metastases. Bone Marrow Transplant; 2010 Mar;45(3):483-9
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  • [Title] Total body MRI-governed involved compartment irradiation combined with high-dose chemotherapy and stem cell rescue improves long-term survival in Ewing tumor patients with multiple primary bone metastases.
  • We examined the role of total body magnetic resonance imaging (TB-MRI)-governed involved compartment irradiation (ICI) and high-dose chemotherapy (HDC), followed by stem cell rescue (SCR) in patients with high-risk Ewing tumors (ETs) with multiple primary bone metastases (high-risk ET-MBM).
  • Eleven patients with high-risk ET-MBM receiving initial assessment of involved bones by TB-MRI were registered from 1995 to 2000 (group A).
  • In all, 6 patients out of 11 had additional lung disease at initial diagnosis; all had multifocal bone disease with more than three bones involved.
  • A second group matched for observation period and consisting of 26 patients with more than three involved bones at diagnosis was treated with the European Intergroup Cooperative Ewing Sarcoma Study-92 (EICESS-92) protocol (group B).
  • Survival in group A vs group B was 45 vs 8% at 5 years and 27 vs 8% at 10 years after diagnosis (log rank and Breslow: P<0.005).
  • We conclude that TB-MRI-governed ICI followed by HDC and SCR in ET-MBM is feasible and warrants further evaluation in prospective studies.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / therapy. Sarcoma, Ewing / therapy

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  • (PMID = 19684633.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-5365
  • [Journal-full-title] Bone marrow transplantation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bone Marrow Transplant.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Controlled Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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17. Clézardin P: Molecularly targeted therapies in breast cancer bone metastases. Curr Pharm Des; 2010;16(11):1260-1
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  • [Title] Molecularly targeted therapies in breast cancer bone metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Bone Density Conservation Agents / therapeutic use. Bone Marrow. Chemokines / metabolism. Diphosphonates / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Osteoblasts / metabolism. Osteoclasts / metabolism. RANK Ligand / antagonists & inhibitors. RANK Ligand / metabolism. Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor-kappa B / antagonists & inhibitors. Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor-kappa B / metabolism. Receptors, Chemokine / metabolism. Signal Transduction / drug effects. Transforming Growth Factor beta / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20298163.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-4286
  • [Journal-full-title] Current pharmaceutical design
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr. Pharm. Des.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Editorial
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Bone Density Conservation Agents; 0 / Chemokines; 0 / Diphosphonates; 0 / RANK Ligand; 0 / Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor-kappa B; 0 / Receptors, Chemokine; 0 / Transforming Growth Factor beta
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18. Tanaka T, Kawashima H, Kuratsukuri K, Sugimura K, Nakatani T: [The effect of bisphosphonates on bone metastasis of hormone-refractory prostate cancer]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2006 Jun;52(6):491-4
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  • [Title] [The effect of bisphosphonates on bone metastasis of hormone-refractory prostate cancer].
  • Approximately 70% of patients with advanced prostate cancer have bone metastases, which are associated with considerable skeletal morbidity, accompanied by severe bone pain that requires narcotics or palliative radiation therapy, pathological fractures, spinal cord compression and hypercalcemia of malignancy (HCM), which consequentiy lower the patient's quality of life.
  • Bisphosphonates, potent inhibitors of osteoclast activity and survival, therefore inhibiting osteoclast-mediated bone absorption, transiently palliative bone pain and decrease analgesic usage in patients who have hormone-refractory prostate cancer (HRPC) with bone metastases.
  • Recently, a randomized controlled trial showed that a third-generation bisphosphonate, zoledronic acid reduced bone pain and skeletal-related events (SREs).
  • In this manuscript, we reviwed the efficacy of bisphosphonates in HRPC with bone metastases from several clinical studies and discuss treatment of advanced prostate cancer with bisphosphonates.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Bone Density Conservation Agents / therapeutic use. Bone Neoplasms / drug therapy. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Diphosphonates / therapeutic use. Imidazoles / therapeutic use. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Bone and Bones / metabolism. Humans. Male


19. Miyamoto W, Yamamoto S, Uchio Y: Metastasis of gastric cancer to the fifth metacarpal bone. Hand Surg; 2008;13(3):193-5
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  • [Title] Metastasis of gastric cancer to the fifth metacarpal bone.
  • We present a rare case of a 72-year-old woman who had a metastatic bone tumour on the fifth metacarpal of the left hand from gastric cancer.
  • It had occurred in the patient, two years after subtotal gastrectomy and partial resection of a liver for advances gastric cancer with metastasis to the liver.
  • A number of investigations and the needle biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of the metastatic malignant tumour of fifth metacarpal bone and an amputation was performed.
  • It is necessary to consider rare acrometastasis to the hand if a patient complains of swelling and pain of the hand without a trigger if there is a history of malignancy, including gastric cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Metacarpal Bones / pathology. Stomach Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19378366.001).
  • [ISSN] 0218-8104
  • [Journal-full-title] Hand surgery : an international journal devoted to hand and upper limb surgery and related research : journal of the Asia-Pacific Federation of Societies for Surgery of the Hand
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hand Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Singapore
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20. Zhang W, Li YJ: [Clinicopathologic analysis of papillary renal cell carcinoma]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi; 2010 May;32(5):354-8
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  • Clinically, most tumors were found incidentally by physical examination because the majority of patients were asymptomatic.
  • Histologically, the PRCC were characterized by varying proportions of papillary and tubular architecture covered by single- or multiple-layer of tumor cells with scanty or voluminous basophilic or eosinophilic cytoplasm.
  • Foam cells and psammoma bodies were seen in some papillary cores and stroma, and the cytoplasm of some tumor cells contained hemosiderin.
  • The distant metastasis, including lung, liver and bone metastases were detected in 3 patients at 3, 8, and 9 months after surgery, which were all of type II PRCC.
  • The other 11 patients were alive without recurrence or metastasis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Middle Aged. Mucin-1 / metabolism. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Vimentin / metabolism


21. Czepczyński R, Parisella MG, Kosowicz J, Mikołajczak R, Ziemnicka K, Gryczyńska M, Sowiński J, Signore A: Somatostatin receptor scintigraphy using 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC in patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging; 2007 Oct;34(10):1635-45
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  • PURPOSE: Several new somatostatin analogues have been developed for the diagnosis and therapy of different tumours.
  • RESULTS: In group 1 (eight patients before thyroidectomy), uptake of the tracer was found in the primary tumours.
  • In group 3 (31 patients with post-surgical hypercalcitoninaemia), scintigraphy was true positive in 23 patients (74.2%): uptake in the thyroid bed was found in five patients, in the lymph nodes in 18 and in bone metastases in four.
  • It can be used in clinical practice for preoperative evaluation, for localisation of local recurrence or distant metastases and particularly for therapy decision making.

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  • (PMID = 17530247.001).
  • [ISSN] 1619-7070
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Organotechnetium Compounds; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; 0 / technetium 99m EDDA-HYNIC-Tyr(3)-octreotide
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22. Lee J, Hodgson D, Chow E, Bezjak A, Catton P, Tsuji D, O'Brien M, Danjoux C, Hayter C, Warde P, Gospodarowicz MK: A phase II trial of palliative radiotherapy for metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Cancer; 2005 Nov 1;104(9):1894-900
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  • [Title] A phase II trial of palliative radiotherapy for metastatic renal cell carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has previously been described as being less responsive to radiotherapy (RT) than other tumor types.
  • The authors conducted a prospective study to assess the effect of RT on symptoms and quality of life (QOL) in patients with metastatic RCC.
  • METHODS: Between 1996 and 2002, patients with symptomatic metastatic RCC were entered into a prospective study in two cancer centers.
  • The most common indication for RT was bone pain (n = 24).
  • The global pain response rate was only 15% (n = 3) because many patients developed other painful metastases.
  • CONCLUSIONS: A palliative radiotherapy dose of 30 Gy in 10 fractions can result in a significant response rate and the relief of local symptoms in patients with bone metastases from RCC.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / radiotherapy. Kidney Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Pain, Intractable / radiotherapy. Palliative Care


23. Lee YC, Cheng CJ, Huang M, Bilen MA, Ye X, Navone NM, Chu K, Kao HH, Yu-Lee LY, Wang Z, Lin SH: Androgen depletion up-regulates cadherin-11 expression in prostate cancer. J Pathol; 2010 May;221(1):68-76
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  • [Title] Androgen depletion up-regulates cadherin-11 expression in prostate cancer.
  • Men with castration-resistant prostate cancer (PCa) frequently develop metastasis in bone.
  • We have previously shown that cadherin-11 (also known as OB-cadherin), a homophilic cell adhesion molecule that mediates osteoblast adhesion, plays a role in the metastasis of PCa to bone.
  • In human PCa specimens, immunohistochemical staining showed that 22/26 (85%) primary PCa tumours from men with castration-resistant PCa expressed cadherin-11.
  • In contrast, only 7/50 (14%) androgen-dependent PCa tumours expressed cadherin-11.
  • In the MDA-PCa-2b xenograft animal model, cadherin-11 was expressed in the recurrent tumours following castration.
  • Although re-expression of AR in the AR-negative PC3 cells led to the inhibition of cadherin-11 expression, depletion of androgen from the culture medium or down-regulation of AR by RNA interference in the C4-2B4 cells or VCaP cells only produced a modest increase of cadherin-11 expression.
  • Together, these results suggest that androgen deprivation up-regulates cadherin-11 expression in prostate cancer, and this may contribute to the metastasis of PCa to bone.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2010 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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  • (PMID = 20191612.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-9896
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pathol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA140388; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA111479-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA111479; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA140388-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA111479-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50-CA140388; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA111479
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgens; 0 / Cadherins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Receptors, Androgen; 156621-71-5 / osteoblast cadherin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS218007; NLM/ PMC2936767
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24. Park YH, Lee S, Cho EY, Choi YL, Lee JE, Nam SJ, Yang JH, Ahn JS, Im YH: Patterns of relapse and metastatic spread in HER2-overexpressing breast cancer according to estrogen receptor status. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol; 2010 Aug;66(3):507-16
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  • [Title] Patterns of relapse and metastatic spread in HER2-overexpressing breast cancer according to estrogen receptor status.
  • PURPOSE: The primary aim of this study was to compare the relapse patterns of estrogen receptor (ER)-positive and ER-negative patients with HER2-overexpressing breast cancer.
  • A secondary aim was to distinguish the preferential primary site of metastases in HER2-overexpressing breast cancer.
  • METHODS: Out of 886 patients treated for metastatic breast cancer (MBC) between January 1995 and December 2006, 269 patients with HER2-positive tumors were identified.
  • Of these, 198 patients with relapsed breast cancer following surgery were included in this study.
  • Rates and patterns of relapse and metastatic spread in HER2+/ER+ and HER2+/ER- patients were analyzed.
  • Severe bone metastasis (HR 4.48, p = 0.028) and massive hepatic metastasis (HR 5.24, p = 0.043) were identified as independent risk factors for early relapse.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows that HER2-overexpressing breast cancer displays characteristic patterns of relapse and metastatic spread depending on ER status.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Cross-Sectional Studies. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Prospective Studies. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Severity of Illness Index. Time Factors


