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1. Hage R, Seldenrijk K, de Bruin P, van Swieten H, van den Bosch J: Pulmonary large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC). Eur J Cardiothorac Surg; 2003 Apr;23(4):457-60
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  • [Title] Pulmonary large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC).
  • OBJECTIVE: The experiences on the treatment of seven consecutive patients with large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) were studied, observed over 6 years from 1992.
  • Since LCNEC was recognized as a separate histological entity, only very few series have been reported.
  • Together with the carcinoids (atypical and typical) and the small-cell lung carcinoma (SCLC), it forms the spectrum of neuroendocrine tumors.
  • RESULTS: In five patients, preoperative diagnosis was unknown, in one squamous cell carcinoma and in one adenocarcinoma was suspected.
  • There were four lobectomies, two bilobectomies and one resection of the lingular division with a wedge resection of the upper division of the left upper lobe.
  • Three patients received adjuvant chemotherapy and one, adjuvant radiotherapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: LCNEC is a high-grade neuroendocrine tumor with a poor prognosis.
  • In our patients, after surgical resection or multimodality treatment, all have developed widespread metastatic disease with a rapidly fatal course.
  • Due to the rarity of this tumor, the incidence, prognosis and optimal treatment remain to be determined.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Large Cell / surgery. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / surgery. Lung Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • [CommentIn] Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2003 Oct;24(4):671-2; author reply 672-3 [14500107.001]
  • (PMID = 12694759.001).
  • [ISSN] 1010-7940
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery : official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Cardiothorac Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 13
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2. Cheng NH, Huang HF, Lian LJ, Wu Y: [Ovarian growing teratoma syndrome clinical study of 22 cases]. Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi; 2009 Jun;44(6):426-30
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  • [Title] [Ovarian growing teratoma syndrome clinical study of 22 cases].
  • OBJECTIVE: To describe the essential points for the correct diagnosis and best treatment for ovarian growing teratoma syndrome (GTS) developed after surgery and chemotherapy for ovarian immature teratoma.
  • METHODS: Retrospective review of the clinical characteristics and long term follow up results of 22 cases of ovarian GTS to illustrate the unique biological behavior of the tumor and good prognosis of the disease.
  • RESULTS: Pathological examination of the tumors revealed completely benign mature teratoma with G0 grading in 20 cases.
  • The other 2 cases were found to be G0 mature teratoma with concurrent association of malignant somatic cell tumor: carcinoid and primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) respectively.
  • Among the 22 cases of ovarian GTS there are 6 cases with recurrent tumors developed repeatedly, so totally surgical treatments had been performed for 31 times.
  • Time interval in between the development of the ovarian GTS and the initial surgery for their primary immature teratoma is equal to or exceeding one year in 94% (29/31) of the cases.
  • Such a time factor is of high significance for the diagnosis of ovarian GTS.
  • As the benign behavior of the ovarian GTS together with its poor response to chemotherapy have just been recognized in recent years, they were treated as malignant tumors as their original primary immature teratoma before the year of 1987.
  • Postoperative chemotherapy of various kinds was applied.
  • By the year of 1988 postoperative chemotherapy began to be abandoned and since then most of the patients (9/10) had not received postoperative chemotherapy.
  • After long periods of follow up (3.6 -23.0 years) 20 of the 22 patients are found to be living and well.
  • The rest 2 patients died of the concurrent association of malignant somatic cell tumors with carcinoid and PNET in 0.1 and 0.3 years respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Ovarian GTS is a tumor developed after surgical and chemotherapeutic treatment of malignant ovarian immature teratoma.
  • Pathologic grading of the tumors showed retroconversion of the malignancy of the tumor from G3, G2 or G1 to G0 with good prognosis.
  • The tumor usually remained to be quiescent for long periods of time.
  • But there are also some potential of progressive growth, the tumor may grow to huge size and the recurrent tumor may develop repeatedly for several times more than 10 or 20 years later.
  • Surgical removal should be the main treatment either for the primary or the recurrent tumors.
  • Chemotherapy and radiotherapy are not effective and can do nothing but harm to patients.
  • Only correct knowledge about the benign biological behavior of the ovarian GTS and reasonable therapeutic regimen can have the disease ends with good prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Germinoma / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Teratoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Carcinoid Tumor / secondary. Child. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Syndrome. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19953942.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-567X
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua fu chan ke za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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3. Rougier P, Mitry E: Chemotherapy in the treatment of neuroendocrine malignant tumors. Digestion; 2000;62 Suppl 1:73-8
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  • [Title] Chemotherapy in the treatment of neuroendocrine malignant tumors.
  • The efficacy of chemotherapy in digestive neuroendocrine tumors (NET) depends on primary site and histological differentiation.
  • Many reports have suggested a superior activity of chemotherapy for pancreatic NET than for metastatic carcinoid tumors with response rates ranging from 40 to 60% compared to 20%.
  • The standard chemotherapy for pancreatic NET is a combination of adriamycin and streptozocin and to a lesser extent a combination of 5FU and streptozocin.
  • In contrast, there is no clear standard chemotherapy for carcinoid tumors and if most oncologists use a combination of 5FU and streptozocin in the case of advanced, progressive and nonresectable carcinoid tumors, the results are mostly poor and the benefit seldom counterbalances its toxicity.
  • In these carcinoid tumors the combination of hepatic artery ischemia alternating with chemotherapy has given impressive results in one study, which, however, have never been confirmed.
  • Tumor cell differentiation is a major prognostic factor and some reports have suggested a higher chemosensitivity for undifferentiated or poorly differentiated NET with tumor response rates ranging from 41 to 69% when a VP16-CDDP combination is used.
  • This chemosensitivity is, unfortunately, as in small cell lung carcinomas, of short duration.
  • Related to this special problem and the number of other active treatments in NET, the place of chemotherapy always has to be discussed in a multidisciplinary fashion.
  • Surgical excision, chemoembolization, interferons and somatostatin analogues have to be emphasized and eventually combined with chemotherapy, especially in slowly growing tumors.
  • New active chemotherapy regimens have to be tested clearly in this orphan group of tumors which does not hold much interest to the pharmaceutical companies.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Neuroendocrine Tumors / drug therapy. Pancreatic Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. CIS-DIAMINEDICHLOROPLATINUM .
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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel
  • (PMID = 10940691.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-2823
  • [Journal-full-title] Digestion
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Digestion
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5W494URQ81 / Streptozocin; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
  • [Number-of-references] 23
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4. Zuetenhorst JM, Valdes Olmos RA, Muller M, Hoefnagel CA, Taal BG: Interferon and meta-iodobenzylguanidin combinations in the treatment of metastatic carcinoid tumours. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2004 Sep;11(3):553-61
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  • [Title] Interferon and meta-iodobenzylguanidin combinations in the treatment of metastatic carcinoid tumours.
  • Interferon (IFN) and meta-iodobenzylguanidin (MIBG) are active in metastatic carcinoids.
  • 131I-MIBG scintigraphy was performed prior to treatment, after 8 weeks of IFN and after unlabelled MIBG.
  • The tumour over non-tumour (T/NT) ratios were quantitatively determined by comparing counts in the centre of the tumour (liver metastases) with those in an adjacent area of normal liver uptake (T/NT1) and with abdominal background area (T/NT2).
  • The T/NT1 ratio showed an increase of >10% in only four out of 21 patients (19%) after IFN (P = 0.178) and significantly more often in nine out of 18 patients (50%) after unlabelled MIBG (P = 0.016).
  • The absolute uptake in tumour deposits was also increased if compared with the abdominal background (T/NT2: 23% increase after IFN and 83% increase after unlabelled MIBG).
  • The combination produced 91% of patients with stable disease (using World Health Organisation criteria) at computed tomography scan and a biochemical response (a reduction of at least 50% in urinary 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid excretion) in 39%.
  • IFN-alpha did not significantly improve tumour retention of 131I-MIBG.
  • In contrast, unlabelled MIBG significantly improved biodistribution and tumour uptake in 83%.
  • A synergistic effect was not seen.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoid Tumor / drug therapy. Carcinoid Tumor / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Liver Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] 3-Iodobenzylguanidine / administration & dosage. Adult. Aged. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Hydroxyindoleacetic Acid / urine. Interferon-alpha / administration & dosage. Intestinal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Intestinal Neoplasms / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Recombinant Proteins. Stomach Neoplasms / drug therapy. Stomach Neoplasms / pathology. Survival Rate. Tomography, Emission-Computed

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  • (PMID = 15369454.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Interferon-alpha; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 35MRW7B4AD / 3-Iodobenzylguanidine; 54-16-0 / Hydroxyindoleacetic Acid; 99210-65-8 / interferon alfa-2b
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5. Satoh M, Wakabayashi O, Araya Y, Jinushi E, Yoshida F: [Autopsy case of von Recklinghausen's disease associated with lung cancer, gastrointestinal stromal tumor of the stomach, and duodenal carcinoid tumor]. Nihon Kokyuki Gakkai Zasshi; 2009 Sep;47(9):798-804
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  • [Title] [Autopsy case of von Recklinghausen's disease associated with lung cancer, gastrointestinal stromal tumor of the stomach, and duodenal carcinoid tumor].
  • A 58-year-old man with von Recklinghausen's disease was admitted for further investigation of right chest pain.
  • Chest X-ray revealed multiple emphysematous bullae in both lungs and a tumor shadow in the right upper lobe.
  • Bronchofiberscopy was performed, but an adequate specimen was not obtained.
  • The tumor was diagnosed as a non-small-cell lung cancer with direct invasion to the adjacent rib.
  • Although chemotherapy and radiotherapy resulted in decrease in tumor size, the tumor subsequently increased in size and the patient died 14 months after the first admission.
  • Autopsy revealed multiple emphysematous bullae, poorly differentiated adenosquamous cell carcinoma of the lung, gastrointestinal stromal tumor of the stomach, and duodenal carcinoid tumor.
  • This case suggests the possibility that von Recklinghausen's disease associated with emphysematous bullae is a risk factor for lung cancer.
  • It has also been suggested that the genetic abnormality responsible for von Recklinghausen's disease increases the risk for various types of malignancy.
  • Although von Recklinghausen's disease is reportedly associated with various malignant tumors, it is quite rare for von Recklinghausen's disease to be associated with triple non-neurogenic tumors.
  • Careful observation is mandatory for patients with von Recklinghausen's disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Autopsy. Carcinoid Tumor / etiology. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / etiology. Duodenal Neoplasms / etiology. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors / etiology. Lung Neoplasms / etiology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary. Neurofibromatosis 1 / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Fatal Outcome. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Pulmonary Emphysema / complications. Pulmonary Emphysema / diagnosis. Pulmonary Emphysema / pathology. Risk Factors