25. Shinya S, Sasaki T, Nakagawa Y, Guiquing Z, Yamamoto F, Yamashita Y: The efficacy of diffusion-weighted imaging for the detection of colorectal cancer. Hepatogastroenterology; 2009 Jan-Feb;56(89):128-32
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  • [Title] The efficacy of diffusion-weighted imaging for the detection of colorectal cancer.
  • Recent technical developments have enabled DWI for human body and the usefulness of DWI for detecting malignant tumors such as liver, kidney, ovary, and breast tumors has been reported.
  • This study documents cases of colorectal cancer detected by DWI and discusses the efficacy of DWI for the evaluation of colorectal cancer.
  • METHODOLOGY: DWI, computed tomography (CT) and colonoscopy examinations were performed on 18 patients with colorectal cancer.
  • The signal intensity was measured in a series of DWI and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were calculated in order to differentiate the cancers from normal tissues.
  • Two experienced radiologists evaluated the depth of tumor invasion into the colorectal wall (tumor staging), the involvement of regional lymph nodes (nodal staging), and the presence or absence of metastasis (metastatic staging) on DWI and CT images according to the TNM classification system.
  • TNM staging of each tumor was compared with the pathologic and surgical findings.
  • RESULTS: There were no differences between the DWI and the CT images regarding their abilities to detect early colorectal cancer.
  • However, DWI could detect advanced colorectal cancer and liver metastasis more sensitivity, or accurately than CT with no enhancing material.
  • In one patient who did not undergo a surgical resection, a follow up DWI showed peritoneal seeding and bone metastasis.
  • CONCLUSION: Although DWI has a difficulty to detect early colorectal cancer, DWI has the potential to be clinically effective for the evaluation of preoperative TNM staging and the postoperative follow-up of colorectal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Colorectal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Colonoscopy. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19453043.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-6390
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepato-gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hepatogastroenterology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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26. Takada J, Okuda K, Tani C, Kenno S, Oguro S, Shimokuni T, Aoki T, Nagaoka Y, Uno Y, Hamada H: [Complete recovery obtained with combined S-1 + CDDP therapy in a patient with multiple lung metastases from esophageal cancer]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2007 Nov;34(12):1967-9
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  • [Title] [Complete recovery obtained with combined S-1 + CDDP therapy in a patient with multiple lung metastases from esophageal cancer].
  • PURPOSE: There are numerous reports on the subject of effectiveness in radio-chemotherapy with regard to esophageal cancer, suggesting especially the combination therapy of 5-FU + CDDP aimed for recovery.
  • Treatment becomes difficult when distal metastases appear during an adjuvant therapy followed by surgery.
  • Our report here is a case in which a complete recovery was obtained after changing to S-1, a prodrug of 5-FU, in response to multiple lung metastases which appeared during the combined 5-FU + CDDP therapy followed by surgery for esophageal cancer.
  • Endoscopy during a physical examination showed a Type 1 tumor 27-30 cm from the anterior teeth.
  • Detailed tests provided a preoperative diagnosis of esophageal cancer: Ut Type 1, T2-T3, N2, MO, IMO.
  • Because of the appearance of multiple lung metastases after the completion of 3 courses, 2 courses of S-1 + CDDP (S-1 120 mg/body day 1-14; CDDP 5 mg/body day 1-5, day 8-12) were performed.
  • After completing the chemotherapy, CT revealed the resolution of the lung metastases and complete recovery was diagnosed.
  • Following this, a treatment with S-1 alone was continued until the appearance of bone metastases at which time radiotherapy was performed.
  • The treatment is currently ongoing and no recurrence of the lung metastases has been shown.
  • CONCLUSION: There have been numerous reports of the combination of S-1 + CDDP in esophageal cancer for NAC or in inoperable cases.
  • However, our report suggests that this method may be effective in cases of recurrence or distal metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Esophageal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Esophageal Neoplasms / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Oxonic Acid / therapeutic use. Tegafur / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 18219867.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Drug Combinations; 150863-82-4 / S 1 (combination); 1548R74NSZ / Tegafur; 5VT6420TIG / Oxonic Acid; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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27. Rosário PW, Borges MA, Costa GB, Rezende LL, Padrão EL, Barroso AL, Purisch S: Management of low-risk patients with thyroid carcinoma and detectable thyroglobulin on T4 after thyroidectomy and ablation with iodine-131. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol; 2007 Feb;51(1):99-103
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  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the positive predictive value of detectable Tg during T4 therapy (Tg on T4) in patients with thyroid cancer after total thyroidectomy and remnant ablation, discussing the work-up in this situation and the empirical indication of 131I.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Initially, 234 low-risk patients [tumor < 5cm, completely resected, no extensive extrathyroid invasion (pT4)] submitted to total thyroidectomy and ablation with 131I (3.7-5.5 GBq) who presented no ectopic uptake on RxWBS were studied.
  • RESULTS: Metastases were detected by neck US in 7 patients, by chest CT in 2 and by US and CT in 3.
  • Four of five patients with lung metastases upon CT had a positive RxWBS.
  • One patient presented an increase in Tg and FDG-PET was positive for lymph node and bone metastases.
  • In these cases, even when US and CT are negative, the administration of a therapeutic dose of 131I (without DxWBS) and FDG-PET are recommended.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Female. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Lymph Nodes / ultrasonography. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis / diagnosis. Neoplasm Metastasis / therapy. Predictive Value of Tests. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17435862.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-2730
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos brasileiros de endocrinologia e metabologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin; Q51BO43MG4 / Thyroxine
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28. Kim JG, Ryoo BY, Park YH, Kim BS, Kim TY, Im YH, Kang YK: Prognostic factors for survival of patients with advanced gastric cancer treated with cisplatin-based chemotherapy. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol; 2008 Feb;61(2):301-7
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  • [Title] Prognostic factors for survival of patients with advanced gastric cancer treated with cisplatin-based chemotherapy.
  • PURPOSE: The present study evaluated baseline patient- or tumor-related prognostic factors in patients with advanced gastric adenocarcinoma.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 304 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed metastatic or recurrent gastric cancer treated with one or more cycles of cisplatin-based chemotherapy at the Korea Cancer Center Hospital were enrolled in the current study.
  • Five independent prognostic factors were identified by a multivariate analysis: poor performance status (hazard ratio [HR], 1.46; 95% CI, 1.32-2.92), elevated total bilirubin (HR, 2.04; 95% CI, 1.73-2.35), presence of peritoneal metastasis (HR, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.57-1.90), presence of bone metastasis (HR, 3.11; 95% CI, 2.69-3.53), and more than 1 metastatic site (HR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.06-1.38).
  • CONCLUSION: Five prognostic factors were identified from patients receiving first-line cisplatin-based chemotherapy for advanced gastric cancer.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Blood Cell Count. Data Interpretation, Statistical. Female. Humans. Liver Function Tests. Male. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Prognosis. Proportional Hazards Models. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17429626.001).
  • [ISSN] 0344-5704
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer chemotherapy and pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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29. Yoshida A, Edgar MA, Garcia J, Meyers PA, Morris CD, Panicek DM: Primary desmoplastic small round cell tumor of the femur. Skeletal Radiol; 2008 Sep;37(9):857-62
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  • [Title] Primary desmoplastic small round cell tumor of the femur.
  • Desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT) is a rare malignant neoplasm typically involving the abdominal cavity of a young male.
  • Extra-abdominal occurrence of this tumor is very rare.
  • Pulmonary metastases were present at initial staging studies, but no abdominal or pelvic lesion was present.
  • Despite chemotherapy and complete tumor excision, the patient developed progressive lung and bone metastases and died 3 years after initial presentation.
  • This is the second reported case of primary DSRCT of bone with genetic confirmation.
  • [MeSH-major] Diagnostic Imaging. Femoral Neoplasms / diagnosis. Sarcoma, Small Cell / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy. Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 18470511.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2348
  • [Journal-full-title] Skeletal radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Skeletal Radiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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30. Bohn OL, Nasir I, Brufsky A, Tseng GC, Bhargava R, MacManus K, Chivukula M: Biomarker profile in breast carcinomas presenting with bone metastasis. Int J Clin Exp Pathol; 2009;3(2):139-46
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  • [Title] Biomarker profile in breast carcinomas presenting with bone metastasis.
  • Bone is the most preferred site for metastatic dissemination in breast cancer.
  • The purpose of this study was to examine the expression of a set of antibodies that could serve as predictive biomarkers associated with breast cancer metastasis in a subset of sixteen (16) breast cancer patients who developed bone metastasis.
  • The expression rates were compared between the metastatic breast cancer to bone (MBC-B) group and a group of sixty-four (64) primary breast cancer (PBC).
  • We found that tumors associated with bone metastasis tended to be larger than 2 cm.
  • The high morbidity associated to metastatic breast cancer prompts the identification of predictive biomarkers of relapse of breast tumors to categorize patients at high risk of bone metastasis and serve as targeted therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Gene Expression Profiling. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / genetics. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Case-Control Studies. Cohort Studies. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Time Factors. Tumor Burden


31. Leeming DJ, Koizumi M, Byrjalsen I, Li B, Qvist P, Tankó LB: The relative use of eight collagenous and noncollagenous markers for diagnosis of skeletal metastases in breast, prostate, or lung cancer patients. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 2006 Jan;15(1):32-8
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  • [Title] The relative use of eight collagenous and noncollagenous markers for diagnosis of skeletal metastases in breast, prostate, or lung cancer patients.
  • The present study was sought to assess the relative use of eight biomarkers for the detection of bone metastases in cancer forms frequently spreading to the skeleton.
  • Participants were 161 patients with either breast, prostate, or lung cancer.
  • The presence and extent of bone metastases was assessed by imaging techniques (computer tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging) and Technetium-99m scintigraphy.
  • Serum or urinary level of the bone resorption markers (alphaalphaCTX, betabetaCTX, NTX, and ICTP), formation marker (BSAP), and osteoclastogenesis markers (osteoprotegerin, RANKL, and TRAP5b) was measured by commercially available immunoassays.
  • When assessed on a group basis, all biomarkers, except for osteoprotegerin and RANKL, were significantly elevated in patients compared with those without bone metastases (P<0.05).
  • Biomarkers had greater diagnostic value in breast and prostate cancer patients, yet alphaalphaCTX, NTx, and ICTP were able to discriminate lung cancer patients with or without bone metastases (P<0.05).
  • Furthermore, all biomarkers (except for osteoprotegerin and RANKL) were indicative at the early stage of skeletal involvement (one to five metastases).
  • When expressing sensitivity as the percentage increase in biomarker level relative to patients without bone metastases, alphaalphaCTX showed the largest relative increases at each stage of the metastatic disease.
  • These results suggest that closer monitoring of cancer patients with serial measures of biomarkers might facilitate the timely diagnosis of skeletal metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Bone Neoplasms / diagnosis. Bone Resorption / metabolism. Osteoclasts / metabolism. Osteogenesis / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Female. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Copyright] (Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2006;15(1)32-8).
  • (PMID = 16434583.001).
  • [ISSN] 1055-9965
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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32. Kakarala G, Chatha H, Ferns B, Ebizie A: Metastatic gastric adenocarcinoma mimicking osteomyelitis of second toe. Foot (Edinb); 2008 Sep;18(3):171-3
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  • [Title] Metastatic gastric adenocarcinoma mimicking osteomyelitis of second toe.
  • Recurrence more than 8 years after surgery is extremely rare and bony metastasis occurs only in 0-17% cases of gastric carcinoma.
  • We present a case of metastasis to the second toe which occurred 12 years after the initial surgery.
  • The case highlights the importance of high index of suspicion of pedal metastasis in patients presenting with swelling or bony tenderness with history of carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Bone Neoplasms / diagnosis. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Toe Phalanges / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Amputation. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Osteomyelitis / diagnosis. Stomach Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20307433.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2963
  • [Journal-full-title] Foot (Edinburgh, Scotland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Foot (Edinb)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
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33. Imamura T, Hanyu A: [TGF-beta signaling during bone metastasis of breast cancer and in-vivo imaging]. Clin Calcium; 2008 Apr;18(4):460-5
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  • [Title] [TGF-beta signaling during bone metastasis of breast cancer and in-vivo imaging].
  • TGF-beta thus plays two distinct and opposing roles in cancer progression.
  • In the present study, we have developed a useful method that enables monitoring of tumor and its TGF-beta signaling within the same animal using in vivo bioluminescent imaging.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / genetics. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Diagnostic Imaging / methods. Signal Transduction / genetics. Transforming Growth Factor beta / physiology


34. Shore P: A role for Runx2 in normal mammary gland and breast cancer bone metastasis. J Cell Biochem; 2005 Oct 15;96(3):484-9
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  • [Title] A role for Runx2 in normal mammary gland and breast cancer bone metastasis.
  • It has therefore primarily been considered as a specific regulator of bone genes.
  • Reports of Runx2 expression in breast cancer cell lines, combined with the fact that breast cancers preferentially metastasise to bone, have also hinted at a potential role for Runx2 in the formation of bone metastasese.
  • These initial observations have prompted further analysis of Runx2 function in mammary epithelial cells and recent findings have demonstrated that Runx2 does indeed contribute to the ability of metastatic breast cancer cell lines to form osteolytic bone lesions.
  • In this article I discuss recent advances that link Runx2 with normal mammary epithelial cell function and the development of bone metastasese in breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms. Breast Neoplasms. Core Binding Factor Alpha 1 Subunit / metabolism. Mammary Glands, Animal / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 16052475.001).
  • [ISSN] 0730-2312
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cellular biochemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cell. Biochem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Wellcome Trust / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Core Binding Factor Alpha 1 Subunit
  • [Number-of-references] 31
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35. Fizazi K, Bosserman L, Gao G, Skacel T, Markus R: Denosumab treatment of prostate cancer with bone metastases and increased urine N-telopeptide levels after therapy with intravenous bisphosphonates: results of a randomized phase II trial. J Urol; 2009 Aug;182(2):509-15; discussion 515-6
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  • [Title] Denosumab treatment of prostate cancer with bone metastases and increased urine N-telopeptide levels after therapy with intravenous bisphosphonates: results of a randomized phase II trial.
  • PURPOSE: Patients with bone metastases have high rates of RANKL driven bone resorption and an increased risk of skeletal morbidity.
  • Osteoclast mediated bone resorption can be assessed by measuring urine N-telopeptide and can be inhibited by denosumab, a fully human antibody against RANKL.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eligible patients (111) had bone metastases from prostate cancer, other solid tumors or multiple myeloma, 1 or more bone lesions and urine N-telopeptide greater than 50 nM bone collagen equivalents per mM creatinine (urine N-telopeptide greater than 50) despite the use of intravenous bisphosphonates.
  • Patients were stratified by cancer type and screening urine N-telopeptide, and randomized to continue intravenous bisphosphonates every 4 weeks or receive 180 mg subcutaneous denosumab every 4 weeks or 180 mg every 12 weeks.
  • We report the efficacy results for the subset of patients with prostate cancer.
  • RESULTS: Patients with prostate cancer represented 45% (50 of 111) of the study population.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In patients with prostate cancer related bone metastases and increased urine N-telopeptide despite intravenous bisphosphonate treatment, denosumab normalized urine N-telopeptide levels more frequently than ongoing intravenous bisphosphonates.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Bone Density Conservation Agents / administration & dosage. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Bone Neoplasms / urine. Collagen Type I / urine. Diphosphonates / administration & dosage. Peptides / urine. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / urine. RANK Ligand / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 19524963.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-3792
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] ClinicalTrials.gov/ NCT00104650
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Bone Density Conservation Agents; 0 / Collagen Type I; 0 / Diphosphonates; 0 / Peptides; 0 / RANK Ligand; 0 / collagen type I trimeric cross-linked peptide; 4EQZ6YO2HI / Denosumab
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41. Bannowsky A, Wefer B, Naumann M, Hamann M, Hautmann S, Jünemann KP: ["Second line" polychemotherapy in metastatic urothelial cancer of the renal pelvis. Persisting partial remission by 18 treatment cycles of gemcitabine/paclitaxel after 24 treatment cycles gemcitabine/cisplatin "stable disease"]. Urologe A; 2005 Aug;44(8):915-7
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  • [Title] ["Second line" polychemotherapy in metastatic urothelial cancer of the renal pelvis. Persisting partial remission by 18 treatment cycles of gemcitabine/paclitaxel after 24 treatment cycles gemcitabine/cisplatin "stable disease"].
  • [Transliterated title] "Second-line-Polychemotherapie" beim metastasierten Urothelkarzinom des Nierenbeckens. Andauernde partielle Remission nach 18 Kursen Gemcitabin/Paclitaxel trotz 24 Kursen Gemcitabin/Cisplatin im "stable disease".
  • Moderate activity of systemic chemotherapy for advanced urothelial cancer has been reported for more than 30 years.
  • Due to the small number of cases and poor prognosis, knowledge is scant about the therapeutic effect of "second-line" polychemotherapy in metastatic upper tract urothelial cancer.
  • We report an interesting case of a 59-year-old man suffering from urothelial cancer of the renal pelvis with pulmonary, lymphogenous, and bone metastases who had an unexpected response to "second-line" chemotherapy with only 2 treatment cycles of gemcitabine/paclitaxel (partial remission) after 24 treatment cycles of gemcitabine/cisplatin in "stable disease" with progression between the therapeutic intervals.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / secondary. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Kidney Neoplasms / drug therapy. Kidney Pelvis. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Paclitaxel / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease Progression. Drug Administration Schedule. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Remission Induction. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / secondary. Tomography, X-Ray Computed


42. Karnwal A, Hadjihannas E, Sherif A, Grumett S, Karnwal S, Mathews J: Amelanotic melanoma presenting with cervical lymphadenopathy. BMJ Case Rep; 2009;2009
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  • Computed tomography showed a left sided, 8×13 cm cervical mass with liver, lung and bony metastases.
  • Histological examination of the lymph nodal mass confirmed the diagnosis of a metastatic amelanotic melanoma.
  • The patient was treated with glucocorticoids, radiation therapy for the sacral bony deposit, and chemotherapy.
  • Despite an initial reduction of his target lesions, his condition subsequently deteriorated and he died 4 months after diagnosis.