11. De Dosso S, Bajetta E, Procopio G, Cortinovis D, Buzzoni R, Catena L, Platania M, Verzoni E: Pulmonary carcinoid tumours: indolent but not benign. Oncology; 2007;73(3-4):162-8
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  • [Title] Pulmonary carcinoid tumours: indolent but not benign.
  • BACKGROUND: The aim of this retrospective study was to analyse the malignant behaviour of low-grade pulmonary neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) treated at our institution.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: We reviewed 48 consecutive patients with pulmonary NETs referred to our Medical Oncology Unit between 1998 and 2006, including 33 subjects with typical carcinoids (TCs) and 15 with atypical carcinoids (ACs).
  • RESULTS: At diagnosis, there were 37 metastatic and 11 non-metastatic patients.
  • Medical treatments used were somatostatin analogues, combined chemotherapy, within study protocols, 5-fluorouracil/dacarbazine/epiadriamycin (FDE), and oxaliplatin plus capecitabine (XELOX).
  • Median disease-free survival was 72 months for the TC patients and 38 months for the AC patients.
  • The mean overall survival was 68 months for the non-metastatic patients (78 months for TC patients and 58 months for AC patients) and 36 months for patients with advanced disease (42 and 32 months, respectively).
  • CONCLUSION: Cell type is the strongest determinant of prognosis, and the degree of malignancy increases from TCs to ACs.
  • Moreover, the prognosis of metastatic pulmonary carcinoids is not as good as expected.
  • Our analysis suggests that patients with advanced disease should receive first-line therapy with a somatostatin analogue, with chemotherapy regimens (FDE, XELOX) used in progressing cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Disease Progression. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel
  • (PMID = 18418008.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0232
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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12. Kianmanesh R, O'Toole D, Sauvanet A, Ruszniewski P, Belghiti J: [Surgical treatment of gastric, enteric pancreatic endocrine tumors. Part 2. treatment of hepatic metastases]. J Chir (Paris); 2005 Jul-Aug;142(4):208-19
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  • [Title] [Surgical treatment of gastric, enteric pancreatic endocrine tumors. Part 2. treatment of hepatic metastases].
  • [Transliterated title] Traitement chirurgical des tumeurs endocrines gastro-entéro-pancréatiques.
  • The development of hepatic metastases (HM) marks a turning point in the evolutionand prognosis of well-differentiated endocrine tumors (ET).
  • Management is usually multicisciplinary (chemotherapy, arterial chemo-embolization, percutaneous ablation, somatostatin analogs, biotherapy, and surgery).
  • A thorough pre-operative work-up is neecessary to exclude extrahepatic disease and to detect tiny HM's.
  • Complete resection (RO) is the only curative treatment for well-differentiated ET with HM.
  • The type of resection is specific to each case and may range from wedge resection of a metastasis to complex hepatectomy with simultaneous resection of the primary ET.
  • Cytoreductive surgery may be indicated for palliation when medical therapy fails to control endocrine symptoms.
  • Operative mortality is low (0-6%) and global survival is 60-70% afterafter R) resection of HM of well-differentiated ET's.
  • When HM are multiple, bilobar and synchronous, the prognosis is very poor--only 10% of such patients can have a complete resection and this often requires a long prologue of ancillary procedures (chemotherapy, chemoembolization, portal vein ligation, percutaneous ablation).
  • Hepatic transplantation (HT) has only a limited rôle in the treatment of HM for ET; mortality is high when HT is associated with large and complex resections, i.e. pancreaticoduodenectomy.
  • Although there is no consensus in the literature, HT should be limited to the most optimal cases (young, good general health, well-differentiated tumor, slow evolution, complete resection of the primary rumor, and unresectable liver metastases).
  • Global survival for HT in patients with ET is 60% at 2 years, 47% at 5 years; tumor-free survival at 5 years is 24%.
  • HT for HM has better survival results for ET's of intestinal origin (carcinoids) than for duodenopancreatic ET's.
  • [MeSH-major] Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / surgery. Pancreatic Neoplasms / surgery. Stomach Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Embolization, Therapeutic. Humans. Liver Transplantation. Palliative Care. Prognosis. Survival


13. Rudnicka H, Niwińska A, Gruszfeld A, Pieńkowski T: [Diagnosis and treatment of carcinoid meningitis: a challenge to the neurologist and oncologist]. Neurol Neurochir Pol; 2003;37(4):811-24
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  • [Title] [Diagnosis and treatment of carcinoid meningitis: a challenge to the neurologist and oncologist].
  • [Transliterated title] Diagnostyka i leczenie nowotworowego zapalenia opon mózgowo-rdzeniowych wyzwaniem dla neurologa i onkologa.
  • BACKGROUND: Two clinical types of leptomeningeal metastases from solid tumors are observed: local and disseminated.
  • The former (meningeal carcinomatosis) consists in nodular infiltration of leptomeninges, while the latter (carcinomatous meningitis)--in tumor cells free floating in the cerebrospinal fluid and adhering as a monolayer to the surface of neural structures.
  • Despite the same etiology, the two types of metastasis differ in their clinical manifestation and prognosis.
  • Meningeal carcinomatosis is more frequently diagnosed nowadays due to advances in neuroimaging techniques and the long survival of breast cancer patients.
  • Patients with local, nodular infiltration of leptomeninges may survive many years without symptoms of the disease.
  • On the other hand, carcinomatous meningitis, with its usually violent course and short survival, has become a major problem for oncologists and neurologists because of limited efficacy and considerable toxicity of the treatment.
  • AIMS: The purpose of this article is to review the current knowledge about carcinomatous meningitis in breast cancer patients, taking into account pathophysiology, clinical symptoms, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis.
  • The second aim was to present the authors' experience with the treatment of breast cancer patients suffering from carcinomatous meningitis.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: 37 patients with breast cancer and carcinomatous meningitis were treated in the Oncology Center, Warsaw, in the years 2000-2002.
  • The diagnosis was based on results of neurological examination, MRI scan, and the presence of neoplastic cells in the cerebrospinal fluid.
  • In a majority of cases combined treatment was applied, including intrathecal administration of cytostatics, intravenous systemic chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
  • RESULTS: The observation period ranged from 2 to 33 months.
  • A response to the treatment was achieved in 76% of the patients.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The ever-growing incidence of carcinomatous meningitis in the course of breast cancer has become a serious clinical problem for neurologists and oncologists.
  • Treatment results are disappointing, although the combined modality treatment appears to be the best option.
  • New pharmacological approaches to the treatment of meningeal malignancy are required to improve the outcome of patients with carcinomatous meningitis.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma. Medical Oncology / methods. Meningeal Neoplasms. Neurology / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 14746241.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-3843
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurologia i neurochirurgia polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol. Neurochir. Pol.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Number-of-references] 22
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14. Rothermel J, Wartmann M, Chen T, Hohneker J: EPO906 (epothilone B): a promising novel microtubule stabilizer. Semin Oncol; 2003 Jun;30(3 Suppl 6):51-5
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  • EPO906 (epothilone B) is a potent member of a new class of microtubule-stabilizing cytotoxic agents known as epothilones.
  • In preclinical studies, EPO906 has shown anticancer activity both in vitro and in vivo against several cancer types, including models that are paclitaxel-resistant.
  • Importantly, in contrast to the taxanes, EPO906 retained activity against cancer cells either overexpressing the P-glycoprotein efflux pump or bearing tubulin mutations.
  • Tumor responses were seen in colorectal cancer as well as a variety of other tumor types, such as breast, ovarian, lung, and carcinoid in these two phase I trials.
  • Based on the promising results from phase I studies, phase II studies in numerous indications are ongoing.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Epothilones / pharmacology. Microtubules / drug effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Clinical Trials as Topic. Colorectal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor. Humans

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 12802795.001).
  • [ISSN] 0093-7754
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Epothilones; UEC0H0URSE / epothilone B
  • [Number-of-references] 22
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15. Lito P, Pantanowitz L, Marotti J, Aboulafia DM, Campbell V, Bower M, Dezube BJ: Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors in patients with HIV infection: a trans-Atlantic series. Am J Med Sci; 2009 Jan;337(1):1-4
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  • [Title] Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors in patients with HIV infection: a trans-Atlantic series.
  • BACKGROUND: Non-AIDS-defining cancers are an important problem in HIV-infected patients.
  • The occurrence of neuroendocrine (NE) tumors in sites other than the lung and skin has not been well characterized in the setting of concurrent HIV infection.
  • METHODS: HIV-positive patients with biopsy-confirmed NE tumors localized to the gastrointestinal tract were identified based on the personal archives of the authors.
  • A retrospective chart review was performed, and data regarding demographics, HIV status, presenting symptoms and signs, diagnostic work-up, therapeutic interventions, and outcome were extracted.
  • RESULTS: We identified 4 adult patients, mean age 42 years (range: 37-47) infected with HIV, who developed NE tumors originating in their gastrointestinal tact.
  • They had only moderate immunosuppression with a median CD4 count of 497 cells/mm (range: 182-1100) and chronic HIV infection (2-15 years duration).
  • Symptoms at presentation were nonspecific, including abdominal pain, diarrhea, weight loss, and rectal bleeding.
  • A specialized diagnostic work-up was required, including serum chromogranin and urinary 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid levels, colonoscopy, radioactive isotope scans, and the demonstration of NE differentiation in procured pathologic material.
  • The spectrum of tumors ranged from benign (typical carcinoid) to highly aggressive neoplasms (NE carcinoma).
  • Treatment with octreotide, surgical resection, or systemic chemotherapy provided effective symptomatic relief and was associated with a favorable outcome, despite metastases in 2 patients.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These cases serve to broaden the spectrum of neoplasms that may be encountered in the current HIV era, and illustrate the difficulty in establishing the diagnosis of NE tumors in the context of HIV infection.
  • [MeSH-major] Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / etiology. HIV Infections / complications. Neuroendocrine Tumors / etiology. Pancreatic Neoplasms / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. CD4 Lymphocyte Count. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 19155751.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9629
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of the medical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Med. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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16. Terzolo M, Reimondo G, Alì A, Bovio S, Daffara F, Paccotti P, Angeli A: Ectopic ACTH syndrome: molecular bases and clinical heterogeneity. Ann Oncol; 2001;12 Suppl 2:S83-7
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  • [Title] Ectopic ACTH syndrome: molecular bases and clinical heterogeneity.
  • There are roughly two types of ectopic ACTH syndrome (EAS).
  • one associated with overt malignancies and one with occult neoplasms.
  • The prototype of the first condition is Cushing's syndrome sustained by small-cell lung cancer (SCLC), while bronchial carcinoid tumors are the most common occult sources of ACTH.
  • These patients have a poor prognosis because SCLC associated with the EAS is more resistant to chemotherapy and the severe hypercortisolism is responsible for a high rate of life-threatening complications during treatment.
  • Conversely, the clinical and biochemical features of the EAS associated with carcinoid may overlap those seen in pituitary-dependent Cushing's syndrome.
  • However, the differentiation between the pituitary, or eutopic, from the non-pituitary, or ectopic, source of ACTH secretion may be extremely difficult in some cases despite the wide diagnostic armamentarium available.
  • Molecular biology studies have demonstrated that the carcinoid cells achieve a process of corticotroph differentiation being able to express the proopiomelanocortin (POMC) gene and to process POMC correctly to release large amounts of intact ACTH.

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  • (PMID = 11762358.001).
  • [ISSN] 0923-7534
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 66796-54-1 / Pro-Opiomelanocortin
  • [Number-of-references] 25
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17. Comaru-Schally AM, Schally AV: A clinical overview of carcinoid tumors: perspectives for improvement in treatment using peptide analogs (review). Int J Oncol; 2005 Feb;26(2):301-9
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  • [Title] A clinical overview of carcinoid tumors: perspectives for improvement in treatment using peptide analogs (review).
  • Carcinoid tumors were first described more than a century ago, but the treatment of patients with advanced disease remains a challenge to physicians.
  • The etiology of carcinoid tumors, the biologic determinants of the growth of these malignancies, as well as the high frequency of multiple carcinoid and/or non-carcinoid tumors in patients with this disease also remain to be elucidated.
  • A 5-decade analysis of 13,715 carcinoid tumors in the USA showed that distant metastases were demonstrated at the time of diagnosis in 12.9% of patients with this neoplasia.
  • The overall 5-year survival rate for all patients with carcinoids regardless of the site, was reported to be 67.2%.
  • The prognosis of patients with early stage disease is good and surgical resection is the standard form of treatment.
  • However, patients with metastatic dissemination have poor outcomes since chemotherapy is generally ineffective.
  • Radiation therapy may ease the pain of bone metastases.
  • The administration of long acting analogs of somatostatin can control the symptoms of diarrhea and flushing in patients with the malignant carcinoid syndrome.
  • However, a complete regression of metastatic carcinoid tumors following the administration of somatostatin analog octreotide has been reported so far in only 3 cases.
  • Other modalities of treatment, including liver transplantation and the administration of radiolabeled somatostatin analogs have likewise been applied in patients with advanced disease.
  • It is expected that advances in proteomics research will contribute to our understanding of the mechanisms of diseases and aid in designing new drugs.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Carcinoid Tumor / drug therapy. Carcinoid Tumor / mortality. Peptides / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Gamma Cameras. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Humans. Liver / pathology. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis. Prognosis. Proteomics. Somatostatin / analogs & derivatives

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  • (PMID = 15645113.001).
  • [ISSN] 1019-6439
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Peptides; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin
  • [Number-of-references] 78
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18. Voortman J, Lee JH, Killian JK, Suuriniemi M, Wang Y, Lucchi M, Smith WI Jr, Meltzer P, Wang Y, Giaccone G: Array comparative genomic hybridization-based characterization of genetic alterations in pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A; 2010 Jul 20;107(29):13040-5
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  • [Title] Array comparative genomic hybridization-based characterization of genetic alterations in pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors.
  • The goal of this study was to characterize and classify pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors based on array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH).
  • Using aCGH, we performed karyotype analysis of 33 small cell lung cancer (SCLC) tumors, 13 SCLC cell lines, 19 bronchial carcinoids, and 9 gastrointestinal carcinoids.
  • In contrast to the relatively conserved karyotypes of carcinoid tumors, the karyotypes of SCLC tumors and cell lines were highly aberrant.
  • High copy number (CN) gains were detected in SCLC tumors and cell lines in cytogenetic bands encoding JAK2, FGFR1, and MYC family members.
  • In some of those samples, the CN of these genes exceeded 100, suggesting that they could represent driver alterations and potential drug targets in subgroups of SCLC patients.
  • In SCLC tumors, as well as bronchial carcinoids and carcinoids of gastrointestinal origin, recurrent CN alterations were observed in 203 genes, including the RB1 gene and 59 microRNAs of which 51 locate in the DLK1-DIO3 domain.
  • These findings suggest the existence of partially shared CN alterations in these tumor types.
  • Finally, by analyzing potential drug targets, we provide a genomics-based rationale for targeting the AKT-mTOR and apoptosis pathways in SCLC.
  • [MeSH-major] Comparative Genomic Hybridization / methods. Lung Neoplasms / genetics. Neuroendocrine Tumors / genetics. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Bronchial Neoplasms / drug therapy. Bronchial Neoplasms / genetics. Carcinoid Tumor / genetics. Cell Line, Tumor. Cytogenetic Analysis. DNA Copy Number Variations / genetics. Female. Gene Dosage / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Genome, Human / genetics. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Small Cell Lung Carcinoma / genetics


19. Darvishian F, Ginsberg MS, Klimstra DS, Brogi E: Carcinoid tumorlets simulate pulmonary metastases in women with breast cancer. Hum Pathol; 2006 Jul;37(7):839-44
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  • [Title] Carcinoid tumorlets simulate pulmonary metastases in women with breast cancer.
  • A pulmonary carcinoid tumorlet (PCT) is a nodular proliferation of neuroendocrine cells smaller than 0.5 cm.
  • On computed tomographic (CT) imaging, these nodules are nonspecific in appearance and can mimic metastatic disease.
  • We identified 12 women with a history of breast cancer and biopsy-proven PCTs, who were treated at our institution in a period of 12 years.
  • The mean age at diagnosis of the breast cancer was 62.8 years.
  • The breast cancer was invasive carcinoma in 10 cases (9 ductal and 1 lobular) and ductal carcinoma in situ and malignant phyllodes tumor in 1 case each.
  • Six women received radiotherapy; 5, chemotherapy; and 4, hormonal treatment, alone or in combination.
  • Pulmonary carcinoid tumorlets were identified within 5 months from diagnosis of the breast malignancy in 7 patients and at follow-up (range, 57-162 months) in the remaining 5.
  • In all cases, the PCTs consisted of multiple pulmonary nodules that were radiologically interpreted as suspicious for pulmonary metastases.
  • None of the patients had known metastatic disease at the time of diagnosis of PCTs.
  • Three patients subsequently developed recurrent disease, including 2 with extramammary spread.
  • Pulmonary carcinoid tumorlets are radiologic and histologic mimickers of pulmonary metastases in patients with a history of breast cancer.
  • Consideration should be given to the possibility of PCTs in patients with breast cancer with pulmonary nodules, even if multiple.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Tomography, X-Ray Computed


20. Walther DJ, Peter JU, Bader M: 7-Hydroxytryptophan, a novel, specific, cytotoxic agent for carcinoids and other serotonin-producing tumors. Cancer; 2002 Jun 15;94(12):3135-40
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  • [Title] 7-Hydroxytryptophan, a novel, specific, cytotoxic agent for carcinoids and other serotonin-producing tumors.
  • BACKGROUND: Carcinoids and small cell lung carcinomas stimulate their growth in an autocrine manner by releasing serotonin, an effect that is blocked by selective serotonergic receptor antagonists that, unfortunately, exert undesirable side effects on serotonergic central nervous function.
  • Moreover, conventional chemotherapeutic agents, such as streptozocin, fluorouracil, cyclophosphamide, and doxorubicin, which target tumor cells directly, have produced disappointing results in the treatment of patients with these tumors in the advanced stage.
  • Therefore, there is still a need for more specific and potent chemotherapeutic agents in the fight against serotonin-producing tumors.
  • METHODS: The authors synthesized 7-hydroxytryptophan to test its chemotherapeutic value in cell culture, using a system consisting of serotonin-producing and nonproducing cell lines.
  • RESULTS: The authors chose tryptophan hydroxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme of serotonin biosynthesis, which is expressed highly in small cell lung carcinomas and carcinoids, as a target for the induction of cellular suicide by chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that 7-hydroxytryptophan may be a highly specific chemotherapeutic compound against serotonin-producing tumors that also interferes with the autocrine capabilities of serotonin synthesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Carcinoid Tumor / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Small Cell / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Serotonin / biosynthesis. Tryptophan / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] 5,6-Dihydroxytryptamine / pharmacology. 5,7-Dihydroxytryptamine / pharmacology. Animals. COS Cells. Humans. Pancreatic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Tryptophan Hydroxylase / antagonists & inhibitors. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2002 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 12115345.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 7-hydroxytryptophan; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 31363-74-3 / 5,7-Dihydroxytryptamine; 333DO1RDJY / Serotonin; 8DUH1N11BX / Tryptophan; EC 1.14.16.4 / Tryptophan Hydroxylase; W2QY253O8S / 5,6-Dihydroxytryptamine
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21. Rogiers X, Brunken C: Surgical management of hepatic metastatic disease. Saudi Med J; 2000 Jun;21(6):519-22
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  • [Title] Surgical management of hepatic metastatic disease.
  • Radical surgical resection, if possible, is the treatment of choice.
  • Radical resection of metastases from wilms-tumor, carcinoids, carcinoma of the breast, hypernephroma, adrenal tumors, malignant melanoma, leiomyosarcoma and gastric cancer may improve long time survival, however knowledge is too small for giving general directions.
  • Local destructive therapies are only beneficial when a total necrosis of the tumor is reached.
  • Indications for this treatment are quite rare.
  • Both, systemic and local chemotherapy offers only palliation with little influence on long time survival.
  • Adjuvant and neo-adjuvant chemotherapy is applicated under study conditions with encouraging results.
  • [MeSH-major] Hepatectomy / methods. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology. Europe / epidemiology. Humans. Patient Selection. Proportional Hazards Models. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11508246.001).
  • [ISSN] 0379-5284
  • [Journal-full-title] Saudi medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Saudi Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Saudi Arabia
  • [Number-of-references] 17
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22. Simonenko VB, Dulin PA, Makanin MA, Gusev AIu: [The cardiovascular manifestations of carcinoid tumors]. Voen Med Zh; 2000 Jun;321(6):44-9
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  • [Title] [The cardiovascular manifestations of carcinoid tumors].
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Cardiovascular Diseases / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Drug Therapy, Combination. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 10929515.001).
  • [ISSN] 0026-9050
  • [Journal-full-title] Voenno-medit︠s︡inskiĭ zhurnal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Voen Med Zh
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] RUSSIA
  • [Number-of-references] 18
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23. Tomassetti P, Migliori M, Campana D, Brocchi E, Piscitelli L, Tomassetti V, Corinaldesi R: The role of somatostatin analogs in the management of carcinoid tumors. J Endocrinol Invest; 2003;26(8 Suppl):79-81
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  • [Title] The role of somatostatin analogs in the management of carcinoid tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoid Tumor / drug therapy. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Somatostatin / analogs & derivatives
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / administration & dosage. Humans. Immunologic Factors / administration & dosage. Interferon-alpha / administration & dosage. Pancreatic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Quality of Life

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  • (PMID = 15233219.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-4097
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Immunologic Factors; 0 / Interferon-alpha; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin
  • [Number-of-references] 24
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24. Filosso PL, Ruffini E, Oliaro A, Papalia E, Donati G, Rena O: Long-term survival of atypical bronchial carcinoids with liver metastases, treated with octreotide. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg; 2002 May;21(5):913-7
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  • [Title] Long-term survival of atypical bronchial carcinoids with liver metastases, treated with octreotide.
  • OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate that liver metastases by radically resected atypical carcinoids of the lung can be effectively treated by new somatostatin analogs.
  • METHODS: Between January 1977 and December 1999, 126 patients affected by bronchial carcinoids were submitted to a radical resection of the lung.
  • Seven of them (5.5%) presented liver metastases 27, 22, 14, 18, 16, 12 and 9 months after surgery: carcinoid syndrome (CS) was ever present.
  • RESULTS: Five patients refused the proposed chemotherapy, and liver alcoholization was not feasible.
  • CS was controlled and also high urinary 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid values returned to normal after a median of 7 days (range 4-10 days) of medical treatment.
  • No important side effects were registered, and a good quality of life was observed.
  • The patients are alive and well at 51, 36, 24, 24, 23, 19, and 16 months after the diagnosis of the metastases, respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Octreotide is effective in controlling symptoms of CS of patients with liver metastases of resected atypical bronchial carcinoid.
  • The efficacy of the drug is due to the presence of sst2 somatostatin receptors in the pathologic tissue, as demonstrated by PCR method.
  • Octreoscan may be used in the follow-up of these neuroendocrine neoplasms of the lung.
  • A positivity to Octreoscan is predictive for an effective therapy with octreotide.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Bronchial Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / drug therapy. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Octreotide / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Postoperative Care. Somatostatin / analogs & derivatives. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 12062286.001).
  • [ISSN] 1010-7940
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery : official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Cardiothorac Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; G083B71P98 / pentetreotide; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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25. Beasley MB, Thunnissen FB, Brambilla E, Hasleton P, Steele R, Hammar SP, Colby TV, Sheppard M, Shimosato Y, Koss MN, Falk R, Travis WD: Pulmonary atypical carcinoid: predictors of survival in 106 cases. Hum Pathol; 2000 Oct;31(10):1255-65
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  • [Title] Pulmonary atypical carcinoid: predictors of survival in 106 cases.
  • Pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors (NE) include a spectrum of tumors from typical carcinoid (TC) to atypical carcinoid (AC), large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC), and small cell carcinoma (SCLC).
  • Survival analysis was performed on 106 ACs with clinical follow-up from the AFIP and the Pathology Panel of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC).
  • The tumors fulfilled the 1999 WHO/IASLC criteria for AC of a NE tumor with a mitotic rate of 2 to 10 per 2 mm(2) of viable tumor or coagulative necrosis.
  • Of the clinical features, higher stage (P = .003) and a tumor size of 3.5 cm or greater (P = .003) were associated with a worse prognosis.
  • Multivariate analysis stratified for stage showed mitoses (P<.001), a tumor size of 3.5 cm or greater (P =.017), and female gender (P =.012) to be the only negative independent predictors of prognosis and the presence of rosettes (P = .016) to be the only independent positive predictor.
  • Within the category of AC, the patients with a higher mitotic rate had a significantly worse survival than those with a lower mitotic rate (P<.001) stratified for stage.
  • Chemotherapy or radiation therapy was given in 12 of 52 and 14 of 52 cases, respectively, but the data were insufficient to evaluate tumor response.
  • We conclude that AC is an aggressive neuroendocrine neoplasm with survival intermediate between TC and LCNEC and SCLC.
  • Higher mitotic rate, tumor size of 3.5 cm or greater, female gender, and presence of rosettes are the only independent predictors of survival.
  • Surgical resection remains the treatment of choice, and the role of chemotherapy and radiation therapy remains to be proven.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / mortality. Lung Neoplasms / mortality