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  • (PMID = 21686931.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-790X
  • [Journal-full-title] BMJ case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMJ Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3028389
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43. Massaccesi M, Forni F, Spagnuolo P, Macchia G, Mignogna S, De Ninno M, Cellini N, Giardina B, Carbone A, Morganti AG: Multiple tumor marker elevation in androgen ablation-refractory prostate cancer with long-term response to metronomic chemotherapy: a case report. Int J Biol Markers; 2010 Oct-Dec;25(4):243-7
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  • [Title] Multiple tumor marker elevation in androgen ablation-refractory prostate cancer with long-term response to metronomic chemotherapy: a case report.
  • Outcomes in hormone-refractory prostate cancer are very poor.
  • We present the case of a 69-year-old man with hormone-refractory prostate cancer and bone metastases treated with metronomic chemotherapy (cyclophosphamide based).
  • The atypical features of this case were an unusually long-lasting response to metronomic chemotherapy and an increase in serum levels of some non-prostate-specific tumor markers (CEA and CA 19-9) that was not related to a relapse of colon cancer.
  • We hypothesize a potential role of hypoxia inducing CA 19-9 and CEA expression in tumor cells, which may predict the development of progressive resistance to antiangiogenic therapies.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Bone Neoplasms / drug therapy. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Aged. Androgen Antagonists / therapeutic use. CA-19-9 Antigen / blood. Carcinoembryonic Antigen / blood. Chromogranin A / blood. Colonic Neoplasms / surgery. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasms, Second Primary / surgery. Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood

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  • (PMID = 21161947.001).
  • [ISSN] 1724-6008
  • [Journal-full-title] The International journal of biological markers
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Biol. Markers
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgen Antagonists; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CA-19-9 Antigen; 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen; 0 / Chromogranin A; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen
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44. Sargos P, Mamou N, Dejean C, Figueiredo BH, Huchet A, Italiano A, Kantor G: [Normal tissue tolerance to external beam radiation therapy: adult bone]. Cancer Radiother; 2010 Jul;14(4-5):386-91
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  • [Title] [Normal tissue tolerance to external beam radiation therapy: adult bone].
  • [Transliterated title] Dose de tolérance à l'irradiation des tissus sains: l'os chez l'adulte.
  • Radiation tolerance for bone tissue has been mostly evaluated with regard to bone fracture.
  • After radiation therapy of bone metastasis, the analysis of related radiation fracture is difficult to individualize from a pathologic fracture.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone and Bones / radiation effects. Osteoradionecrosis / etiology. Radiation Tolerance. Radiotherapy / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Disease Progression. Female. Fractures, Bone / complications. Fractures, Bone / radionuclide imaging. Hip Fractures / radionuclide imaging. Humans. Middle Aged. Osteoblasts / radiation effects. Osteoporosis / complications. Radiation Injuries / pathology. Risk Factors. Sarcoma / radiotherapy

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2010 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20570200.001).
  • [ISSN] 1769-6658
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer radiothérapie : journal de la Société française de radiothérapie oncologique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Radiother
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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45. Oaknin A, Barretina MP, Morilla I: Muscle metastasis of low-grade endometrial carcinoma seven years after diagnosis: a case report. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2010;31(1):114-6
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  • [Title] Muscle metastasis of low-grade endometrial carcinoma seven years after diagnosis: a case report.
  • In few cases local relapse and/or distant metastases can occur.
  • We report the muscle as an unusual site of metastasis.
  • Three years later she was diagnosed with a deltoid muscle metastasis confirmed histologically and bone metastases.
  • She died eight months after diagnosis of the bone and muscle metastases.
  • Furthermore, this report describes, to our knowledge, the first case of endometrial carcinoma muscle metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Endometrioid / secondary. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Muscle Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Arm. Female. Humans. Muscle, Skeletal. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local

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  • (PMID = 20349796.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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46. Lester T, Xu H: Malignant pleural mesothelioma with osseous metastases and pathologic fracture of femoral neck. Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol; 2008 Oct;16(5):507-9
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  • [Title] Malignant pleural mesothelioma with osseous metastases and pathologic fracture of femoral neck.
  • Malignant mesotheliomas occur in the pleura, peritoneum, pericardium, and tunica vaginalis.
  • The majority of tumors are pleural in origin.
  • Hematogenous or lymphatic metastasis is not uncommon; however, metastasis to bone has rarely been well documented.
  • This is a case report of malignant pleural mesothelioma metastatic to the femur with a pathologic fracture of femoral neck.


47. Halvorson KG, Sevcik MA, Ghilardi JR, Sullivan LJ, Koewler NJ, Bauss F, Mantyh PW: Intravenous ibandronate rapidly reduces pain, neurochemical indices of central sensitization, tumor burden, and skeletal destruction in a mouse model of bone cancer. J Pain Symptom Manage; 2008 Sep;36(3):289-303
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  • [Title] Intravenous ibandronate rapidly reduces pain, neurochemical indices of central sensitization, tumor burden, and skeletal destruction in a mouse model of bone cancer.
  • Over half of all chronic cancer pain arises from metastases to bone and bone cancer pain is one of the most difficult of all persistent pain states to fully control.
  • Currently, bone pain is treated primarily by opioid-based therapies, which are frequently accompanied by significant unwanted side effects.
  • In an effort to develop nonopioid-based therapies that could rapidly attenuate tumor-induced bone pain, we examined the effect of intravenous administration of the bisphosphonate, ibandronate, in a mouse model of bone cancer pain.
  • Following injection and confinement of green fluorescent protein-transfected murine osteolytic 2472 sarcoma cells into the marrow space of the femur of male C3H/HeJ mice, ibandronate was administered either as a single dose (300 microg/kg), at Day 7 post-tumor injection, when tumor-induced bone destruction and pain were first evident, or in three consecutive doses (100 microg/kg/day) at Days 7, 8, and 9 post-tumor injection.
  • Intravenous ibandronate administered once or in three consecutive doses reduced ongoing and movement-evoked bone cancer pain-related behaviors, neurochemical markers of central sensitization, tumor burden, and tumor-induced bone destruction.
  • These results support limited clinical trials that suggest the potential of ibandronate to rapidly attenuate bone pain and illuminate the mechanisms that may be responsible for limiting pain and disease progression.

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  • (PMID = 18411018.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-6513
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pain and symptom management
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Pain Symptom Manage
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS023970-20; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R37 NS023970; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS048021-04; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS048021; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS048021; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS23970; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS048021-04; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS023970; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R37 NS023970-20
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Bone Density Conservation Agents; 0 / Diphosphonates; 114084-78-5 / ibandronic acid
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS68973; NLM/ PMC2638081
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48. Aapro M, Saad F, Costa L: Optimizing clinical benefits of bisphosphonates in cancer patients with bone metastases. Oncologist; 2010;15(11):1147-58
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  • [Title] Optimizing clinical benefits of bisphosphonates in cancer patients with bone metastases.
  • Bisphosphonates are important treatments for bone metastases.
  • Among patients with bone metastases from breast cancer, the efficacy of approved bisphosphonates was evaluated in a Cochrane review, showing a reduction in the risk of skeletal-related events (SREs) ranging from 8% to 41% compared with placebo.
  • Zoledronic acid has demonstrated clinical benefits beyond those of pamidronate in a head-to-head trial that included patients with breast cancer or multiple myeloma.
  • In a comparison study, the adherence rates with oral bisphosphonates were found to be significantly lower compared with those of intravenous bisphosphonates.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / drug therapy. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Diphosphonates / therapeutic use. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 21051658.001).
  • [ISSN] 1549-490X
  • [Journal-full-title] The oncologist
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncologist
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Diphosphonates; 0 / Imidazoles; 0 / RANK Ligand; 4EQZ6YO2HI / Denosumab; 6XC1PAD3KF / zoledronic acid; OYY3447OMC / pamidronate
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3227909
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49. Fottner A, Szalantzy M, Wirthmann L, Stähler M, Baur-Melnyk A, Jansson V, Dürr HR: Bone metastases from renal cell carcinoma: patient survival after surgical treatment. BMC Musculoskelet Disord; 2010;11:145
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  • [Title] Bone metastases from renal cell carcinoma: patient survival after surgical treatment.
  • BACKGROUND: Surgery is the primary treatment of skeletal metastases from renal cell carcinoma, because radiation and chemotherapy frequently are not effecting the survival.
  • METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 101 patients operatively treated for skeletal metastases of renal cell carcinoma between 1980 and 2005.
  • RESULTS: 27 patients had a solitary bone metastasis, 20 patients multiple bone metastases and 54 patients had concomitant visceral metastases.
  • Patients with solitary bone metastases had a better survival (p < 0.001) compared to patients with multiple metastases.
  • Age younger than 65 years (p = 0.036), absence of pathologic fractures (p < 0.001) and tumor-free resection margins (p = 0.028) predicted higher survival.
  • Gender, location of metastases, time between diagnosis of renal cell carcinoma and treatment of metastatic disease, incidence of local recurrence, radiation and chemotherapy did not influence survival.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The data suggest that patients with a solitary metastasis or a limited number of resectable metastases are candidates for wide resections.
  • As radiation and chemotherapy are ineffective in most patients, surgery is a better option to achieve local tumor control and increase the survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / mortality. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / mortality. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / secondary. Kidney Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Distribution. Age Factors. Aged. Disease Progression. Female. Fractures, Bone / epidemiology. Fractures, Bone / pathology. Fractures, Bone / physiopathology. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / physiopathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Severity of Illness Index. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20598157.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2474
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC musculoskeletal disorders
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Musculoskelet Disord
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2909163
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50. Yomiya K: [Non-opioid analgesics in cancer pain]. Nihon Rinsho; 2007 Jan;65(1):49-54
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  • [Title] [Non-opioid analgesics in cancer pain].
  • NSAIDs have anti-inflammatory effects and are particularly effective against somatic pain represented by that due to bone metastasis.

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  • (PMID = 17233415.001).
  • [ISSN] 0047-1852
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon rinsho. Japanese journal of clinical medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Rinsho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal; 362O9ITL9D / Acetaminophen
  • [Number-of-references] 19
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51. Harada H, Nishimura T, Kamata M, Asakura H, Zenda S, Takahashi M, Katagiri H, Takagi T: [Radiotherapy for bone metastases from hepatocellular carcinoma and pancreas cancer]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2006 Aug;33(8):1061-4
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  • [Title] [Radiotherapy for bone metastases from hepatocellular carcinoma and pancreas cancer].
  • There are few reports on the treatment for bone metastases from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and pancreas cancer.
  • We evaluated the therapeutic effects of radiotherapy (RT) in patients with bone metastases from these cancers.
  • Bone metastases from HCC are typically lytic and expansive.
  • We evaluated 13 patients with 16 bone metastases from HCC undergoing RT (30-40 Gy, median 39 Gy) in our department from September 2002 to December 2004.
  • Tumor regression was evaluated by CT or MRI.
  • More than 50% tumor regression was achieved in 4 of 16 lesions (25%).
  • Thirteen patients with 18 bone metastases from pancreas cancer received RT (20-30 Gy, median 30 Gy) from September 2002 to March 2005.
  • The prognosis of patients with bone metastases from pancreas cancer is still very poor, and a single fraction or short fraction schedule RT is appropriate.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / pathology. Pancreatic Neoplasms / pathology


52. Zhou L, Guo X, Jing BA, Zhao L: CD44 is involved in CXCL-12 induced acute myeloid leukemia HL-60 cell polarity. Biocell; 2010 Aug;34(2):91-4
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  • CXCL-12 and its receptor CXCR4 participate in breast cancer and melanoma cell metastasis to bone and lymphoid nodes.