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  • (PMID = 11070119.001).
  • [ISSN] 0046-8177
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
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26. Higashi K, Matsunari I, Ueda Y, Ikeda R, Guo J, Oguchi M, Tonami H, Yamamoto I: Value of whole-body FDG PET in management of lung cancer. Ann Nucl Med; 2003 Feb;17(1):1-14
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  • [Title] Value of whole-body FDG PET in management of lung cancer.
  • FDG PET imaging is sensitive to the detection of lung cancer in patients who have indeterminate lesions on CT, whereas low grade malignancy such as bronchioloalveolar carcinoma and carcinoid may be negative on FDG PET.
  • This possibility should be kept in mind in the analysis of PET studies of glucose metabolism aimed at differentiating malignant from benign solitary pulmonary nodules.
  • FDG uptake is considered to be a good marker of cell differentiation, proliferative potential, aggressiveness, and the grade of malignancy in patients with lung cancer.
  • FDG PET accurately stages the distribution of lung cancer.
  • Several studies have documented the increased accuracy of PET compared with CT in the evaluation of the hilar and mediastinal lymphnode status in patients with lung cancer.
  • Whole-body PET studies detect metastatic disease that is unsuspected by conventional imaging.
  • Management changes have been reported in up to 41% of patients on the basis of the results of whole-body studies.
  • Whole-body FDG PET is also useful for the detection of recurrence.
  • Several studies have indicated that the degree of FDG uptake in primary lung cancer can be used as an independent prognostic factor.
  • Thus, whole-body FDG PET is clinically very useful in the management of lung cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Lung Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Tomography, Emission-Computed / methods. Whole-Body Counting / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Drug Therapy, Computer-Assisted / methods. Humans. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Radiopharmaceuticals / pharmacokinetics. Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted / methods. Reproducibility of Results. Sensitivity and Specificity. Solitary Pulmonary Nodule / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 12691125.001).
  • [ISSN] 0914-7187
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
  • [Number-of-references] 107
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27. McMullan DM, Wood DE: Pulmonary carcinoid tumors. Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg; 2003 Jul;15(3):289-300
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  • [Title] Pulmonary carcinoid tumors.
  • Carcinoid tumors of the lung are an uncommon group of neoplasms of neuroendocrine origin.
  • Pulmonary carcinoid tumors are typically benign and slow growing.
  • Although several histologic classification strategies have been proposed to distinguish benign from more aggressive subtypes, the lack of uniformity in terminology has resulted in increased ambiguity and confusion.
  • Because these tumors are generally resistant to chemotherapy, complete surgical resection is the primary form of therapy.
  • Long-term survival for patients with typical carcinoid is excellent but is decreased in those with the atypical subtype.
  • Complete tumor resection with preservation of uninvolved pulmonary parenchyma remains the fundamental goal in the surgical treatment of this unusual clinical entity.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / therapy. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Bronchoscopy. Diagnostic Imaging. Humans. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12973707.001).
  • [ISSN] 1043-0679
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in thoracic and cardiovascular surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 97
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28. Gruttadauria S, Vasta F, Mandalà L, Cintorino D, Piazza T, Spada M, Verzaro R, Gridelli B: Basiliximab in a triple-drug regimen with tacrolimus and steroids in liver transplantation. Transplant Proc; 2005 Jul-Aug;37(6):2611-3
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  • [Title] Basiliximab in a triple-drug regimen with tacrolimus and steroids in liver transplantation.
  • BACKGROUND: Basiliximab, a chimeric monoclonal antibody (mAb) directed against the alpha chain of the interleukin-2 (IL-2) receptor (CD25), has been extensively evaluated as induction therapy for kidney transplant recipients, more frequently in combination with a cyclosporine-based regimen.
  • METHODS: One hundred fifty-two liver transplant recipients (141 cadaveric donors and 11 living donors [LRLT]) in the last 4 years were treated with 2 20-mg doses of basiliximab (days 0 and 4 posttransplantation) followed by tacrolimus (0.15 mg/kg/d; 10-15 ng/mL target trough levels) and steroids (500 mg intravenous [IV] bolus at the reperfusion followed by 20 mg orally daily and weaning off in 1 or 2 months).
  • RESULTS: Eighty-five percent of patients remained rejection-free during follow-up with an actuarial rejection-free probability of 78% within 3 months.
  • Twenty-seven patients (20.6%) experienced 1 episode of sepsis, requiring temporary reduction of immunosuppressive therapy.
  • We observed 2 de novo malignancies, 1 recurrence from an ileal carcinoid tumor and 1 pulmonary recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in 1 recipient of LRLT.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Basiliximab in association with tacrolimus and steroids is effective prophylaxis of ACR in liver transplant recipients and does not increase the incidence of infections or adverse effects.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Liver Transplantation / immunology. Methylprednisolone / therapeutic use. Recombinant Fusion Proteins / therapeutic use. Tacrolimus / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Cytomegalovirus Infections / epidemiology. Cytomegalovirus Infections / pathology. Drug Administration Schedule. Drug Therapy, Combination. Graft Rejection / immunology. Humans. Immunity, Cellular. Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use. Injections, Intravenous. Postoperative Complications / epidemiology. Postoperative Complications / pathology. Prospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16182762.001).
  • [ISSN] 0041-1345
  • [Journal-full-title] Transplantation proceedings
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Transplant. Proc.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 0 / Recombinant Fusion Proteins; 0 / basiliximab; WM0HAQ4WNM / Tacrolimus; X4W7ZR7023 / Methylprednisolone
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29. Nakamura Y, Okada Y, Endo C, Aikawa H, Sakurada A, Sato M, Kondo T: Endobronchial carcinoid tumor combined with pulmonary non-tuberculous mycobacterial infection: report of two cases. Lung Cancer; 2003 Feb;39(2):227-9
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  • [Title] Endobronchial carcinoid tumor combined with pulmonary non-tuberculous mycobacterial infection: report of two cases.
  • We report here two cases of endobronchial carcinoid tumor complicated with pulmonary infection with non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM).
  • Bronchoscopy showed complete obstruction of the left basal bronchus by a tumor and a sleeve lower lobectomy with mediastinal lymph node dissection was performed.
  • Pathological examination showed typical carcinoid located in the left basal bronchus and many caseous granulomas containing mycobacteria in the lung parenchyma distal to the bronchus.
  • Bacterial examinations of sputum and gastric juice after the operation showed a growth of Mycobacterium kansasii.
  • Bronchoscopy showed complete obstruction of the left upper division bronchus by a tumor and a left upper lobectomy with mediastinal lymph node dissection was performed.
  • Pathological examination showed typical carcinoid located in the left upper division bronchus and many caseous granulomas in the lung parenchyma distal to the bronchus.
  • Although NTM are not well recognized as possible pathogens of pulmonary infection related to bronchial obstruction by endobronchial carcinoma, our experiences rouse a caution to consider NTM as potential pathogens.
  • We also discuss the possible mechanisms responsible for the specific relationship between carcinoid tumor and TNM.
  • [MeSH-major] Bronchial Neoplasms / complications. Carcinoid Tumor / complications. Mycobacterium avium Complex / isolation & purification. Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare Infection / complications. Mycobacterium kansasii / isolation & purification. Pneumonia, Bacterial / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Anti-Bacterial Agents. Bronchoscopy. Drug Therapy, Combination / therapeutic use. Female. Gastric Juice / microbiology. Humans. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Middle Aged. Sputum / microbiology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd.
  • (PMID = 12581578.001).
  • [ISSN] 0169-5002
  • [Journal-full-title] Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lung Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents
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30. Fauroux B, Aynie V, Larroquet M, Boccon-Gibod L, Ducou le Pointe H, Tamalet A, Clément A: Carcinoid and mucoepidermoid bronchial tumours in children. Eur J Pediatr; 2005 Dec;164(12):748-52
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  • [Title] Carcinoid and mucoepidermoid bronchial tumours in children.
  • The aim of the study was to determine the characteristic features and outcome of carcinoid or mucoepidermoid tumours in children.
  • A retrospective analysis of all patients treated for a carcinoid or mucoepidermoid tumour in France between 1984 and 2001 was performed.
  • There were 11 cases of carcinoid tumour and 6 cases of mucoepidermoid tumour.
  • The mean age of the patients was 10.5+/-3.0 years, with a range of 5 to 15 years.
  • Twelve and 6 patients presented with evidence of bronchial obstruction and haemoptysis, respectively.
  • Fibre optic bronchoscopy confirmed the presence of a bronchial tumour in all cases and endobronchial biopsies were diagnostic in 11 of 12 cases.
  • A chest CT scan revealed the presence of a hypervascular tumour in 8 of 12 patients.
  • The distribution of the location of the tumours was equal between the right and the left lung, and, in 9 cases, the airways were totally occluded by the tumour.
  • Complete surgical resection (lobectomy in 15 patients and pneumonectomy in 2 patients) was performed in all cases without pre-operative chemotherapy or radiotherapy.
  • In 2 patients, auscultation assymetry and an episode of haemoptysis revealed the recurrence of a mucoepidermoid tumour, successfully cured by removal of the tumour and chemotherapy and radiotherapy in one child.
  • CONCLUSION: Pulmonary carcinoid and mucoepidermoid tumours are rare in children.
  • Bronchoscopic removal should not be performed.
  • With aggressive surgical therapy, the prognosis is excellent.
  • A biopsy is needed for diagnosis and complete surgical removal is the treatment of choice.
  • Long-term results are excellent but a clinical follow-up is recommended.
  • [MeSH-major] Bronchial Neoplasms. Carcinoid Tumor. Carcinoma, Mucoepidermoid
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Female. France. Humans. Male. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • [ISSN] 0340-6199
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Pediatr.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
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31. Kunitoh H, Tamura T, Shibata T, Nakagawa K, Takeda K, Nishiwaki Y, Osaki Y, Noda K, Yokoyama A, Saijo N, JCOG Lung Cancer Study Group, Tokyo, Japan: A phase-II trial of dose-dense chemotherapy in patients with disseminated thymoma: report of a Japan Clinical Oncology Group trial (JCOG 9605). Br J Cancer; 2009 Nov 3;101(9):1549-54
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  • [Title] A phase-II trial of dose-dense chemotherapy in patients with disseminated thymoma: report of a Japan Clinical Oncology Group trial (JCOG 9605).
  • BACKGROUND: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of dose-dense weekly chemotherapy in the treatment of advanced thymoma.
  • METHODS: Subjects comprised patients with histologically documented chemotherapy-naïve thymoma with stage-IVa or IVb disease.
  • Thymic carcinoma, carcinoid or lymphoma cases were excluded.
  • Patients received 9 weeks of chemotherapy: cisplatin (25 mg m(-2)) on weeks 1-9; vincristine (1 mg m(-2)) on weeks 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8; and doxorubicin (40 mg m(-2)) and etoposide (80 mg m(-2)) on days 1-3 of weeks 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9.
  • Chemotherapy courses were supported by granulocyte colony-stimulating factor.
  • Post-protocol local therapy was allowed.
  • RESULTS: From July 1997 to March 2004, 30 patients were entered.
  • Chemotherapy-associated toxicity was mainly haematological and was well tolerated, with no deaths due to toxicity, and 87% of patients completed the planned 9-week regimen.
  • Median progression-fee survival (PFS) was 0.79 years (95% confidence interval: 0.52-1.40 years), and PFS at 1 and 2 years was 37 and 15%, respectively.
  • Overall survival rates at 2 and 5 years were 89 and 65%, respectively.
  • CONCLUSION: In stage-IV thymoma patients, weekly dose-dense chemotherapy offers similar activity to conventional regimens.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Thymoma / drug therapy. Thymus Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Female. Humans. Japan. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 19809436.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-1827
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2778526
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32. Borri A, Leo F, Galetta D, Veronesi G, Solli P, Petrella F, Gasparri R, Scanagatta P, Spaggiari L: [Technique, results and impact of induction chemotherapy in sleeve lobectomy for lung cancer]. Minerva Chir; 2006 Aug;61(4):307-13
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  • [Title] [Technique, results and impact of induction chemotherapy in sleeve lobectomy for lung cancer].
  • [Transliterated title] Tecnica, risultati e ruolo della chemioterapia di induzione nella lobectomia con resezione/anastomosi bronchiale (sleeve).
  • AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety of continuous nonabsorbable (3/0 polypropylene) sutures for sleeve lobectomy, and the influence of induction chemotherapy on postoperative outcome in patients with lung malignancies.
  • METHODS: A review of a prospective database of a single surgeon identified 41 consecutive patients who underwent sleeve lobectomy from May 1998 to July 2003.
  • RESULTS: Twenty-four patients (59%) underwent induction chemotherapy.
  • Eight patients underwent reconstruction of the pulmonary artery.
  • There were 34 non-small cell lung cancers, 3 limited small cell lung cancers, 1 neuroendocrine large cell carcinoma, and 3 bronchial carcinoid tumors.
  • N2, N1, and N0 diseases were found in 13, 12 and 16 patients, respectively.
  • Post-operative morbidity and mortality were 14.5% (n=6) and 4.8% (n=2) (1 patient, 4%, after induction chemotherapy).
  • Late bronchial stenosis developed in 3 cases, but all were successfully medically treated.
  • Twenty-nine patients are still alive, 27 without evidence of disease.
  • Induction chemotherapy did not influence postoperative morbidity/mortality (chi2 test: P=0.64/P=0.56).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Continuous nonabsorbable suture for sleeve lobectomy is quick and technical easy to perform, with low postoperative morbidity/mortality; induction chemotherapy does not influence postoperative outcome in these patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Bronchi / surgery. Lung Neoplasms / surgery. Pneumonectomy / methods. Suture Techniques
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Anastomosis, Surgical. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Polypropylenes. Prospective Studies. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 17122763.001).
  • [ISSN] 0026-4733
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva chirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Chir
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Polypropylenes
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33. Di Luzio S, Rigolin VH: Carcinoid Heart Disease. Curr Treat Options Cardiovasc Med; 2000 Oct;2(5):399-406
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  • [Title] Carcinoid Heart Disease.
  • Carcinoid syndrome originates from metastatic carcinoid tumors localized in the gastrointestinal system, pancreas, biliary vessels, bronchi, ovaries, and testes; it is characterized by flushing, telangiectasias, diarrhea, bronchoconstriction, and fibrous endocardial plaques in the heart.
  • Cardiac involvement is detected by echocardiography in over 50% of patients with this syndrome.
  • Right-sided valvular heart disease occurs frequently in patients with carcinoid syndrome, involving most commonly the tricuspid and pulmonary valves.
  • Medical therapy for carcinoid heart disease includes digitalis and diuretics for congestive heart failure symptoms; the effects of carcinoid syndrome can be treated with the use of somatostatin analogues.
  • Conventional chemotherapy has been of little beneficial value, with response rates of only 10% to 30%.
  • The use of octreotide, a long-acting and potent somatostatin analogue, is a major advance in the management of carcinoid tumors.
  • In addition to providing effective symptom relief in malignant carcinoid syndrome, octreotide can also be used for diagnostic purposes.
  • Despite its expense, octreotide is the current agent of choice for the treatment of this condition.
  • Valve surgery is the only definitive treatment for intractable right-sided heart failure.
  • Balloon valvulotomy in patients with severe pulmonary artery stenosis often results in palliation of symptoms; however, surgery still is required often in these patients.

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  • (PMID = 11096544.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-8464
  • [Journal-full-title] Current treatment options in cardiovascular medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Treat Options Cardiovasc Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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34. Srirajaskanthan R, Toumpanakis C, Karpathakis A, Marelli L, Quigley AM, Dusmet M, Meyer T, Caplin ME: Surgical management and palliative treatment in bronchial neuroendocrine tumours: a clinical study of 45 patients. Lung Cancer; 2009 Jul;65(1):68-73
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  • [Title] Surgical management and palliative treatment in bronchial neuroendocrine tumours: a clinical study of 45 patients.
  • Bronchial neuroendocrine tumours account for 1-2% of all lung cancers; they are thought to arise from the neuroendocrine cells located in the bronchial mucosa.
  • The majority of the literature available comprises surgical series and there is a scarcity of data available for the management of patients with inoperable disease.
  • We present a series of 45 patients referred to our institution from 1998 to 2006, with a mean follow-up of 54 months.
  • Histological diagnosis from our department was available for 39 patients, with the remainder having had histological assessment performed previously.
  • Typical carcinoid was present in 25 cases, atypical in 9 cases, large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma in 4 and 1 case of small cell lung carcinoma.
  • All patients were staged at time of initial diagnosis with CT scan, in addition Octreoscans were performed when appropriate.
  • Twenty-six of these 45 cases had unresectable disease, whilst the remainder were treated with surgical resection.
  • Initial therapy with surgical resection was performed in 19 patients, 2 of whom had undergone neo-adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Recurrence occurred in 7 (36.8%), average duration of disease-free survival post-surgery was 61 months.
  • Chemotherapy was first line therapy in five cases, four achieved disease stabilization and one case had progressive disease.
  • Somatostatin analogues were used as first line therapy in six patients, for symptom control and anti-tumour effect.
  • Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy, with Yttrium-90 DOTA-Octreotate, was given in two cases, both of whom achieved disease stabilization for 9-12 months respectively.
  • There was a significant difference between Stage 4 and Stage 1 disease at presentation and survival.
  • In conclusion curative surgical resection is treatment of choice, however, chemotherapy, somatostatin analogues and peptide receptor radionuclide therapy offers palliation improving both symptoms and mortality.
  • [MeSH-major] Bronchial Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoid Tumor / therapy. Palliative Care / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Somatostatin / analogs & derivatives. Somatostatin / therapeutic use. Survival Rate. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19070398.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-8332
  • [Journal-full-title] Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lung Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin
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35. Tesei A, Ricotti L, De Paola F, Amadori D, Frassineti GL, Zoli W: In Vitro schedule-dependent interactions between the multitargeted antifolate LY231514 and gemcitabine in human colon adenocarcinoma cell lines. Clin Cancer Res; 2002 Jan;8(1):233-9
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  • PURPOSE: Multitargeted antifolate (MTA) and gemcitabine (GEM) have shown preclinical and clinical activity in tumor histotypes such as colon, renal, small and non-small cell lung cancers, hepatomas and carcinoid tumors.
  • RESULTS: A 48-h exposure to MTA caused a minimal and no-dose-response effect on the three cell lines used.
  • The type and degree of drug interactions were not paralleled by apoptosis, which was almost always negligible, or by the type and persistency of the cell cycle perturbations.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that the sequential administration of GEM --> MTA provides the greatest benefit in the clinical treatment of colon cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Colonic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Deoxycytidine / therapeutic use. Folic Acid Antagonists / therapeutic use. Glutamates / therapeutic use. Guanine / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Apoptosis / drug effects. DNA, Neoplasm / metabolism. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Administration Schedule. Drug Interactions. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Drug Therapy, Combination. Flow Cytometry. Humans. In Situ Nick-End Labeling. Pemetrexed. Thymidylate Synthase / metabolism. Tumor Cells, Cultured / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 11801564.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Folic Acid Antagonists; 0 / Glutamates; 04Q9AIZ7NO / Pemetrexed; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; 5Z93L87A1R / Guanine; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine; EC 2.1.1.45 / Thymidylate Synthase
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36. Daddi N, Ferolla P, Urbani M, Semeraro A, Avenia N, Ribacchi R, Puma F, Daddi G: Surgical treatment of neuroendocrine tumors of the lung. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg; 2004 Oct;26(4):813-7
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  • [Title] Surgical treatment of neuroendocrine tumors of the lung.
  • OBJECTIVE: This report reviews the pattern of neuroendocrine (NE) differentiation, lymph-node involvement, extension of surgery, and survival in 125 NE lung tumor patients.
  • NE differentiation was assessed based on the morphology and immunohistochemical reactivity for pan-neuroendocrine markers NSE, CGA, and Synaptophysin.
  • RESULTS: There were 79 typical carcinoid (TC), eight atypical carcinoid (AC), 18 large cell carcinoma (LCC) and 20 SCC patients.
  • Mean age at diagnosis was 54.6+/-15.2 (ranges from 16 to 77 years) for TC, 68.5+/-9.1 (range 53-81) for AC, 68.7+/-4.6 (range 58-77) for LCC, 64.6+/-7.9 (range 48-82) for SCC.
  • Male/female ratio was 1/1 for TC and AC, 2.6/1 for LCC and 9/1 for SCC.
  • Presenting symptoms were invariably of respiratory-related.
  • None had the carcinoid syndrome.
  • Survival ranged from a minimum of 1 month for SCC to a maximum of 168 months with no evidence of disease for TC.
  • Twenty-one percent (4/19) of the patients with SCC treated by induction therapy and surgery, and in few cases by surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy are alive without the evidence of the disease for 5 years.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Due to the high percentage of lymph-node involvement and multicentric forms found in our series lobectomy with radical lymph-node dissection appears, in our opinion, the most appropriate surgical treatment in well-differentiated forms, while more limited resection appears sub-optimal.
  • Also, due to the finding of recurrences many years after surgery, the follow-up must be accurate and protracted in this subgroup.
  • Only Small Cell Lung Carcinoma patients in clinical stage I and II underwent surgery with good long-term results.
  • [MeSH-major] Lung Neoplasms / surgery. Neuroendocrine Tumors / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / secondary. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Pneumonectomy / methods. Survival Analysis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15450578.001).
  • [ISSN] 1010-7940
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery : official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Cardiothorac Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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37. Basche M, Gustafson DL, Holden SN, O'Bryant CL, Gore L, Witta S, Schultz MK, Morrow M, Levin A, Creese BR, Kangas M, Roberts K, Nguyen T, Davis K, Addison RS, Moore JC, Eckhardt SG: A phase I biological and pharmacologic study of the heparanase inhibitor PI-88 in patients with advanced solid tumors. Clin Cancer Res; 2006 Sep 15;12(18):5471-80
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  • [Title] A phase I biological and pharmacologic study of the heparanase inhibitor PI-88 in patients with advanced solid tumors.
  • PURPOSE: PI-88 is a mixture of highly sulfated oligosaccharides that inhibits heparanase, an extracellular matrix endoglycosidase, and the binding of angiogenic growth factors to heparan sulfate.
  • This agent showed potent inhibition of placental blood vessel angiogenesis as well as growth inhibition in multiple xenograft models, thus forming the basis for this study.
  • RESULTS: Forty-two patients [median age, 53 years (range, 19-78 years); median performance status, 1] with a range of advanced solid tumors received a total of 232 courses.
  • Dose-limiting toxicity consisted of thrombocytopenia and pulmonary embolism.
  • Other toxicity was generally mild and included prolongation of the activated partial thromboplastin time and injection site echymosis.
  • Both AUC and C(max) correlated with the percent increase in activated partial thromboplastin time, showing that this pharmacodynamic end point can be used as a surrogate for drug exposure.
  • No association between PI-88 administration and vascular endothelial growth factor or basic fibroblast growth factor levels was observed.
  • One patient with melanoma had a partial response, which was maintained for >50 months, and 9 patients had stable disease for >or=6 months.
  • PI-88 was generally well tolerated.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Glucuronidase / antagonists & inhibitors. Neoplasms / drug therapy. Oligosaccharides / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antibody Formation / drug effects. Carcinoid Tumor / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / drug therapy. Colorectal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Female. Fibroblast Growth Factors / blood. Humans. Leiomyosarcoma / drug therapy. Male. Maximum Tolerated Dose. Melanoma / drug therapy. Middle Aged. Partial Thromboplastin Time. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / blood