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  • (PMID = 20925198.001).
  • [ISSN] 0327-9545
  • [Journal-full-title] Biocell : official journal of the Sociedades Latinoamericanas de Microscopía Electronica ... et. al
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biocell
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Argentina
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD44; 0 / CXCL12 protein, human; 0 / Chemokine CXCL12; 0 / Receptors, CXCR4
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53. Langer CJ: Role of zoledronic acid in the setting of bone metastases from non-small-cell lung cancer. Clin Lung Cancer; 2005 Mar;6(5):314-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Role of zoledronic acid in the setting of bone metastases from non-small-cell lung cancer.
  • Bone metastases are major sequelae of non-small-cell lung cancer and are associated with poor survival, skeletal-related events (SREs), and economic burden.
  • Zoledronic acid is the first and only bisphosphonate with proven efficacy in the treatment of bone metastases associated with a broad range of tumors, including lung cancer.
  • We report herein a case study that highlights the clinical benefit of zoledronic acid in a patient with squamous cell carcinoma of the lung.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Diphosphonates / therapeutic use. Imidazoles / therapeutic use. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Osteoarthropathy, Secondary Hypertrophic / etiology


54. Price JT, Quinn JM, Sims NA, Vieusseux J, Waldeck K, Docherty SE, Myers D, Nakamura A, Waltham MC, Gillespie MT, Thompson EW: The heat shock protein 90 inhibitor, 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin, enhances osteoclast formation and potentiates bone metastasis of a human breast cancer cell line. Cancer Res; 2005 Jun 1;65(11):4929-38
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The heat shock protein 90 inhibitor, 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin, enhances osteoclast formation and potentiates bone metastasis of a human breast cancer cell line.
  • Breast cancer metastasis to the bone occurs frequently, causing numerous complications including severe pain, fracture, hypercalcemia, and paralysis.
  • To address this, we examined whether the heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) inhibitor, 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG), would be efficacious in inhibiting breast cancer metastasis to bone.
  • Utilizing the human breast cancer subline, MDA-MB-231SA, previously in vivo selected for its enhanced ability to generate osteolytic bone lesions, we determined that 17-AAG potently inhibited its in vitro proliferation and migration.
  • Moreover, 17-AAG significantly reduced MDA-MB-231SA tumor growth in the mammary-fat pad of nude mice.
  • Despite these findings, 17-AAG enhanced the incidence of bone metastasis and osteolytic lesions following intracardiac inoculation in the nude mouse.
  • Consistent with these findings, 17-AAG enhanced osteoclast formation 2- to 4-fold in mouse bone marrow/osteoblast cocultures, receptor activator of nuclear factor kappaB ligand (RANKL)-stimulated bone marrow, and RAW264.7 cell models of in vitro osteoclastogenesis.
  • A pro-osteolytic action of 17-AAG independent of tumor presence was also determined in vivo, in which 17-AAG-treated tumor-naive mice had reduced trabecular bone volume with an associated increase in osteoclast number.
  • Thus, HSP90 inhibitors can stimulate osteoclast formation, which may underlie the increased incidence of osteolysis and skeletal tumor incidence caused by 17-AAG in vivo.
  • These data suggest an important contraindication to the Hsp90 targeted cancer therapy currently undergoing clinical trial.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. HSP90 Heat-Shock Proteins / antagonists & inhibitors. Osteoclasts / drug effects. Rifabutin / analogs & derivatives. Rifabutin / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Benzoquinones. Cell Growth Processes / drug effects. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Movement / drug effects. Chemotaxis / drug effects. Disease Models, Animal. Female. Humans. Lactams, Macrocyclic. Mice. Mice, Inbred BALB C. Mice, Nude. Neoplasm Transplantation. Transplantation, Heterologous


55. Zanotti-Fregonara P, Rubello D, Hindié E: Bone metastases of differentiated thyroid cancer: the importance of early diagnosis and 131I therapy on prognosis. J Nucl Med; 2008 Nov;49(11):1902-3
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  • [Title] Bone metastases of differentiated thyroid cancer: the importance of early diagnosis and 131I therapy on prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / diagnosis. Bone Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Early Diagnosis. Humans. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 18927327.001).
  • [ISSN] 0161-5505
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of nuclear medicine : official publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Nucl. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes
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56. Schmidt MH, Klimo P Jr, Vrionis FD: Metastatic spinal cord compression. J Natl Compr Canc Netw; 2005 Sep;3(5):711-9
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  • [Title] Metastatic spinal cord compression.
  • Approximately 70% of cancer patients have metastatic disease at death.
  • Spinal cord compression may develop in 5% to 10% of cancer patients and up to 40% of patients with preexisting nonspinal bone metastasis (>25,000 cases/y).
  • Given the increasing survival times of patients with cancer, greater numbers of patients are likely to develop this complication.
  • The role of surgery in the management of metastatic spinal cord compression is expanding.
  • The management of metastatic spine disease can consist of a combination of surgery, radiation treatment, and chemotherapy.
  • Treatment modalities are not mutually exclusive and must be individualized for patients evaluated in a multidisciplinary setting.
  • [MeSH-major] Spinal Cord Compression / etiology. Spinal Cord Compression / therapy. Spinal Neoplasms / complications. Spinal Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 16194459.001).
  • [ISSN] 1540-1405
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network : JNCCN
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Natl Compr Canc Netw
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Steroids
  • [Number-of-references] 103
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57. Kouvaris JR, Kouloulias VE, Papacharalampous XN, Koutselini HA, Gennatas CS, Limouris GS, Vlahos LJ: Isolated talus metastasis from breast carcinoma: a case report and review of the literature. Onkologie; 2005 Mar;28(3):141-3
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  • [Title] Isolated talus metastasis from breast carcinoma: a case report and review of the literature.
  • CASE REPORT: A 59-year-old woman with isolated metastasis to the talus, originating from breast carcinoma was treated by radiotherapy, letrazole, and intravenous bisphosphonates.
  • RESULTS: The review of the literature revealed that this is the first case of an isolated metastasis to the bone of talus from a breast carcinoma, while there are a few cases originating from other organs.
  • The differential diagnosis of acrometastases may be difficult.
  • CONCLUSION: Pain in the foot or hand of a patient with a known history of malignancy should be considered as potential metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / diagnosis. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma / secondary. Talus

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  • [CommentIn] Onkologie. 2005 Jun;28(6-7):369 [15973777.001]
  • [CommentIn] Onkologie. 2009 Apr;32(4):216-7 [19372720.001]
  • (PMID = 15772464.001).
  • [ISSN] 0378-584X
  • [Journal-full-title] Onkologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Onkologie
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Number-of-references] 32
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58. Selvaggi G, Scagliotti GV: Management of bone metastases in cancer: a review. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol; 2005 Dec;56(3):365-78
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  • [Title] Management of bone metastases in cancer: a review.
  • The presence of bone metastases is indicative of disseminated disease and typically indicates a short-term prognosis in cancer patients.
  • New classes of drugs, such as bisphosphonates that significantly increase the time to first skeletal-related event (SRE), represent useful tools for the treatment of bone metastases.
  • A potential role for bisphosphonates in the prevention of bone metastases is under current evaluation in clinical trials encompassing different solid tumor types.
  • In combination with ongoing clinical trials, basic research to identify potential novel targets in the tumor cells-bone microenvironment will further define future strategies in the treatment of bone metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Density Conservation Agents / therapeutic use. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Bone Neoplasms / therapy. Diphosphonates / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis / physiopathology

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  • (PMID = 15978828.001).
  • [ISSN] 1040-8428
  • [Journal-full-title] Critical reviews in oncology/hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Crit. Rev. Oncol. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bone Density Conservation Agents; 0 / Diphosphonates
  • [Number-of-references] 127
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59. Yokoyama S, Fukuhara S, Imazu T, Hara T, Yamaguchi S, Adachi S: [Recrudescence of prostate cancer with low serum level of PSA and high serum level of CEA and CA19-9: a case report]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2007 Jul;53(7):485-7
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  • [Title] [Recrudescence of prostate cancer with low serum level of PSA and high serum level of CEA and CA19-9: a case report].
  • Two years ago, he was diagnosed with prostate cancer at another hospital and received radiotherapy and endocrine therapy.
  • In the histology of autopsy specimen, the prostate showed no sign of malignancy, but bone showed metastasis of prostate cancer.
  • Immunohistochemical staining for CEA and PSA demonstrated the existence of each protein in bone metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Bone Neoplasms / diagnosis. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. CA-19-9 Antigen / blood. Carcinoembryonic Antigen / blood. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood. Prostatic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology


60. Spizzo G, Seeber A, Mitterer M: Routine use of pamidronate in NSCLC patients with bone metastasis: results from a retrospective analysis. Anticancer Res; 2009 Dec;29(12):5245-9
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  • [Title] Routine use of pamidronate in NSCLC patients with bone metastasis: results from a retrospective analysis.
  • BACKGROUND: No data on the tolerability and effects of pamidronate in non-small cell lung cancer patients with bone metastasis are available.
  • Forty-one (39.5%) presented with bone metastasis during the course of the disease.
  • RESULTS: The occurrence of bone metastasis was associated with a poor overall survival, but patients treated with pamidronate had a significantly better median overall survival than untreated patients (15.4 months vs. 2.1 months; p<0.001).
  • CONCLUSION: The diagnosis of bone metastasis and the consequent routine administration of pamidronate have an impact on survival of NSCLC patients; this drug is a good candidate for routine use in haemato-oncological centres.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Bone Neoplasms / drug therapy. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / drug therapy. Diphosphonates / therapeutic use. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / secondary. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 20044644.001).
  • [ISSN] 1791-7530
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Diphosphonates; OYY3447OMC / pamidronate
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61. Roato I, D'Amelio P, Gorassini E, Grimaldi A, Bonello L, Fiori C, Delsedime L, Tizzani A, De Libero A, Isaia G, Ferracini R: Osteoclasts are active in bone forming metastases of prostate cancer patients. PLoS One; 2008;3(11):e3627
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  • [Title] Osteoclasts are active in bone forming metastases of prostate cancer patients.
  • BACKGROUND: Bone forming metastases are a common and disabling consequence of prostate cancer (CaP).
  • The potential role of osteoclast activity in CaP bone metastases is not completely explained.
  • In this study, we investigated ex vivo whether the osteolytic activity is present and how it is ruled in CaP patients with bone forming metastases.
  • At diagnosis, 37 patients had a primary tumour only, while 9 had primary tumour and concomitant bone forming metastases.
  • In all patients there was no evidence of metastasis to other non-bone sites.
  • We evaluated patients' bone homeostasis; we made peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) cultures to detect in vitro osteoclastogenesis; we dosed serum expression of molecules involved in cancer induced osteoclatogenesis, such as RANKL, OPG, TNF-alpha, DKK-1 and IL-7.
  • By Real-Time PCR, we quantified DKK-1 and IL-7 gene expression on micro-dissected tumour and healthy tissue sections.
  • PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: CaP bone metastatic patients showed bone metabolism disruption with increased bone resorption and formation compared to non-bone metastatic patients and healthy controls.
  • The CaP PBMC cultures showed an enhanced osteoclastogenesis in bone metastatic patients, due to an increase of RANKL/OPG ratio.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated ex vivo that osteoclastogenesis is an active mechanism in tumour nesting of bone forming metastatic cancer and that serum DKK-1 levels are increased in CaP patients, suggesting to deeply investigate its role as tumour marker.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / etiology. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma / pathology. Osteoclasts / physiology. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Bone Remodeling / genetics. Bone Remodeling / physiology. Bone Resorption / genetics. Bone Resorption / physiopathology. Case-Control Studies. Cell Differentiation / genetics. Cell Differentiation / physiology. Cells, Cultured. Cross-Sectional Studies. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / blood. Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / genetics. Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / metabolism. Interleukin-7 / blood. Interleukin-7 / genetics. Male. Middle Aged. Osteoprotegerin / blood. Osteoprotegerin / genetics. RANK Ligand / blood. RANK Ligand / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18978943.001).
  • [ISSN] 1932-6203
  • [Journal-full-title] PloS one
  • [ISO-abbreviation] PLoS ONE
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DKK1 protein, human; 0 / IL7 protein, human; 0 / Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Interleukin-7; 0 / Osteoprotegerin; 0 / RANK Ligand; 0 / TNFRSF11B protein, human; 0 / TNFSF11 protein, human
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2574033
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62. Rodríguez-Pinilla SM, Sarrió D, Honrado E, Hardisson D, Calero F, Benitez J, Palacios J: Prognostic significance of basal-like phenotype and fascin expression in node-negative invasive breast carcinomas. Clin Cancer Res; 2006 Mar 1;12(5):1533-9
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  • PURPOSE: Basal-like phenotype tumors are frequently found among BRCA1 germ-line mutated breast carcinomas.
  • They are biologically aggressive and have a tendency towards visceral metastasis when untreated.
  • Nevertheless, it has been suggested that they respond to chemotherapy better than other types of tumors.
  • Fascin expression has been associated with lung metastasis in breast cancer.
  • The aim of this study was to determine whether basal-like phenotype and fascin were related in both sporadic and familial tumors and with prognosis in node-negative sporadic breast cancers.
  • Tumors that were estrogen receptor/HER2 negative and cytokeratin 5/6 and/or epidermal growth factor receptor positive were considered to have a basal-like phenotype.
  • RESULTS: A basal-like phenotype was found in 11.9% of sporadic cancers.
  • Tumors with a basal-like phenotype showed local recurrence (17.4%) or visceral metastasis (13%) but not bone metastasis (P = 0.001).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Basal-like tumors had a tendency towards visceral metastasis and their prognosis was dependent on the use of postoperative chemotherapy.
  • Although fascin expression was associated with the basal-like phenotype, it was not associated with their metastatic behavior.
  • Fascin expression is frequent in BRCA1-associated tumors.
  • [MeSH-minor] Actins / metabolism. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. BRCA1 Protein / metabolism. BRCA2 Protein / metabolism. Female. Humans. Keratin-5. Keratin-6. Keratins / metabolism. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Phenotype. Prognosis. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / metabolism. Receptor, ErbB-2 / metabolism. Receptors, Estrogen / metabolism. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 16533778.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Actins; 0 / BRCA1 Protein; 0 / BRCA2 Protein; 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / FSCN1 protein, human; 0 / KRT5 protein, human; 0 / KRT6A protein, human; 0 / KRT6B protein, human; 0 / KRT6C protein, human; 0 / Keratin-5; 0 / Keratin-6; 0 / Microfilament Proteins; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 146808-54-0 / fascin; 68238-35-7 / Keratins; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
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63. Liu NN, Shen DL, Chen XQ, He YL: [Clinical analysis of 355 patients with bone metastasis of malignant tumors]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi; 2010 Mar;32(3):203-7
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  • [Title] [Clinical analysis of 355 patients with bone metastasis of malignant tumors].
  • OBJECTIVE: To analyze the clinical characteristics of bone metastasis of malignant tumors.
  • METHODS: The clinical data and survival time of 355 patients with bone metastasis of malignant tumors were retrospectively analyzed.
  • RESULTS: The bone metastasis occurred more frequently in men (male:female = 1.45:1).
  • The most common primary tumors were lung cancer in men and breast cancer in women.
  • The thoracic vertebrae, ribs, lumbar vertebrae and pelvic were frequently involved metastatic sites and the multiple bone metastasis was common (83.4%).
  • Local masses, disfunctions, pathologic fracture and paraplegia occurred in a few patients while many patients were asymptomatic (22.0%).
  • The most frequent radiographic manifestation was the osteolytic bone destruction (82.2%).
  • Among them, it was 34.9 months in prostate cancer and 4.6 months in hepatocellular carcinoma.
  • The survival time was longer in bone metastasis without other organ metastasis.
  • There was no significant difference between the single and multiple bone metastases regarding the survival time.
  • CONCLUSION: It is important to master the clinical features of bone metastasis of malignant tumors for early diagnosis and treatment, and to improve the quality of life and prolong the survival time.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Bone Neoplasms / therapy. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / pathology. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / secondary. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Pain / etiology. Pain Management. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology. Quality of Life. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20450589.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-3766
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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64. Verguts J, Amant F, Moerman P, Vergote I: HPV induced ovarian squamous cell carcinoma: case report and review of the literature. Arch Gynecol Obstet; 2007 Sep;276(3):285-9
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  • BACKGROUND: Ovarian squamous cell carcinoma is usually derived from a teratoma, a Brenner tumour or endometriosis.
  • CASE: A fourth case of ovarian squamous cell cancer associated with HR-HPV is presented.
  • Debulking for stage IIIc ovarian squamous cell cancer was performed and she received adjuvant combination chemotherapy.
  • She developed bone metastases and received radiotherapy.
  • The Progression of these metastases and the newly developed metastases did not respond to an oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor (gefitinib).
  • CONCLUSION: The development of bone metastases in association with an ovarian squamous cell carcinoma is a rare finding, and it did not respond to treatment with a tyrosine kinase.
  • [MeSH-minor] Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged


65. Jana S, Blaufox MD: Nuclear medicine studies of the prostate, testes, and bladder. Semin Nucl Med; 2006 Jan;36(1):51-72
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  • Despite these many technological advances, the initial diagnostic procedure for a patient with suspected prostate cancer (PC) is multiple site blind prostate biopsies.
  • Acetate and choline appear to be better tracers than FDG for the detection of a prostate lesion, however, further well-organized studies are needed before any of these agents can be used clinically.
  • Although FDG is inferior to other tracers for primary staging, it may be useful in selected patients with suspected high-grade cancer.
  • This study may be helpful for evaluating nodal metastases when PSA is elevated and bone scan is negative.
  • Bone scan remains the study of choice when bone metastases are suspected (PSA>15-20 ng/mL+/-bone pain).
  • Acetate and choline provide better accuracy than FDG in the detection of local soft tissue disease, nodal involvement, and distant metastases.
  • PET/CT with any of the above PET tracers will most likely be preferred to the PET scan alone due to better localization of a hot lesion in PET/CT.
  • In testicular tumors, FDG-PET appears to be superior to conventional imaging modalities in initial staging, detection of residual/recurrence, and monitoring treatment response.
  • Tumor markers after treatment occasionally are elevated and cannot locate the site of recurrence, FDG-PET can play a very important role in this regard.
  • However, the utility of FDG-PET in the evaluation of bladder cancer seems to be limited to the evaluation of distant metastases.


66. Lester J, Coleman R: The use of bisphosphonates in breast cancer. J Br Menopause Soc; 2005 Mar;11(1):12-7
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  • [Title] The use of bisphosphonates in breast cancer.
  • Bisphosphonates will become increasingly important in the management of patients with breast cancer.
  • Currently, bisphosphonates are used to treat bone metastasis because they effectively relieve pain, prevent pathological fractures and treat hypercalcaemia of malignancy.
  • Recent advances in systemic adjuvant therapies for breast cancer are improving survival but many treatments are detrimental to bone and can increase the risk of fracture.
  • The monitoring of breast cancer patients at risk of developing osteoporosis will become increasingly important as survival times improve and more potent treatments are developed.
  • Bisphosphonates may also play a role as an adjuvant therapy for the prevention of bone metastasis in high-risk breast cancer patients.

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  • (PMID = 15814057.001).
  • [ISSN] 1362-1807
  • [Journal-full-title] The journal of the British Menopause Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Br Menopause Soc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Diphosphonates
  • [Number-of-references] 43
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67. Cherng YG, Chen IY, Liu FL, Wang MH: Paraplegia following spinal anesthesia in a patient with an undiagnosed metastatic spinal tumor. Acta Anaesthesiol Taiwan; 2008 Jun;46(2):86-90
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  • [Title] Paraplegia following spinal anesthesia in a patient with an undiagnosed metastatic spinal tumor.
  • Although extremely rare, paraplegia can be a complication following spinal anesthesia if the patient has a previously unrecognized spinal tumor.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed bone metastasis to T10, a vertebral body mass lesion at L3, and an epidural mass at T9-11 with cord compression.
  • [MeSH-major] Anesthesia, Spinal / adverse effects. Paraplegia / etiology. Spinal Neoplasms / complications. Spinal Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 18593656.001).
  • [ISSN] 1875-4597
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta anaesthesiologica Taiwanica : official journal of the Taiwan Society of Anesthesiologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Anaesthesiol Taiwan
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] China (Republic : 1949- )
  • [Number-of-references] 14
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68. Dierselhuis EF, Jutte PC, van der Eerden PJ, Suurmeijer AJ, Bulstra SK: Hip fracture after radiofrequency ablation therapy for bone tumors: two case reports. Skeletal Radiol; 2010 Nov;39(11):1139-43
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  • [Title] Hip fracture after radiofrequency ablation therapy for bone tumors: two case reports.
  • Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) has become a valuable therapeutic modality in cancer treatment over the last decade.
  • In orthopedic surgery, RFA is used for the treatment of benign bone tumors and bone metastases.
  • Complications are rare and, to our knowledge, bone fracture as a complication due solely to RFA has not been reported to date.
  • In this report we describe two patients with a fracture in the calcar region of the femur as a complication of RFA treatment for bone malignancies.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / diagnosis. Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Catheter Ablation / adverse effects. Femoral Fractures / diagnosis. Femoral Fractures / etiology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Tomography, X-Ray Computed


69. Badalian G, Derecskei K, Szendroi A, Szendroi M, Tímár J: EGFR and VEGFR2 protein expressions in bone metastases of clear cell renal cancer. Anticancer Res; 2007 Mar-Apr;27(2):889-94
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  • [Title] EGFR and VEGFR2 protein expressions in bone metastases of clear cell renal cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: EGFR and VEGFR2 protein expressions are hallmarks of clear cell renal cancer (RCC) with questionable prognostic impact.
  • The skeletal system is one of the most common metastatic sites of RCC.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty cases of bone metastatic clear cell RCC were analyzed.
  • RESULTS: EGFR protein scores were significantly reduced in bone metastases of RCC due to the reduction of EGFR protein expression in about one third of the cases (7/20).
  • The VEGFR2 protein-positive phenotype of clear cell RCC was relatively frequent (7/20, 35%), but was lost in bone metastases (2/20, 10%).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / enzymology. Bone Neoplasms / embryology. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / enzymology. Kidney Neoplasms / enzymology. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / biosynthesis. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2 / biosynthesis


70. Sakai A, Tsuji Y, Kikuchi O, Jinno A, Tanabe W, Terashima Y, Maeda Y, Doi A, Hata T, Yamamoto N, Aoyama I, Arai O, Kiyosuke Y, Katayama S, Hirao K, Miyoshi M, Mouri H, Matsueda K, Yamamoto H: [Marked effect of combination chemotherapy with tegafur-gimeracil-oteracil potassium and gemcitabine on a suspected case of pancreas cancer or gallbladder cancer metastasis to bone: further diagnosis of disseminated carcinomatosa of bone marrow recurrence after the 23 years of gastric cancer operation by autopsy findings]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2008 Mar;35(3):529-32
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  • [Title] [Marked effect of combination chemotherapy with tegafur-gimeracil-oteracil potassium and gemcitabine on a suspected case of pancreas cancer or gallbladder cancer metastasis to bone: further diagnosis of disseminated carcinomatosa of bone marrow recurrence after the 23 years of gastric cancer operation by autopsy findings].
  • A 70-year-old woman who underwent proximal gastrectomy for gastric cancer (poorly-differentiated adenocarcinoma) of Stage IIIB at age 46 visited our hospital April 2004 because of exacerbated pain by movement in the buttocks since November 2003.
  • She showed multiple bone metastasis by CT (computerized tomography).
  • Pancreas cancer or gallbladder cancer was suspected by CT, and a high tumor marker score (CA19-9 18,625 U/mL, DUPAN-II 15,000 U/ mL elevations were acknowledged).
  • After 2 cycle therapy, her PS was improved to 2, but the tumor markers had elevated.
  • So we changed the chemotherapy menu to S-1 and gemcitabine.
  • Her tumor markers lowered and PS was improved to 1.
  • There was a remarkable response to this chemotherapy, and the result of CT and bone scintigraphy suggested that her bone metastasis was improved.
  • The autopsical result revealed recurrence of gastric cancer 23 years post-operatively.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bone Marrow Neoplasms / diagnosis. Bone Neoplasms / drug therapy. Gallbladder Neoplasms / drug therapy. Pancreatic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Stomach Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Autopsy. Female. Gastrectomy. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Oxonic Acid / therapeutic use. Pyridines / therapeutic use. Radionuclide Imaging. Tegafur / therapeutic use. Time Factors. Treatment Failure


71. Missbach-Guentner J, Dullin C, Zientkowska M, Domeyer-Missbach M, Kimmina S, Obenauer S, Kauer F, Stühmer W, Grabbe E, Vogel WF, Alves F: Flat-panel detector-based volume computed tomography: a novel 3D imaging technique to monitor osteolytic bone lesions in a mouse tumor metastasis model. Neoplasia; 2007 Sep;9(9):755-65
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  • [Title] Flat-panel detector-based volume computed tomography: a novel 3D imaging technique to monitor osteolytic bone lesions in a mouse tumor metastasis model.
  • Skeletal metastasis is an important cause of mortality in patients with breast cancer.
  • We evaluated the applicability of flat-panel volume computed tomography (fpVCT) to noninvasive detection of osteolytic bone metastases that develop in severe immunodeficient mice after intracardial injection of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells.
  • Osteolytic lesions identified by fpVCT correlated with Faxitron X-ray analysis and were subsequently confirmed by histopathological examination.
  • Isotropic three-dimensional image data sets obtained by fpVCT were the basis for the precise visualization of the extent of the lesion within the cortical bone and for the measurement of bone loss.
  • Furthermore, fpVCT imaging allows continuous monitoring of growth kinetics for each metastatic site and visualization of lesions in more complex regions of the skeleton, such as the skull.
  • Our findings suggest that fpVCT is a powerful tool that can be used to monitor the occurrence and progression of osteolytic lesions in vivo and can be further developed to monitor responses to antimetastatic therapies over the course of the disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Imaging, Three-Dimensional / methods. Osteolysis / radiography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Disease Progression. Female. Femoral Neoplasms / complications. Femoral Neoplasms / radiography. Femoral Neoplasms / secondary. Humerus / radiography. Mice. Mice, SCID. Models, Animal. Skull Neoplasms / complications. Skull Neoplasms / radiography. Skull Neoplasms / secondary. Specific Pathogen-Free Organisms. Tibia / radiography. Tumor Burden

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  • (PMID = 17898871.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-5586
  • [Journal-full-title] Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neoplasia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1993860
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Flat-panel volume computed tomography / bone metastasis / in vivo imaging / metastatic breast tumor model / osteolytic lesions
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72. Lu X, Kang Y: Epidermal growth factor signalling and bone metastasis. Br J Cancer; 2010 Feb 2;102(3):457-61
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  • [Title] Epidermal growth factor signalling and bone metastasis.
  • The EGF family of ligands and receptors (ERBB family) have also been extensively investigated for their roles in promoting tumourigenesis and metastasis in a variety of cancer types.
  • Recent findings indicate that EGF signalling is an important mediator of bone metastasis in breast, prostate and kidney cancers.
  • The EGF signalling stimulates the growth of bone metastasis directly by increasing tumour cell proliferation and indirectly by engaging bone stromal cell in metastasis-promoting activities.
  • Therefore, molecular targeting of ERBB receptors may benefit patients with bone metastasis and should be evaluated in clinical trials.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Epidermal Growth Factor / physiology. Signal Transduction / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Bone Development. Homeostasis. Humans. Osteolysis. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / physiology. Receptor, ErbB-2 / physiology