38. Ducreux M, Baudin E, Schlumberger M: [Treatment strategy of neuroendocrine tumors]. Rev Prat; 2002 Feb 1;52(3):290-6
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  • [Title] [Treatment strategy of neuroendocrine tumors].
  • [Transliterated title] Stratégie de traitement des tumeurs neuro-endocrines.
  • Therapeutic strategy of neuroendocrine tumours is complex, due to their heterogeneity and to the fact that although generally slow growing, a significant proportion demonstrates aggressive tumour growth.
  • Symptomatic carcinoid syndrome and various pancreatic endocrine tumours with symptomatic syndromes are well controlled with somatostatin analogues.
  • Surgery remains the mainstay of treatment if the tumour can be resected.
  • Metastatic pancreatic neuroendocrine tumour are treated when resection is not feasible with combination chemotherapy using adriamycin and streptozotocin, which remains a standard of care.
  • In well differentiated tumour of the gut or the lung there is no clear standard of chemotherapy and treatment vary according to the tumour course.
  • In indolent cases, somatostatin analogues are the best treatment, in case of aggressive tumours chemoembolisation should be preferred when the disease is located or predominant in the liver.
  • Poorly differentiated tumours are treated by combination chemotherapy with etoposide and cisplatin, and surgery has no indication.
  • Gastrinoma and other pancreatic tumours arising in the context of multiple endocrine neoplasia type I disease need a specific therapeutic strategy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Growth Hormone / therapeutic use. Hormones / therapeutic use. Neuroendocrine Tumors / drug therapy. Pancreatic Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Chemoembolization, Therapeutic. Doxorubicin / therapeutic use. Gastrinoma / drug therapy. Humans. Malignant Carcinoid Syndrome / drug therapy. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia. Neoplasm Metastasis. Streptozocin / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 11925720.001).
  • [ISSN] 0035-2640
  • [Journal-full-title] La Revue du praticien
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Prat
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 0 / Hormones; 5W494URQ81 / Streptozocin; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 9002-72-6 / Growth Hormone
  • [Number-of-references] 23
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39. Kawase A, Nagai K: [Treatment strategy for neuroendocrine carcinoma of the lung]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2009 Oct;36(10):1619-22
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  • [Title] [Treatment strategy for neuroendocrine carcinoma of the lung].
  • Neuroendocrine carcinoma of the lung is classified into typical carcinoid (TC), atypical carcinoid (ATC), large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) and small cell carcinoma (SCLC).
  • The standard treatment of carcinoid tumor is surgical resection.
  • There is no standard therapy for LCNEC.
  • Generally, the treatment of LCNEC is surgical resection and postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy in stage I and II, concurrent chemo-radiotherapy in stage III, and combination chemotherapy in stage IV.
  • The treatment of SCLC is mainly combination chemotherapy.
  • Standard therapy of SCLC is concurrent chemo-radiotherapy in limited disease and combination chemotherapy in extensive disease.
  • Combination chemotherapy with cisplatin and etoposide is administered for limited disease, and cisplatin and irinotecan is administered for extensive disease.
  • Adjuvant chemotherapy is needed postoperatively.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 19838019.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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40. Gustafsson BI, Hauso O, Drozdov I, Kidd M, Modlin IM: Carcinoid heart disease. Int J Cardiol; 2008 Oct 13;129(3):318-24
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  • [Title] Carcinoid heart disease.
  • The carcinoid syndrome is usually evident when enterochromaffin (EC) cell-derived neuroendocrine tumors (carcinoids) metastasize to the liver.
  • In addition to carcinoid symptomatology, about 40% of patients exhibit carcinoid heart disease (CHD) with fibrotic endocardial plaques and associated heart valve dysfunction.
  • The mechanism behind CHD development is not fully understood, but serotonin (5-HT) is considered to be a major initiator of the fibrotic process.
  • Most patients present with right-sided heart valve dysfunction since pulmonary and tricuspid valves lesions are the most common (>95%) cardiac pathology.
  • Pathognomonic echocardiograpic features include immobility of valve leaflets and thickening and retraction of the cusps most commonly resulting in tricuspid valve regurgitation and pulmonary stenosis.
  • Therapeutic options include cardioactive pharmacotherapy for heart failure and, in selected individuals, cardiac valve replacement.
  • Previously valve replacement was reserved for advanced disease due to a perioperative mortality of >20% however in the last decade, technical advances as well as an earlier diagnosis have decreased surgical mortality to <10% and valve replacements are undertaken more frequently.
  • Although the improved prognosis might also reflect the increased use of surgical cytoreduction, hepatic metastatic ablative therapies and somatostatin analogs a robust correlation between diminution of circulating tumor products and an increased long-term survival in CHD has not been rigorously demonstrated.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Heart Disease / metabolism. Carcinoid Heart Disease / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Heart Valve Prosthesis Implantation / utilization. Heart Valves / pathology. Heart Valves / surgery. Humans. Serotonin / biosynthesis. Somatostatin / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 18571250.001).
  • [ISSN] 1874-1754
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cardiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cardiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 333DO1RDJY / Serotonin; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin
  • [Number-of-references] 65
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41. Kim EK, Jang GD, Suh CW, Kim SW, Lee SD, Kim WS, Lee JS, Lee HJ, Lee IC: Clinical Features of Neuroendocrine Lung Cancer. Cancer Res Treat; 2001 Dec;33(6):474-7
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  • [Title] Clinical Features of Neuroendocrine Lung Cancer.
  • PURPOSE: This study was performed to investigate the clinical features of neuroendocrine lung cancer.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of the histopathology and clinical information of 21 patients diagnosed as having neuroendocrine lung cancer between 1995 and 1999.
  • RESULTS: Nineteen cases were male and 2 were female.
  • Pathologic classification were atypical carcinoid (AC) in 2 cases, large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) in 7 cases, and intermediate cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (ICNC) in 12 cases.
  • Nine patients received tumor resection as first line therapy; adjuvant chemotherapy was given to 3 patients.
  • Six patients received palliative chemotherapy.
  • The chemotherapy regimen included etoposide cisplatin in 5 cases and vinorelbine+cisplatin in 1 case.
  • The median survival times were 11, 16 and 59 weeks for AC, LCNEC and ICNC, respectively.

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  • (PMID = 26680825.001).
  • [ISSN] 1598-2998
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research and treatment : official journal of Korean Cancer Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res Treat
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Neuroendocrine lung neoplasm
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42. Fjällskog ML, Granberg DP, Welin SL, Eriksson C, Oberg KE, Janson ET, Eriksson BK: Treatment with cisplatin and etoposide in patients with neuroendocrine tumors. Cancer; 2001 Sep 1;92(5):1101-7
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  • [Title] Treatment with cisplatin and etoposide in patients with neuroendocrine tumors.
  • BACKGROUND: Patients with malignant endocrine pancreatic tumors (EPTs) are responsive to combinations of chemotherapy with streptozotocin and 5-fluorouracil/doxorubicin, whereas patients with malignant carcinoids are not.
  • For both categories of patients, alpha-interferon and/or somatostatin analogs can produce long-lasting responses.
  • Cisplatin in combination with etoposide has been suggested to be effective in patients with malignant neuroendocrine carcinomas.
  • The authors used this therapy as second-line or third-line treatment in patients with poorly differentiated and/or rapidly progressing disease.
  • METHODS: Thirty-six patients with histopathologically verified malignant neuroendocrine tumors were included: Eighteen tumors were of foregut origin, of which 5 were atypical, and 15 tumors were EPTs, of which 4 were poorly differentiated endocrine carcinomas.
  • Three tumors were of midgut origin.
  • The median duration of disease from the time of diagnosis was 12 months.
  • All patients had metastatic disease.
  • Thirty of 36 patients had received previous treatment.
  • Etoposide was given at a dose of 100 mg/m(2) per day for 3 days, and cisplatin was given at a dose of 45 mg/m(2) on Days 2 and 3 as a continuous intravenous infusion that was repeated every 4 weeks.
  • RESULTS: Ten of 18 patients with foregut carcinoids (56%) responded radiologically and/or biochemically, with a median duration of 9 months; and 7 of 14 patients with EPTs (50%) responded radiologically and/or biochemically, with a median duration of 9 months.
  • No difference in response was seen between patients with atypical or typical foregut carcinoids or between patients with well differentiated or poorly differentiated endocrine pancreatic carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The combination of cisplatin and etoposide can produce significant responses in patients with heavily pretreated and poorly differentiated/rapidly progressing neuroendocrine tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Abdominal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers / analysis. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Survival Analysis

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2001 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 11571721.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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43. Blonski WC, Reddy KR, Shaked A, Siegelman E, Metz DC: Liver transplantation for metastatic neuroendocrine tumor: a case report and review of the literature. World J Gastroenterol; 2005 Dec 28;11(48):7676-83
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  • [Title] Liver transplantation for metastatic neuroendocrine tumor: a case report and review of the literature.
  • Neuroendocrine tumors are divided into gastrointestinal carcinoids and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors.
  • The WHO has updated the classification of these lesions and has abandoned the term "carcinoid".
  • Both types of tumors are divided into functional and non-functional tumors.
  • They are characterized by slow growth and frequent metastasis to the liver and may be limited to the liver for long periods.
  • The therapeutic approach to hepatic metastases should consider the number and distribution of the liver metastases as well as the severity of symptoms related to hormone production and tumor bulk.
  • Surgery is generally considered as the first line therapy.
  • In patients with unresectable liver metastases, alternative treatments are dependent on the type and the growth rate.
  • Initial treatments consist of long acting somatostatin analogs and/or interferon.
  • Streptozocin-based chemotherapy is usually reserved for symptomatic patients with rapidly advancing disease, but generally the therapy is poorly tolerated and its effects are short-lived.
  • Locoregional therapy directed such as hepatic-artery embolization and chemoembolization, radiofrequency thermal ablation and cryosurgery, is often used instead of systemic therapy, if the disease is limited to the liver.
  • However, liver transplantation should be considered in patients with neuroendocrine metastases to the liver that are not accessible to curative or cytoreductive surgery and if medical or locoregional treatment has failed and if there are life threatening hormonal symptoms.
  • We report a case of liver transplantation for metastatic neuroendocrine tumor of unknown primary source and provide a detailed review of the world literature on this controversial topic.
  • [MeSH-major] Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / surgery. Liver Transplantation. Neuroendocrine Tumors / secondary. Neuroendocrine Tumors / surgery