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  • (PMID = 20010942.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-1827
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 62229-50-9 / Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 2.7.10.1 / ERBB2 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
  • [Number-of-references] 39
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2822931
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73. Drzymalski DM, Oh WK, Werner L, Regan MM, Kantoff P, Tuli S: Predictors of survival in patients with prostate cancer and spinal metastasis. Presented at the 2009 Joint Spine Section Meeting. Clinical article. J Neurosurg Spine; 2010 Dec;13(6):789-94
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  • [Title] Predictors of survival in patients with prostate cancer and spinal metastasis. Presented at the 2009 Joint Spine Section Meeting. Clinical article.
  • OBJECT: Prostate cancer is the second most common malignancy to cause death in men, with metastases to the spine being the most common site of metastatic burden.
  • A retrospective observational study was performed to determine survival of patients in whom spinal metastasis from prostate cancer had been diagnosed.
  • METHODS: The patient population was obtained from the Prostate Clinical Research Information System (CRIS) at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute.
  • RESULTS: Of a total of 9010 patients in the Prostate CRIS database, 333 were identified as having developed spinal metastases.
  • The median overall survival after diagnosis of spinal metastasis was 24 months (95% CI 21-28 months).
  • In 85% of patients, at least 1 additional site of metastasis was documented.
  • Among 28 patients who had no additional sites of metastases, the median survival was 55.9 months, whereas an increasing burden of disease was associated with shorter survival (p = 0.0001).
  • The association was observed regardless of whether the metastatic burden was characterized as the presence of additional (nonspinal) bone metastasis, the presence of additional nonbone metastasis, or as the number of concomitant metastatic sites (all p = 0.0001).
  • In multivariate analysis, a higher prostate-specific antigen level at the diagnosis of spinal metastasis, a longer duration between the diagnosis of prostate cancer and spinal metastasis, and the presence of additional metastasis at the time of diagnosis of spinal metastasis (all p = 0.0001) were independently associated with a shorter overall survival.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study are important for oncologists, neurosurgeons, and primary care physicians who have patients with prostate cancer that metastasizes to the spine, because these results can be used to form a prognosis and guide the physician in making appropriate decisions regarding the patient's treatment.
  • Future work should include building a predictive model that accurately determines survival in patients with metastatic disease, because this would guide the physician in devising the most appropriate treatment plan for each patient.
  • [MeSH-major] Prostatic Neoplasms / mortality. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology. Spinal Neoplasms / mortality. Spinal Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 21121759.001).
  • [ISSN] 1547-5646
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery. Spine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Neurosurg Spine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen
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74. Bròdano GB, Cappuccio M, Gasbarrini A, Bandiera S, De Salvo F, Cosco F, Boriani S: Vertebroplasty in the treatment of vertebral metastases: clinical cases and review of the literature. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci; 2007 Mar-Apr;11(2):91-100
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  • [Title] Vertebroplasty in the treatment of vertebral metastases: clinical cases and review of the literature.
  • Bone metastases are the most common tumours affecting the musculoskeletal system.
  • The vertebral bodies are reached largely via the bloodstream and neoplastic substitution of the bone tissue causes progressive structural destruction leading to loss of stability and compression of the intracanal nerve structures.
  • The treatment of bone metastases in the spine is different and controversial, mostly because of the wide spectrum of clinical and radiographic pattern of the local and systemic disease.
  • In this article we review indications, contraindications, technique, and complications of percutaneous vertebroplasty in spine metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Back Pain / etiology. Bone Cements / therapeutic use. Orthopedic Procedures / methods. Polymethyl Methacrylate / therapeutic use. Spinal Neoplasms / surgery. Spine / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17552138.001).
  • [ISSN] 1128-3602
  • [Journal-full-title] European review for medical and pharmacological sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bone Cements; 9011-14-7 / Polymethyl Methacrylate
  • [Number-of-references] 39
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75. Krasna MJ, Gamliel Z, Burrows WM, Sonett JR, Kwong KF, Edelman MJ, Hausner PF, Doyle LA, DeYoung C, Suntharalingam M: Pneumonectomy for lung cancer after preoperative concurrent chemotherapy and high-dose radiation. Ann Thorac Surg; 2010 Jan;89(1):200-6; discussion 206
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  • [Title] Pneumonectomy for lung cancer after preoperative concurrent chemotherapy and high-dose radiation.
  • BACKGROUND: We studied the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients undergoing pneumonectomy after preoperative concurrent chemoradiation for non-small cell lung cancer.
  • METHODS: Clinical records of patients with non-small cell lung cancer who underwent pneumonectomy at our institution between 1995 and 2005 after preoperative concurrent chemoradiation were reviewed retrospectively.
  • Of the 21 men and 8 women who were treated, 1 had stage IIB (T3N0M0) and the remainder had stage IIIA or IIIB non-small cell lung cancer.
  • There were 15 right pneumonectomies, of which 2 were for pancoast tumors.
  • Recurrences have been found in 11 patients (38%), including brain metastases (n = 6), bone metastases (n = 4), liver metastases (n = 2), and cervical lymph node metastases (n = 2).
  • One patient had a contralateral new primary lung cancer develop 70 months after undergoing pneumonectomy.
  • The frequency of disease recurrence in the brain underscores the need to evaluate the role of prophylactic cranial radiation in non-small cell lung cancer.

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  • [Copyright] 2010 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20103235.001).
  • [ISSN] 1552-6259
  • [Journal-full-title] The Annals of thoracic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Thorac. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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76. Huang EH, Singh B, Cristofanilli M, Gelovani J, Wei C, Vincent L, Cook KR, Lucci A: A CXCR4 antagonist CTCE-9908 inhibits primary tumor growth and metastasis of breast cancer. J Surg Res; 2009 Aug;155(2):231-6
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  • [Title] A CXCR4 antagonist CTCE-9908 inhibits primary tumor growth and metastasis of breast cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: CXCL12/CXCR4 signaling may be involved in tumor growth and angiogenesis, and homing of cancer cells to bone and other organs.
  • Our purpose was to determine whether inhibition of CXCR4 with a peptide-based antagonist would reduce tumor growth and metastasis of breast cancer.
  • METHODS: We used two mouse models of breast cancer.
  • In the first model, 1 x 10(6) MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells transfected with luciferase were implanted into the inguinal mammary fat pad to produce primary tumors.
  • In the second model, 1 x 10(5) MDA-231-BSC12 cells were injected into the left cardiac ventricle to produce bone metastases.
  • All mice were assessed weekly using bioluminescent imaging to quantify relative volumes of tumor burden.
  • RESULTS: Bioluminescencent imaging showed that the mice treated with CTCE-9908 had significantly less primary tumor burden than the control mice.
  • At 5 and 6 wk, the mice treated with CTCE-9908 had a 7-fold reduction and 5-fold reduction in primary tumor burden, respectively.
  • Treatment with CTCE-9908 also significantly inhibited the rate of metastases compared with the control group.
  • At 5 and 6 wk, the mice treated with CTCE-9908 demonstrated a 9-fold reduction and 20-fold reduction in metastatic tumor burden, respectively.
  • CONCLUSION: Treatment with the CXCR4 antagonist CTCE-9908 significantly reduced metastasis as well as primary tumor growth in mouse models of breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Bone Neoplasms / drug therapy. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Peptides / therapeutic use. Receptors, CXCR4 / antagonists & inhibitors
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Line, Tumor. Disease Models, Animal. Female. Humans. Mice. Mice, Nude. Treatment Outcome. Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays

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  • [ErratumIn] J Surg Res. 2010 Aug;162(2):169
  • (PMID = 19482312.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-8673
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of surgical research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Surg. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA16672; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R21 DK067682
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / CTCE-9908; 0 / CXCR4 protein, human; 0 / Peptides; 0 / Receptors, CXCR4
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77. Tanvetyanon T: Physician practices of bone density testing and drug prescribing to prevent or treat osteoporosis during androgen deprivation therapy. Cancer; 2005 Jan 15;103(2):237-41
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  • [Title] Physician practices of bone density testing and drug prescribing to prevent or treat osteoporosis during androgen deprivation therapy.
  • However, bone metastasis was, with a hazard ratio of 5.6 (95%CI, 1.99-15.6%).
  • Primary care physicians provided the greatest number of interventions and cancer-related specialists provided the fewest.
  • [MeSH-major] Goserelin / adverse effects. Osteoporosis / chemically induced. Osteoporosis / diagnosis. Practice Patterns, Physicians'
  • [MeSH-minor] Absorptiometry, Photon. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Androgen Antagonists / adverse effects. Androgen Antagonists / therapeutic use. Attitude of Health Personnel. Bone Density / physiology. Confidence Intervals. Diphosphonates / therapeutic use. Drug Utilization. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Logistic Models. Male. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Probability. Prognosis. Proportional Hazards Models. Prostatic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment. Severity of Illness Index. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2004 American Cancer Society.
  • [ErratumIn] Cancer. 2006 Jun 1;106(11):2530
  • (PMID = 15597384.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgen Antagonists; 0 / Diphosphonates; 0F65R8P09N / Goserelin
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78. Wang F, Wang Z, Yao W, Xie H, Xu J, Tian L: Role of 99mTc-octreotide acetate scintigraphy in suspected lung cancer compared with 18F-FDG dual-head coincidence imaging. J Nucl Med; 2007 Sep;48(9):1442-8
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  • [Title] Role of 99mTc-octreotide acetate scintigraphy in suspected lung cancer compared with 18F-FDG dual-head coincidence imaging.
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical value of tomographic (99m)Tc-octreotide acetate (hereafter, (99m)Tc-octreotide) scintigraphy in the detection of patients with suspected lung cancer in comparison with that of (18)F-FDG dual-head coincidence imaging (DHC).
  • The tumor-to-normal tissue tracer values for both (99m)Tc-octreotide and (18)F-FDG were determined using region of interests and expressed as T/N(r) and T/N(m), respectively.
  • Final diagnosis was confirmed by histopathologic analysis or clinical follow-up.
  • RESULTS: Thirty-one of the 44 patients had lung cancer-6 with small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and 25 with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
  • In the 31 patients with malignant tumors, all 38 abnormal lymph nodes in 20 patients showed abnormal high focal uptake of (18)F-FDG; only 7 patients with 10 regional lymph adenopathies showed moderate uptake of (99m)Tc-octreotide.
  • Thirteen patients with 39 distant sites of abnormal uptake visualized (imaging stage IV) with (99m)Tc-octreotide included 2 patients with brain metastases, 6 patients with pleural invasion and multiple bone metastasis, 2 patients with contralateral internal lung metastasis and pleural invasion, and 3 patients with only multiple bone metastasis.
  • The final diagnosis was confirmed by histopathology or clinical follow-up.
  • CONCLUSION: The sensitivity of (99m)Tc-octreotide for the detection of lung cancer at the primary lesion was comparable with that of (18)F-FDG coincidence imaging.
  • Tomographic (99m)Tc-octreotide scintigraphy had lower sensitivity for the detection of hilar and mediastinal lymph node metastasis compared with that of (18)F-FDG coincidence PET, but it had high sensitivity for the detection of remote metastatic lesions.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis

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  • (PMID = 17704242.001).
  • [ISSN] 0161-5505
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of nuclear medicine : official publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Nucl. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 99mTc-octreotide; 0 / Organotechnetium Compounds; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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79. Xie W, Nakabayashi M, Regan MM, Oh WK: Higher prostate-specific antigen levels predict improved survival in patients with hormone-refractory prostate cancer who have skeletal metastases and normal serum alkaline phosphatase. Cancer; 2007 Dec 15;110(12):2709-15
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  • [Title] Higher prostate-specific antigen levels predict improved survival in patients with hormone-refractory prostate cancer who have skeletal metastases and normal serum alkaline phosphatase.
  • BACKGROUND: Higher prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and alkaline phosphatase (ALK-P) levels predicted worse survival in men with metastatic hormone-refractory prostate cancer (HRPC).
  • METHODS: Two hundred twenty-four men who had HRPC with bone metastases and who were receiving chemotherapy were identified, and 143 of those men had data available on both ALK-P and PSA levels at chemotherapy initiation.
  • The effect of PSA was evaluated as both a categorical value and a continuous value using Cox regression.
  • CONCLUSIONS: ALK-P significantly predicted OS in men with HRPC who had bone metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / blood. Adenocarcinoma / mortality. Alkaline Phosphatase / blood. Androgen Antagonists / therapeutic use. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood. Prostatic Neoplasms / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent / drug therapy. Predictive Value of Tests. Survival Rate


80. Zhang JQ, Huang XQ, Zhang J, Cai P, Chen W, Wang J, Zhou DQ, Zhang EQ: [CT guided radioactive seed (125)I implantation in treating multiple bone metastasis]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi; 2008 Oct 28;88(39):2739-42
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  • [Title] [CT guided radioactive seed (125)I implantation in treating multiple bone metastasis].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical value of CT guided radioactive seed (125)I implantation in treating bone metastasis.
  • METHODS: 28 multiple bone metastatic tumor patients with 116 metastatic lesions totally, adenocarcinoma of lung in 6 cases, squamous cell carcinoma of lung, renal clear-cell carcinoma, and carcinoma of prostate in 4 cases each, hepatocellular carcinoma and colon carcinoma in 3 cases each, breast carcinoma in 2 cases, and malignant schwannoma and pancreatic cancer in 1 case each, 13 males and 15 females, aged 49.8, underwent CT guided radioactive seed (125)I implantation into bone metastatic lesions.
  • CONCLUSION: CT guided radioactive seed (125)I implantation procedure has good clinical effects in treating bone metastasis with minimal invasive and few complications.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Brachytherapy / methods. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 19080445.001).
  • [ISSN] 0376-2491
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua yi xue za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes
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81. Yee AJ, Akens M, Yang BL, Finkelstein J, Zheng PS, Deng Z, Yang B: The effect of versican G3 domain on local breast cancer invasiveness and bony metastasis. Breast Cancer Res; 2007;9(4):R47
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  • [Title] The effect of versican G3 domain on local breast cancer invasiveness and bony metastasis.
  • INTRODUCTION: Increased versican expression has been associated with local breast cancer invasiveness and a more aggressive tumor phenotype.
  • The cellular mechanisms are not fully understood and this study evaluated versican G3 domain with its EGF-like motifs in influencing tumor invasion and metastasis.
  • In vivo study of tumor growth was evaluated in a nude mouse model.
  • An intracardiac injection model of metastatic human breast carcinoma tested the effect of G3 on distant bony and soft tissue metastasis.
  • Analysis of metastatic burden included histology, radiographs, and micro-CT quantification of osteolysis.
  • RESULTS: A greater viability of cancer cells was observed in low serum and serum-free conditions in the presence of versican G3.
  • Larger subcutaneous tumors were obtained in the G3 group following tumor cell injection into CD1 mice.
  • Systemic tumor burden to distant bony and soft tissue metastatic sites was greater in the G3 group using the intracardiac injection metastatic model.
  • CONCLUSION: Versican G3 domain appears to be important in local and systemic tumor invasiveness of human breast cancer.
  • Effects include enhancing cell viability, proliferation, migration and enhancing local tumor growth.
  • The interactions between tumor cells, surrounding stromal components and neo-vascularization in breast cancer may include interactions with VEGF and fibronectin.
  • The propensity of versican G3 to influence tumor invasion to bone and the mechanisms of G3 mediated osteolysis warrants ongoing studies.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Versicans / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Adhesion. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation. Chickens. Endothelium, Vascular / drug effects. Female. Fibronectins / metabolism. Fibronectins / pharmacology. Humans. Mice. Mice, Nude. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neovascularization, Pathologic / pathology. Osteolysis. Protein Structure, Tertiary. Transfection. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 17662123.001).
  • [ISSN] 1465-542X
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer research : BCR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Fibronectins; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; 0 / vascular endothelial growth factor A, mouse; 126968-45-4 / Versicans
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2206723
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82. Gawkowska-Suwinska M, Fijałkowski M, Białas B, Szlag M, Kellas-Ślęczka S, Nowicka E, Behrendt K, Plewicki G, Smolska-Ciszewska B, Giglok M, Zajusz A, Owczarek G: Salvage brachytherapy for local recurrences of prostate cancer treated previously with radiotherapy. J Contemp Brachytherapy; 2009 Dec;1(4):211-215
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  • [Title] Salvage brachytherapy for local recurrences of prostate cancer treated previously with radiotherapy.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: In MCS Memorial Institute of Oncology in Gliwice a research programme on salvage HDR brachytherapy for local recurrences of prostate cancer treated previously with EBRT has been ongoing since February 2008.
  • Two patients developed bone metastases.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Salvage brachytherapy for localized prostate cancer (3 × 10 Gy every 14 days) seems to be a safe and well tolerated procedure.
  • A significant decline in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level is seen in patients with hormone-responsive cancer.

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  • (PMID = 28050174.001).
  • [ISSN] 1689-832X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of contemporary brachytherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Contemp Brachytherapy
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; prostate cancer / radiotherapy / recurrences / salvage brachytherapy
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83. López-O'Rourke VJ, Orient-López F, Fontg-Manzano F, Fernández-Mariscal E, Combalía A, Vilarrasa-Sauquet R, Sañudo-Martín I: Pathological vertebral compression fracture of C3 due to a breast cancer metastasis in a male patient. Spine (Phila Pa 1976); 2009 Jul 15;34(16):E586-90
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  • [Title] Pathological vertebral compression fracture of C3 due to a breast cancer metastasis in a male patient.
  • STUDY DESIGN: A case of vertebral body fracture due to metastatic breast cancer in a male patient and a review of the literature are presented.
  • OBJECTIVE: To draw attention to the possible adverse skeletal events in breast cancer patients, and the need of a watchful staff within the multidisciplinary team in charge.
  • SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Breast cancer is a rare condition in men, the male/female ratio is 1 of 100 approximately; in both sexes bone metastases are the most common.
  • The pathologic fracture by spinal metastases can cause intense pain with difficult management.
  • Vertebroplasty has been used successfully to treat pain and improve functional status in patients with vertebral compression fractures due to metastases.
  • METHODS: A 43-year-old male patient was diagnosed of having breast epithelial carcinoma after histologic analysis of a femur fracture.
  • In a control visit, he referred sudden cervical pain which was initially treated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and rest.
  • The patient was seen in a later visit and complained about poor response to analgesia.
  • For this reason, a radiologic study was carried out, showing signs of fracture of the third cervical vertebral body (C3), and was completed with magnetic resonance imaging where the diagnosis of osteolytic metastasis was confirmed.
  • CONCLUSION: Spinal metastases treatment may include combinations of radiotherapy, vertebroplasty, and bisphosphonates, which have proved analgesic effect and a decrease of bone complications; however, out of these options, only vertebroplasty allows rapid stabilization and analgesia.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms, Male / pathology. Cervical Vertebrae / surgery. Fractures, Compression / surgery. Spinal Neoplasms / secondary


84. Boukhechba F, Balaguer T, Michiels JF, Ackermann K, Quincey D, Bouler JM, Pyerin W, Carle GF, Rochet N: Human primary osteocyte differentiation in a 3D culture system. J Bone Miner Res; 2009 Nov;24(11):1927-35
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  • [Title] Human primary osteocyte differentiation in a 3D culture system.
  • Studies on primary osteocytes, which compose >90-95% of bone cells, embedded throughout the mineralized matrix, are a major challenge because of their difficult accessibility and the very rare models available in vitro.
  • These 3D-differentiated osteocytes were compared with 2D-cultured cells and with human microdissected cortical osteocytes obtained from bone cryosections.
  • Osteocyte differentiation was assessed by histological and immunohistological analysis after paraffin embedding of culture after various times, as well as by quantitative RT-PCR analysis of a panel of osteoblast and osteocyte markers after nucleic acid extraction.
  • Real-time PCR expression of a set of bone-related genes confirmed their osteocyte phenotype.
  • Comparison with plastic-cultured cells and mature osteocytes microdissected from human cortical bone allowed to assess their maturation stage as osteoid-osteocytes.
  • It should be a suitable method to study the osteoblast-osteocyte differentiation pathway, the osteocyte interaction with the other bone cells, and orchestration of bone remodeling transmitted by mechanical loading and shear stress.
  • It should be used in important cancer research areas such as the cross-talk of osteocytes with tumor cells in bone metastasis, because it has been recently shown that gene expression in osteocytes is strongly affected by cancer cells of different origin.
  • It could also be a very efficient tool for drug testing and bone tissue engineering applications.
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers / metabolism. Bone Morphogenetic Proteins / genetics. Bone Morphogenetic Proteins / metabolism. Bone and Bones / cytology. Bone and Bones / drug effects. Bone and Bones / metabolism. Calcium Phosphates / pharmacology. Cells, Cultured. Ceramics / pharmacology. Gene Expression Profiling. Gene Expression Regulation / drug effects. Genetic Markers / genetics. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Microdissection. Parathyroid Hormone / pharmacology. Plastics. RANK Ligand / genetics. RANK Ligand / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19419324.001).
  • [ISSN] 1523-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of bone and mineral research : the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Bone Miner. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Bone Morphogenetic Proteins; 0 / Calcium Phosphates; 0 / Genetic Markers; 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 0 / Plastics; 0 / RANK Ligand; 0 / SOST protein, human; 97Z1WI3NDX / calcium phosphate
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85. Russell RG: Bisphosphonates: mode of action and pharmacology. Pediatrics; 2007 Mar;119 Suppl 2:S150-62
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  • The profound effects of the bisphosphonates on calcium metabolism were discovered over 30 years ago, and they are now well established as the major drugs used for the treatment of bone diseases associated with excessive resorption.
  • Their principal uses are for Paget disease of bone, myeloma, bone metastases, and osteoporosis in adults, but there has been increasing and successful application in pediatric bone diseases, notably osteogenesis imperfecta.
  • Bisphosphonates inhibit bone resorption by selective adsorption to mineral surfaces and subsequent internalization by bone-resorbing osteoclasts where they interfere with various biochemical processes.
  • Although bisphosphonates are now established as an important class of drugs for the treatment of many bone diseases, there is new knowledge about how they work and the subtle but potentially important differences that exist between individual bisphosphonates.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Density Conservation Agents / pharmacology. Diphosphonates / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Animals. Bone Diseases / drug therapy. Calcification, Physiologic / drug effects. Child. Drug Administration Routes. Drug Administration Schedule. Drug Evaluation. Humans. Osteoclasts / drug effects. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17332236.001).
  • [ISSN] 1098-4275
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatrics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bone Density Conservation Agents; 0 / Diphosphonates
  • [Number-of-references] 155
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86. Simeone AM, Colella S, Krahe R, Johnson MM, Mora E, Tari AM: N-(4-Hydroxyphenyl)retinamide and nitric oxide pro-drugs exhibit apoptotic and anti-invasive effects against bone metastatic breast cancer cells. Carcinogenesis; 2006 Mar;27(3):568-77
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  • [Title] N-(4-Hydroxyphenyl)retinamide and nitric oxide pro-drugs exhibit apoptotic and anti-invasive effects against bone metastatic breast cancer cells.
  • Breast cancer most frequently metastasizes to bone causing decreased quality of life and morbidity.
  • Since current treatments are palliative, strategies to prevent bone metastases in breast cancer patients are required.
  • There is substantial evidence indicating that high levels of nitric oxide (NO) suppress tumor growth and metastasis in vivo.
  • We hypothesize that agents that produce high concentrations of NO could prevent the spread of breast cancer to bone.
  • The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of 4-HPR and an NO pro-drug, diethylamineNONOate/AM (NONO-AM), in inhibiting the growth and invasiveness of bone metastatic breast cancer cells.
  • Parental MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells were resistant to 4-HPR-induced apoptosis at clinically relevant doses, whereas 4-HPR-induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner in MDA-MB-231/F10 bone metastatic breast cancer cells.
  • Unlike 4-HPR, NONO-AM induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner in both parental MDA-MB-231 cells and F10 cells.
  • The bone metastatic F10 cells were more sensitive to the anti-invasive effects of 4-HPR and NONO-AM than were MDA-MB-231 cells.
  • These in vitro results suggest that 4-HPR and NO pro-drugs may be effective chemopreventive agents against bone metastatic breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Anticarcinogenic Agents / pharmacology. Apoptosis / drug effects. Bone Neoplasms / prevention & control. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Fenretinide / pharmacology. Nitric Oxide / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Enzyme Induction. Female. Humans. Hydrazines / pharmacology. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Nitric Oxide Donors / pharmacology. Nitric Oxide Synthase / metabolism. Nitrogen Oxides / pharmacology. Tumor Cells, Cultured


87. Wei B, Wang J, Bourne P, Yang Q, Hicks D, Bu H, Tang P: Bone metastasis is strongly associated with estrogen receptor-positive/progesterone receptor-negative breast carcinomas. Hum Pathol; 2008 Dec;39(12):1809-15
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  • [Title] Bone metastasis is strongly associated with estrogen receptor-positive/progesterone receptor-negative breast carcinomas.
  • Bone is one of the most common sites of distant metastasis for breast carcinomas.
  • In this study, our objective is to identify molecular markers and molecular subtypes that may predict patients at higher risk of developing bone metastasis.
  • Immunohistochemical analysis with antibodies against estrogen receptor alpha, progesterone receptor, androgen receptor, Her2/neu, epidermal growth factor receptor, CK5/6, CK14, CK17, CK8, and CK18 was performed on representative sections of 21 breast carcinomas with bone metastasis and 94 cases without bone metastasis.
  • We found that (1) the breast cancers with bone metastasis were associated with a significant percentage of estrogen receptor-positive/progesterone receptor-negative tumors compared with tumors without bone metastasis (38% versus 6%, P < .0001). (2) There was significant difference on estrogen receptor expression between high grade and non-high grade in tumors with or without bone metastasis (P = .0084 and 1.0000, respectively). (3) The breast cancers with bone metastasis were more likely to be estrogen receptor positive (85%) and androgen receptor positive (95%) compared with those without bone metastasis (59% and 74%, respectively, both P < .05). (4) There was no significant difference between tumors with or without bone metastasis in subtype distribution (basal versus nonbasal) among all 3 molecular classifications. (5) Luminal B carcinomas of cytokeratin/triple negative classification tended to be associated with bone metastasis but not to a statistically significant extent.
  • In conclusion, bone metastasis is strongly associated with estrogen receptor-positive/progesterone receptor-negative tumors.
  • Significant difference in estrogen receptor expression between high-grade and non-high-grade tumors with bone metastasis suggests that different panels of molecular markers should be used to predict bone metastasis in these 2 groups of tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / secondary. Carcinoma, Lobular / secondary. Receptors, Estrogen / metabolism. Receptors, Progesterone / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cell Nucleus / metabolism. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests


88. Gálvez R, Ribera V, González-Escalada JR, Souto A, Cánovas ML, Castro A, Herrero B, de Los Angeles Maqueda M, Castilforte M, Marco-Martínez JJ, Pérez C, Vicente-Fatela L, Md CN, Orduña MJ, Padrol A, Reig E, Carballido J, Cózar JM: Analgesic efficacy of zoledronic acid and its effect on functional status of prostate cancer patients with metastasis. Patient Prefer Adherence; 2008;2:215-24
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  • [Title] Analgesic efficacy of zoledronic acid and its effect on functional status of prostate cancer patients with metastasis.
  • OBJECTIVES: A multi-centered observational study evaluated the efficacy of zoledronic acid for improving pain and mobility, and preventing skeletal-related events (SRE) (fracture, spinal compression, pain-relieving radiotherapy), in patients with prostate cancer and bone metastasis.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Males (n = 218) with prostate cancer and bone metastasis undergoing oncologic therapy received zoledronic acid (4 mg iv/month) for 6 months.
  • Overall incidence of bone events was 11.2%.
  • Of the 212 patients (97.2%) evaluable for safety, 16% suffered adverse events and 66% expressed satisfaction with the treatment DISCUSSION: Zoledronic acid is effective for reducing pain, improving mobility, and increasing the quality of life in patients with prostate cancer with bone metastasis.
  • Its easy administration and good tolerability make zoledronic acid one of the principal therapeutic tools in the management of patients with pain associated with bone metastasis from prostate cancer.

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  • (PMID = 19920966.001).
  • [ISSN] 1177-889X
  • [Journal-full-title] Patient preference and adherence
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Patient Prefer Adherence
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2770417
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; bone metastasis / pain / prostate cancer / zoledronic acid
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89. Ruggiero SL: Guidelines for the diagnosis of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ). Clin Cases Miner Bone Metab; 2007 Jan;4(1):37-42
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  • [Title] Guidelines for the diagnosis of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ).
  • Bisphosphonates are a class of agents used to treat osteoporosis and malignant bone metastases.
  • Despite these benefits, osteonecrosis of the jaws has recently emerged as a significant complication in a subset of patients receiving these drugs.
  • Based on a growing number of case reports and institutional reviews, bisphosphonate therapy may cause exposed and necrotic bone that is isolated to the jaw.
  • The pathogenesis for this complication appears to be related to the profound inhibition of osteoclast function and bone remodeling.
  • This report will review the clinical signs and symptoms and risks associated with this new complication and provide a guideline for establishing a stage-specific diagnosis of BRONJ.

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  • (PMID = 22460751.001).
  • [ISSN] 1724-8914
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cases in mineral and bone metabolism : the official journal of the Italian Society of Osteoporosis, Mineral Metabolism, and Skeletal Diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Cases Miner Bone Metab
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2781180
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90. Abruzzese E, Iuliano F, Trawinska MM, Di Maio M: 153Sm: its use in multiple myeloma and report of a clinical experience. Expert Opin Investig Drugs; 2008 Sep;17(9):1379-87
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  • [Title] 153Sm: its use in multiple myeloma and report of a clinical experience.
  • BACKGROUND: In the past years the bone seeking radiopharmaceutical samarium lexidronam ((153)Sm-EDTMP) has been increasingly used alone or in conjunction with chemotherapy and/or bisphosphonates for the treatment of painful bone metastasis.
  • OBJECTIVE: Its use has been explored in different solid tumours.
  • METHODS: (153)Sm-EDTMP has an affinity for bone and concentrates in areas of bone turnover.
  • It decays as a therapeutic beta-emission and at the same time as gamma-photon that can be used for tracking its concentration with bone scan imaging.