44. Biermasz NR, Smit JW, Pereira AM, Frölich M, Romijn JA, Roelfsema F: Acromegaly caused by growth hormone-releasing hormone-producing tumors: long-term observational studies in three patients. Pituitary; 2007;10(3):237-49
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  • [Title] Acromegaly caused by growth hormone-releasing hormone-producing tumors: long-term observational studies in three patients.
  • We report on three newly diagnosed patients with extracranial ectopic GHRH-associated acromegaly with long-term follow-up after surgery of the primary tumor.
  • One patient with a pancreatic tumor and two parathyroid adenomas was the index case of a large kindred of MEN-I syndrome.
  • The other two patients had a large bronchial carcinoid.
  • In the two other patients GHRH did not normalize completely after surgery and they are now treated with slow-release octreotide.
  • During medical treatment basal GH secretion remained (slightly) elevated and secretory regularity was decreased in 24 h blood sampling studies.
  • We did not observe development of tachyphylaxis towards the drug or radiological evidence of (growing) metastases.
  • We propose life-long suppressive therapy with somatostatin analogs in cases with persisting elevated serum GHRH concentrations after removal of the primary tumor.
  • Independent parameters of residual disease are elevated basal (nonpulsatile) GH secretion and decreased GH secretory regularity.
  • [MeSH-major] Acromegaly / etiology. Adenoma / secretion. Carcinoid Tumor / secretion. Human Growth Hormone / secretion. Lung Neoplasms / secretion. Pancreatic Neoplasms / secretion. Paraneoplastic Endocrine Syndromes / metabolism. Parathyroid Neoplasms / secretion
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Entropy. Female. Hormones / blood. Humans. Longitudinal Studies. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Octreotide. Pituitary Gland / pathology. Positron-Emission Tomography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17541749.001).
  • [ISSN] 1386-341X
  • [Journal-full-title] Pituitary
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pituitary
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hormones; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2045692
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45. Hamaguchi T, Doi T, Eguchi-Nakajima T, Kato K, Yamada Y, Shimada Y, Fuse N, Ohtsu A, Matsumoto S, Takanashi M, Matsumura Y: Phase I study of NK012, a novel SN-38-incorporating micellar nanoparticle, in adult patients with solid tumors. Clin Cancer Res; 2010 Oct 15;16(20):5058-66
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  • [Title] Phase I study of NK012, a novel SN-38-incorporating micellar nanoparticle, in adult patients with solid tumors.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Patients with solid tumors refractory to standard therapy, or for which no standard therapy is available, were enrolled.
  • NK012 was administered as a 30-minute infusion every 3 weeks.
  • Pharmacokinetic analysis was conducted in cycles 1 and 2.
  • RESULTS: Twenty-four patients were enrolled in the study.
  • No UGT1A1*28 homozygous patients were enrolled.
  • Nonhematologic toxicity, especially diarrhea, was mostly grade 1 or 2 during study treatments.
  • Two of nine patients had DLT during cycle 1 at the 28 mg/m(2) dose level.
  • DLTs were mostly neutropenia or a related event.
  • Polymer-bound SN-38 (NK012) and SN-38 released from NK012 were slowly eliminated from the plasma, with a terminal-phase half-life of approximately 140 and 210 hours, respectively.
  • A refractory esophageal cancer patient and a lung carcinoid tumor patient had an objective response and continued the study treatment for 5 and 12 months, respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: NK012 was well tolerated and showed antitumor activity including partial responses and several occurrences of prolonged stable disease across a variety of advanced refractory cancers.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / adverse effects. Camptothecin / analogs & derivatives. Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Nanoparticles / administration & dosage

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  • [Copyright] ©2010 AACR.
  • (PMID = 20943763.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 7673326042 / irinotecan; XT3Z54Z28A / Camptothecin
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46. Díaz ML, Villanueva A, Bastarrika G, Zudaire B, del Barrio LG, Noguera JJ: Non-electrocardiogram-gated multidetector-row computed tomography findings of cardiac pathology in oncologic patients. Curr Probl Diagn Radiol; 2009 Sep-Oct;38(5):206-17
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  • [Title] Non-electrocardiogram-gated multidetector-row computed tomography findings of cardiac pathology in oncologic patients.
  • Multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT) plays an essential role in oncologic imaging as the modality of mapping out the treatment strategy at staging, assessing response to the treatment, and following up patient outcome after the treatment.
  • In the group of oncologic patients, different tumoral and non-tumoral-related heart disorders can be found, for example, metastatic cardiac involvement (approximately 10% of patients with lung or breast cancer will develop metastases to the heart), paraneoplastic cardiac disorders, non-tumor-related heart disorders, and chemotherapy- and radiotherapy-related cardiac side effects.
  • MDCT plays a role in the detection of these entities.
  • We show the non-electrocardiogram-gated MDCT findings of oncology-related cardiac disorders to encourage radiologists to recognize and report cardiac findings in oncologic patients.
  • Appropriate knowledge of tumoral and non-tumoral-related MDCT features allows a complete evaluation of oncologic patients with ancillary cardiac findings.
  • An adequate knowledge of the patient's medical history, previous treatments, and concomitant illnesses is essential to interpret heart findings in oncologic patients who undergo MDCT.
  • [MeSH-major] Heart Diseases / complications. Heart Diseases / radiography. Heart Neoplasms / radiography. Heart Neoplasms / secondary. Neoplasms / pathology. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoid Heart Disease / radiography. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / radiography. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Melanoma / radiography. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Pericardial Effusion / etiology. Pericardial Effusion / radiography. Pericardium. Prostatic Neoplasms / complications. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 19632498.001).
  • [ISSN] 1535-6302
  • [Journal-full-title] Current problems in diagnostic radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Probl Diagn Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 22
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47. Hatta R, Nambu Y, Suzuki S, Tachi Y, Oikawa T, Nakagawa K, Tuchihara K, Tobe T, Osanai K, Toga H, Takahashi K, Ohya N: [A case of atypical pulmonary carcinoid accompanying skin metastasis]. Nihon Kokyuki Gakkai Zasshi; 2004 Apr;42(4):357-61
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  • [Title] [A case of atypical pulmonary carcinoid accompanying skin metastasis].
  • A 73-year-old woman underwent cranial surgery in 1999 after receiving a diagnosis of suspected malignant meningioma.
  • She began complaining of headache 2 years postoperatively, and around the same time, she noticed a painful skin tumor.
  • The skin tumor was diagnosed by skin biopsy as an atypical metastatic carcinoid tumor.
  • Systemic examination demonstrated a primary lesion in the left lung.
  • Pulmonary, skin and bone biopsy samples exhibited the same pathological findings as those of the atypical pulmonary carcinoid tumor.
  • She did not show any carcinoid symptoms.
  • EP therapy (etoposide + carboplatin) and CAV therapy (cyclophosphamide + doxorubicin + vincristin) were administered, but there was no clinical response.
  • The patient is currently doing well without chemotherapy and is being followed by the Outpatient Department.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 15114855.001).
  • [ISSN] 1343-3490
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Kokyūki Gakkai zasshi = the journal of the Japanese Respiratory Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nihon Kokyuki Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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48. Kosmidis PA: Treatment of carcinoid of the lung. Curr Opin Oncol; 2004 Mar;16(2):146-9
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  • [Title] Treatment of carcinoid of the lung.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Pulmonary carcinoids are rare neuroendocrine malignancies that comprise 2% of primary lung tumors.
  • During the last few years, important information has appeared in the literature in relation to the histopathology, molecular biology, biologic behavior, and treatment of these tumors.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: Histologic subclassification of carcinoid tumors into atypical and typical is of paramount importance.
  • Genetic changes in these subclasses are now well-known and are helpful for the differentiation.
  • The biologic behavior of typical and atypical carcinoids is completely different, and treatment planning is based on this information.
  • Surgery is the treatment of choice for localized carcinoid tumors and includes lymphadenectomy.
  • In metastatic disease, chemotherapy with a cisplatin-based or streptozotocin-based combination is moderately effective.
  • Palliation with biotherapy including interferon, somatostatin analogs, and octreotide is encouraging.
  • SUMMARY: Pulmonary carcinoids are rare tumors, and our understanding of their histopathology and biologic behavior are the most important factors for treatment planning.
  • Surgery is the treatment of choice for cure.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Carcinoid Tumor / therapy. Lung Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemotherapy, Adjuvant / methods. Humans. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 15075907.001).
  • [ISSN] 1040-8746
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 34
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49. Zhao J, Wang MZ, Li LY, Zhang L, Zhong W: [Clinical features of pulmonary malignancies in patients younger than 30 years of age]. Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao; 2010 Apr;32(2):174-8
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  • [Title] [Clinical features of pulmonary malignancies in patients younger than 30 years of age].
  • OBJECTIVE: To analyse the clinical features of young patients with pulmonary malignancies.
  • METHOD: The clinical data of 58 young (< 30 years) patients with pulmonary malignancies who were treated in our hospital were retrospectively analyzed.
  • RESULTS: Out of these 58 patients, adenocarcinoma was most common (n=23, 39.66%).
  • Accompanied tumors were seen in two patients.
  • Histories of smoking were noted in 10 patients (17.24%), and all of them were patients with epithelial tumor patients.
  • Four patients had family history of tumors.
  • The mean time from the onset of disease to confirmed diagnosis was (5.98+/-8.95) months.
  • The initial misdiagnosis rate was 37.9% (n=23), with pulmonary tuberculosis as the most common misdiagnosis.
  • The proportions of advanced-stage patients (stage III B and IV) and moderate to poor-differentiated tumor accounted for 59.26% (16/27) and 77.8% (14/18), respectively in 27 patients with non-small cell lung cancer.
  • The proportion of tumors in limited stage was 72.73% in 11 patients with small cell lung cancer, and most patients (54.55) were not sensitive to conventional chemotherapy.
  • In 6 patients with carcinoid, 4 patients were central and the other 2 patients were peripheral, and all of them presented as Cushing syndrome; CgA, AE1/AE3, Syn, and NSE were positive in immunohistochemical staining; and surgical operation was the main treatment for them.
  • In 6 patients with carcinomas of salivary gland type, all cases were central; no lymph nodes metastasis was found in the postoperative specimen; and surgical operation was also the main treatment for these patients.
  • In 3 patients with primitive neuroectodermal tumors, the tumors were highly malignant and invasive, and the development of primitive neuroectodermal tumors was closely related with pleura.
  • Immunohistochemical staining showed that the tumor cells were positive for CD99.
  • Multiple nodules in bilateral lungs were presented in 2 patients with anaplastic large cell lymphomas, in which CD30 was positive in tumor cells; chemotherapy was the main therapy for these two patients.
  • In one patient with synovial sarcoma, the tumor was giant and highly malignant and invasive; it was divided into many cavities filled with bloody fluid and white cheese-like substances; immunohistochemical analysis showed positive vimentin and AE1/AE3.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The pulmonary malignancies in young patients tend to be complicated.
  • The treatment strategy should be based on the specific conditions of each patient.
  • [MeSH-major] Lung Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 20450548.001).
  • [ISSN] 1000-503X
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhongguo yi xue ke xue yuan xue bao. Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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50. Talton CC, Hopkins JO, Walley BD, Kincaid EH: Metastatic thymic carcinoid: a case report. Am Surg; 2005 Jul;71(7):578-80
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  • [Title] Metastatic thymic carcinoid: a case report.
  • Thymic neuroendocrine carcinomas (carcinoid) are rare tumors.
  • They have malignant potential, the capacity for distant metastasis, and often present with associated endocrinopathies.
  • This report describes a patient who was diagnosed with thymic carcinoid and Cushing syndrome at age 19 that, despite complete surgical excision of his tumor, developed local recurrence with distant metastases to his brain, lungs, and bone.
  • We discuss the evolution of this patient's illness as well as the therapies used in his care.
  • Due to the nature of these tumors to recur both locally and distant, the importance of aggressive surgical management is emphasized.
  • We also discuss the role of adjuvant therapy, which in our case consisted of chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and several new therapies including an antiangiogenesis agent and a tyrosine kinase inhibitor.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / secondary. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Palliative Care / methods. Thymus Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biopsy, Needle. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Bone Neoplasms / therapy. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Disease Progression. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / therapy. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Thymectomy / methods