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  • (PMID = 18694370.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-7658
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert opinion on investigational drugs
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Opin Investig Drugs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Diphosphonates; 0 / Isotopes; 0 / Organometallic Compounds; 0 / Organophosphorus Compounds; 122575-21-7 / samarium ethylenediaminetetramethylenephosphonate; 42OD65L39F / Samarium
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91. Liang JG, Jiang NY, DU JQ, Lu XP, Liu XG, Chen SX: [Clinical value of combined therapy with 188Re-HEDP and pamidronate in breast cancer with bone metastasis]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi; 2005 Mar;27(3):180-2
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  • [Title] [Clinical value of combined therapy with 188Re-HEDP and pamidronate in breast cancer with bone metastasis].
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical therapeutic value of (188)Re-HEDP combined with pamidronate in breast cancer with bone metastasis.
  • METHODS: Forty-eight patients with breast cancer with multi-bone metastases were randomly divided into three groups:15 patients received (188)Re-HEDP (group A), 15 patients received pamidronate (group B) and 18 patients were treated by (188)Re-HEDP plus pamidronate (group C).
  • RESULTS: The overall pain relief rate was 73.3%, 80.0%, 100.0% in groups A, B and C.
  • The response rate of bone metastasis was 40.0%, 33.3%, 66.7% in groups A, B and C respectively.
  • The therapeutic effect of group C was better than those of groups A and B (P < 0.05), without any significance in the difference (P > 0.05).
  • CONCLUSION: The therapeutic effect of (188)Re-HEDP combined with pamidronate for breast cancer with bone metastasis is remarkable in bone pain relief and bone metastasis control, which is better than either (188)Re-HEDP or pamidronate alone.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Diphosphonates / therapeutic use. Etidronic Acid / therapeutic use. Organometallic Compounds / therapeutic use. Pain Management

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  • (PMID = 15946573.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-3766
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen; 0 / Diphosphonates; 0 / Organometallic Compounds; 0 / Radioisotopes; 140709-07-5 / rhenium-186 HEDP; 7440-15-5 / Rhenium; M2F465ROXU / Etidronic Acid; OYY3447OMC / pamidronate
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92. Hoshi M, Takami M, Ieguchi M: Pleomorphic malignant fibrous histiocytoma: response of bone, lung, and brain metastases to chemotherapy. Radiat Med; 2008 Oct;26(8):499-503
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  • [Title] Pleomorphic malignant fibrous histiocytoma: response of bone, lung, and brain metastases to chemotherapy.
  • We present a case of pleomorphic malignant fibrous histiocytoma arising from the left forearm in a 45-year-old man who had undergone resection and radiotherapy for a tumor 3 years previously.
  • At his first visit, he had multiple lung and bone metastases.
  • Although these metastases responded well to systemic chemotherapy, brain metastases newly appeared and caused the death of the patient.
  • These findings demonstrate that individual sarcomatous metastatic organs exhibit different sensitivities to chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bone Neoplasms / drug therapy. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Histiocytoma, Malignant Fibrous / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
  • [MeSH-minor] Acetabulum. Bone and Bones / drug effects. Brain / drug effects. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Forearm. Humans. Ifosfamide / administration & dosage. Lung / drug effects. Male. Middle Aged


93. Lebret T, Di Palma M, Ripoll J, Méjean A: [Supportive care for urological metastatic patients]. Prog Urol; 2008 Nov;18 Suppl 7:S410-4
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  • [Title] [Supportive care for urological metastatic patients].
  • [Transliterated title] Les soins de support pour les patients souffrant d'un cancer urologique métastasé
  • Supportive cancer care is defined as "all the care and support necessary for the patient throughout the illness together with specific oncological treatment".
  • In urology, the example of patients with bone metastasis demonstrates the usefulness of this concept.
  • In fact it participates in: antalgic treatment, prevention of bone events (bisphosphonates), adaptation of daily life with a handicap, access to physiotherapy, psychological help.
  • [MeSH-minor] Home Care Services, Hospital-Based. Humans. Neoplasm Metastasis / therapy

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  • (PMID = 19070824.001).
  • [ISSN] 1166-7087
  • [Journal-full-title] Progrès en urologie : journal de l'Association française d'urologie et de la Société française d'urologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prog. Urol.
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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94. Hu G, Kang Y, Wang XF: From breast to the brain: unraveling the puzzle of metastasis organotropism. J Mol Cell Biol; 2009 Oct;1(1):3-5
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  • [Title] From breast to the brain: unraveling the puzzle of metastasis organotropism.
  • Metastatic colonization of different target organs is a highly selective process that depends on specialized properties of tumor cells.
  • In a recent Nature paper, Massagué and colleagues built on their earlier success in functional genomic analysis of breast cancer metastasis to bone and lung and reported the identification of breast cancer brain metastasis genes, highlighting the importance of the stromal environment in the development of organ-specific metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Breast Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19633017.001).
  • [ISSN] 1759-4685
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of molecular cell biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Mol Cell Biol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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95. Bhattacharyya S, Byrum S, Siegel ER, Suva LJ: Proteomic analysis of bone cancer: a review of current and future developments. Expert Rev Proteomics; 2007 Jun;4(3):371-8
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  • [Title] Proteomic analysis of bone cancer: a review of current and future developments.
  • The ability of sophisticated proteomic approaches to scrutinize the dynamic nature of protein expression, cellular and subcellular protein distribution, post-translational modifications, and protein-protein interactions has culminated in the identification of many potential new therapeutic targets and an abundance of cancer-related biomarkers.
  • From a proteomics perspective, amongst the most under-studied diseases are bone cancers, such as myeloma, osteosarcoma and breast and prostate cancer bony metastases.
  • This review focuses on the recent advances in proteomic technology that have thrust the skeletal cancer field into this exciting age of proteomics, and highlights the future work that is required to adapt this technology to specifically interrogate the skeletal consequences of malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Bone Neoplasms / metabolism. Proteomics / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Female. Forecasting. Humans. Male. Prostatic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Prostatic Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17552921.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-8387
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert review of proteomics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Rev Proteomics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 60
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96. Lara C, Borrero JJ, Porras V, Giraldez J: [Prostatic stromal sarcoma in a 20-year-old patient]. Arch Esp Urol; 2005 Nov;58(9):947-9
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  • [Title] [Prostatic stromal sarcoma in a 20-year-old patient].
  • [Transliterated title] Sarcoma del estroma prostático en un paciente de 20 años de edad.
  • OBJECTIVE: Prostatic tumors are the most frequent malignant neoplasms in men, most of them being constituted by carcinomas; only 0.2% of malignant prostatic neoplasms are of mesenchimal origin.
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: We report the case of a 20 year-old man with a prostatic stromal sarcoma.
  • After total cystoprostatectomy a tumor measuring 8 cm could be seen, replacing almost the whole prostate.
  • Microscopically a spindle cell neoplasia with moderate atypia and a high mitotic index entrapping few elongated prostatic ducts (adopting a phyllodes tumor morphology) was observed.
  • Recurrences are not uncommon whereas lung and bone metastases have been described.
  • [MeSH-major] Prostatic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Sarcoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16430043.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-0614
  • [Journal-full-title] Archivos españoles de urología
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Esp. Urol.
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Number-of-references] 7
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97. Helyar V, Mohan HK, Barwick T, Livieratos L, Gnanasegaran G, Clarke SE, Fogelman I: The added value of multislice SPECT/CT in patients with equivocal bony metastasis from carcinoma of the prostate. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging; 2010 Apr;37(4):706-13
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  • [Title] The added value of multislice SPECT/CT in patients with equivocal bony metastasis from carcinoma of the prostate.
  • PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the additional value of single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) over whole-body planar bone scintigraphy and SPECT in prostate cancer patients in terms of diagnostic confidence, inter-reviewer agreement and the possible impact on the clinical management.
  • METHODS: This was a retrospective review of 40 consecutive prostate cancer patients (mean age 71 years) who underwent (99m)Tc-methylene diphosphonate (MDP) whole-body planar bone scintigraphy, SPECT and SPECT/CT between April 2006 and April 2008.
  • RESULTS: Fifty lesions on planar bone scintigraphy in the 40 patients were evaluated.
  • On reporting the SPECT/CT scans only 8% of lesions were rated as equivocal, 24% were rated as malignant and 68% as benign.
  • Weighted kappa scores for inter-reviewer agreement were 0.43 for bone scintigraphy, 0.56 for SPECT and 0.87 for SPECT/CT.
  • CONCLUSION: The addition of SPECT/CT resulted in a significant reduction of equivocal reports; a definitive diagnosis was given in the majority of the patients due to the improved diagnostic confidence compared to planar or SPECT imaging alone in prostate cancer patients with suspected bone metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon. Tomography, Spiral Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Fractures, Compression / diagnosis. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Observer Variation. Patient Care Planning. Retrospective Studies. Spinal Fractures / diagnosis. Spinal Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Spinal Neoplasms / secondary. Whole Body Imaging

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  • (PMID = 20016889.001).
  • [ISSN] 1619-7089
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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98. Raubenheimer EJ, Noffke CE: Pathogenesis of bone metastasis: a review. J Oral Pathol Med; 2006 Mar;35(3):129-35
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  • [Title] Pathogenesis of bone metastasis: a review.
  • METHOD: A review of the literature was performed in order to provide a coherent overview on the pathogenesis of bone metastasis.
  • RESULTS: Bone metastasis follows complex molecular interactions that enable tumor cells to detach from the primary site, invade the extracellular matrix, intra-vasate, extra-vasate, and proliferate within bone.
  • They induce local bone changes that could manifest radiologically as either osteolytic or radiodense.
  • In addition to the direct bone changes, malignancies can elaborate mediators that are released in circulation, leading to generalized osteopenia.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The spread of malignant neoplasms to bone is not a random process but rather a cascade of specific molecular events orchestrated through complex interactions between neoplastic cells and their environment.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Proteins / metabolism. Neoplastic Cells, Circulating / pathology. Osteolysis / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Endothelium / physiopathology. Extracellular Matrix / enzymology. Humans. Neoplasm Metastasis / physiopathology. Osteoblasts / metabolism. Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein / metabolism. Receptors, Transforming Growth Factor beta / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16454807.001).
  • [ISSN] 0904-2512
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of oral pathology & medicine : official publication of the International Association of Oral Pathologists and the American Academy of Oral Pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Oral Pathol. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Proteins; 0 / Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein; 0 / Receptors, Transforming Growth Factor beta
  • [Number-of-references] 78
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99. Reuter S, Prasad S, Phromnoi K, Kannappan R, Yadav VR, Aggarwal BB: Embelin suppresses osteoclastogenesis induced by receptor activator of NF-κB ligand and tumor cells in vitro through inhibition of the NF-κB cell signaling pathway. Mol Cancer Res; 2010 Oct;8(10):1425-36
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  • [Title] Embelin suppresses osteoclastogenesis induced by receptor activator of NF-κB ligand and tumor cells in vitro through inhibition of the NF-κB cell signaling pathway.
  • Most patients with cancer die not because of the tumor in the primary site, but because it has spread to other sites.
  • Common tumors, such as breast, multiple myeloma, and prostate tumors, frequently metastasize to the bone.
  • It is now well recognized that osteoclasts are responsible for the osteolysis observed in bone metastases of the tumor.
  • Receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL), a member of the tumor necrosis factor superfamily and an activator of the NF-κB signaling pathway, has emerged as a major mediator of bone loss, commonly associated with cancer and other chronic inflammatory diseases.
  • We investigated whether embelin could inhibit osteoclastogenesis-associated bone loss induced by RANKL and by tumor cells in vitro.
  • This benzoquinone also suppressed the osteoclastogenesis induced by multiple myeloma and by breast cancer cells.
  • Thus, embelin, an inhibitor of RANKL-induced NF-κB activation has great potential as a therapeutic agent for osteoporosis and cancer-linked bone loss.

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  • (PMID = 20826545.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-3125
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular cancer research : MCR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA091844; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA124787; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-124787-01A2; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-16 672
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Benzoquinones; 0 / Bone Density Conservation Agents; 0 / NF-kappa B; 0 / RANK Ligand; 0 / TNFSF11 protein, human; SHC6U8F5ER / embelin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS233648; NLM/ PMC2974017
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100. Tang X, Zhang Q, Shi S, Yen Y, Li X, Zhang Y, Zhou K, Le AD: Bisphosphonates suppress insulin-like growth factor 1-induced angiogenesis via the HIF-1alpha/VEGF signaling pathways in human breast cancer cells. Int J Cancer; 2010 Jan 1;126(1):90-103
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  • [Title] Bisphosphonates suppress insulin-like growth factor 1-induced angiogenesis via the HIF-1alpha/VEGF signaling pathways in human breast cancer cells.
  • Adjunctive chemotherapy with bisphosphonates has been reported to delay bone metastasis and improve overall survival in breast cancer.
  • In this study, we investigated the potential molecular mechanisms underlying the antiangiogenic effect of non-nitrogen-containing and nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates, clodronate and pamidronate, respectively, in insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 responsive human breast cancer cells.
  • We tested whether bisphosphonates had any effects on hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1alpha/vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) axis that plays a pivotal role in tumor angiogenesis, and our results showed that both pamidronate and clodronate significantly suppressed IGF-1-induced HIF-1alpha protein accumulation and VEGF expression in MCF-7 cells.
  • Meanwhile, we found that the presence of pamidronate and clodronate led to a dose-dependent decease in the newly-synthesized HIF-1alpha protein induced by IGF-1 in breast cancer cells after proteasomal inhibition, thus, indirectly reflecting the inhibition of protein synthesis.
  • Consistently, we demonstrated that pamidronate and clodronate functionally abrogated both in vitro and in vivo tumor angiogenesis induced by IGF-1-stimulated MCF-7 cells.
  • These findings have highlighted an important mechanism of the pharmacological action of bisphosphonates in the inhibition of tumor angiogenesis in breast cancer cells.

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  • (PMID = 19569175.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0215
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA128099-02; United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / S11 AR047359; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R03 CA128099; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R03 CA128099-02; United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / 1S11 AR47359; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / R01 DE019932
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / Diphosphonates; 0 / HIF1A protein, human; 0 / Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I; EC 2.7.- / Protein Kinases; EC 2.7.1.- / Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases; EC 2.7.1.1 / MTOR protein, human; EC 2.7.1.1 / TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS138042; NLM/ PMC2784023
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