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  • (PMID = 16089122.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-1348
  • [Journal-full-title] The American surgeon
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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51. Koletsis EN, Prokakis C, Karanikolas M, Apostolakis E, Dougenis D: Current role of surgery in small cell lung carcinoma. J Cardiothorac Surg; 2009;4:30
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  • [Title] Current role of surgery in small cell lung carcinoma.
  • Small cell lung carcinoma represents 15-20% of lung cancer.
  • Is is characterized by rapid growth and early disseminated disease with poor outcome.
  • For many years surgery was considered a contraindication in Small Cell Lung Cancer (SCLC) since radiotherapy and chemoradiotherapy were found to be more efficient in the management of these patients.
  • Never the less some surgeons continue to be in favor of surgery as part of a combined modality treatment in patients with SCLC.
  • The reevaluation of the role of surgery in this group of patients is based on clinical data indicating a much better prognosis in selected patients with limited disease (T1-2, N0, M0), the high rate of local recurrence after chemoradiotherapy with surgery considered eventually more efficient in the local control of the disease and the fact that surgery is the most accurate tool to access the response to chemotherapy, identify carcinoids misdiagnosed as SCLC and treat the Non Small Cell Lung Cancer component of mixed tumors.
  • Performing surgery for local disease SCLC requires a complete preoperative assessment to exclude the presence of nodal involvement.
  • In stage I surgery must always be followed by adjuvant chemotherapy, while in stage II and III surgery must be planned only in the context of clinical trials and after a pathologic response to induction chemoradiotherapy has been confirmed.
  • [MeSH-major] Lung Neoplasms / surgery. Small Cell Lung Carcinoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Evidence-Based Medicine. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Patient Selection. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19589150.001).
  • [ISSN] 1749-8090
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cardiothoracic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Cardiothorac Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 31
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2716318
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52. Carretta A, Ceresoli GL, Arrigoni G, Canneto B, Reni M, Cigala C, Zannini P: Diagnostic and therapeutic management of neuroendocrine lung tumors: a clinical study of 44 cases. Lung Cancer; 2000 Sep;29(3):217-25
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  • [Title] Diagnostic and therapeutic management of neuroendocrine lung tumors: a clinical study of 44 cases.
  • Neuroendocrine tumors of the lung (NTL) are a distinct subset of tumors with a wide range of histological patterns and clinical behavior.
  • Controversy still exists as to the ideal diagnostic and therapeutic approach to these neoplasms.
  • A series of 44 consecutive NTL patients operated on at our Institution was retrospectively reviewed in order to critically analyze the diagnostic and therapeutic management.
  • A preoperative diagnosis was obtained in 11 patients (25%).
  • Pathological diagnosis was typical carcinoid (TC) tumor in 36 cases, atypical carcinoid (AC) in three and large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) in five.
  • One patient had preoperative chemotherapy.
  • Median follow-up time was 40 months for TC and 51.5 months for AC/LCNEC.
  • Recurrence of disease was observed in three patients with TC and in two with AC/LCNEC.
  • Survival was not influenced by tumor size, while lymph node metastases were associated with a worse prognosis.
  • In conclusion, our study confirms findings in the literature showing that TC and AC/LCNEC are clinically different, and that a differential preoperative diagnosis and treatment is necessary.
  • Although the results of new diagnostic techniques such as octreotide scintigraphy are encouraging, they need to be validated in a larger number of patients.
  • Surgery, with anatomical resection and lymphoadenectomy, remains the treatment of choice in all these tumors.
  • Laser treatment should be considered only as a palliative procedure or as a complementary technique to surgery.
  • The role of adjuvant treatments in AC and LCNEC is uncertain and should be evaluated in larger trials.
  • The prognostic role of biological factors such as cytometry and genetic markers requires further investigation before any definitive conclusions can be drawn.
  • [MeSH-major] Lung Neoplasms / surgery. Neuroendocrine Tumors / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 10996424.001).
  • [ISSN] 0169-5002
  • [Journal-full-title] Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lung Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] IRELAND
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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53. Isaka T, Maruno M, Suzuki T, Sato M, Yoshimine T: Skull metastases from atypical pulmonary carcinoid tumor in a 19-year-old man. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo); 2006 Dec;46(12):609-13
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  • [Title] Skull metastases from atypical pulmonary carcinoid tumor in a 19-year-old man.
  • A 19-year-old man presented with a rare skull metastasis from atypical pulmonary carcinoid tumor (APCT) manifesting as headache, diplopia, and cough.
  • Head magnetic resonance imaging showed a skull base tumor extending from the posterior clinoid process to the clivus, and calvarial tumors in the right temporal and occipital bones.
  • Chest and abdominal computed tomography showed a round tumor, 4 cm in diameter, in the lower lobe of the right lung and multiple small tumors in the liver.
  • Surgery for the calvarial tumor in the right temporal bone was performed on June 27, 2003.
  • The histological diagnosis was skull metastasis of neuroendocrine tumor.
  • Partial resection of the right lower lobe was performed for the lung tumor on August 22, 2003.
  • The histological diagnosis was atypical carcinoid tumor.
  • Subsequent adjuvant systematic chemotherapy was performed.
  • The patient died of progression of the tumors in the lung and liver on April 19, 2004.
  • We must consider APCT in the differential diagnosis of pulmonary tumors in adolescents, and perform follow-up observation or treatment, including surgery, if APCT is suspected.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Skull Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 17185889.001).
  • [ISSN] 0470-8105
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurologia medico-chirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol. Med. Chir. (Tokyo)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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54. Arnold R, Wied M, Behr TH: Somatostatin analogues in the treatment of endocrine tumors of the gastrointestinal tract. Expert Opin Pharmacother; 2002 Jun;3(6):643-56
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  • [Title] Somatostatin analogues in the treatment of endocrine tumors of the gastrointestinal tract.
  • Somatostatin and its long-acting analogues have been introduced for the treatment of endocrine tumours of the gastrointestinal tract as they have been shown to effectively control symptoms resulting from excessive hormone release in patients with carcinoid, Verner-Morrison and glucagonoma syndromes.
  • This beneficial effect is due to the presence of somatostatin receptors in high densities on the majority of endocrine tumours.
  • The symptomatic effect is less pronounced in insulinomas, since 30 - 50% of these tumours lack or express only a few somatostatin receptors.
  • With respect to symptomatic control, somatostatin receptor subtypes 2 and 5 are the most important and the currently available long-acting analogues octreotide and lanreotide bind preferentially to these receptor subtypes.
  • Long-term studies have shown that somatostatin analogues are safe and that the most important adverse advent is the development of gallstones.
  • The antiproliferative potency of somatostatin and its analogues in vitro and in experimental tumour models prompted a number of studies in patients with metastatic endocrine tumours that are generally unresponsive to conventional chemotherapeutic protocols.
  • Stabilisation of tumour growth lasting for months to a few years was the most favourable result, occurring in 30 - 70% of patients.
  • However, definite proof of antiproliferative potency in man is still pending since placebo-controlled studies are not available.
  • Radioligand therapy based on 111Indium, 90Yttrium and 177Lutetium coupled to somatostatin analogues via bifunctional chelators is currently under investigation with promising data concerning long-lasting control of symptoms and tumour growth from Phase I trials.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial / drug therapy. Somatostatin / analogs & derivatives. Somatostatin / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Clinical Trials as Topic. Drug Therapy, Combination. Humans. Interferon-alpha / therapeutic use. Octreotide / therapeutic use. Peptides, Cyclic / therapeutic use. Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Receptors, Somatostatin / drug effects

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  • [ErratumIn] Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2002 Jul;3(7):1029
  • (PMID = 12472080.001).
  • [ISSN] 1465-6566
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Opin Pharmacother
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Interferon-alpha; 0 / Peptides, Cyclic; 0 / Radioisotopes; 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; 118992-92-0 / lanreotide; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
  • [Number-of-references] 134
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55. Pitt SC, Chen H, Kunnimalaiyaan M: Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt signaling in pulmonary carcinoid cells. J Am Coll Surg; 2009 Jul;209(1):82-8
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  • [Title] Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt signaling in pulmonary carcinoid cells.
  • BACKGROUND: In several types of cancer, upregulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt signaling facilitates tumor cell growth and inhibits apoptosis.
  • Previous reports demonstrated that this pathway promotes growth, survival, and chemotherapy resistance in non-small cell and small cell lung cancer cells.
  • But the importance of PI3K-Akt signaling has not been explored in pulmonary carcinoids.
  • In this study, our objective was to establish the role of the PI3K-Akt signal transduction pathway in pulmonary carcinoid cells.
  • STUDY DESIGN: Human pulmonary carcinoid NCI-H727 cells were treated with LY294002 (0 to 100 microM), a well-known PI3K inhibitor, or transfected with Akt1 small interfering RNA (75 nM).
  • Western blot analysis was performed for expression of active, phosphorylated Akt (pAkt), total Akt, Akt1, and the neuroendocrine markers chromogranin A and achaete-scute complex-like1.
  • RESULTS: Treatment of NCI-H727 cells with LY294002 significantly reduced tumor cell growth (85.3%).
  • Similarly, Akt1 small interfering RNA transfection led to diminished tumor cell proliferation (31.3%).
  • A dose-dependent decrease in chromogranin A and achaete-scute complex-like1 production was observed with both PI3K inhibition and Akt1 RNA interference.
  • Expression of Akt1 was reduced at all time points by transient Akt1 small interfering RNA transfection.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The PI3K-Akt pathway plays a role in both tumor cell growth and neuroendocrine hormone secretion in human pulmonary carcinoid cells.
  • Inhibition of Akt1, PI3K-Akt signaling, or a downstream mediator of this pathway may provide therapeutic approaches for patients with pulmonary carcinoid tumors.

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  • [Cites] Cancer Res. 2001 May 15;61(10):3986-97 [11358816.001]
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  • (PMID = 19651067.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-1190
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American College of Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Coll. Surg.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32 CA009614-22; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA117117-01A2; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA109053-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA117117-02; None / None / / T32 CA009614-19; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA109053-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA109053-05; None / None / / T32 CA009614-21; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA109053-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA109053-01A2; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32 CA009614-19; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA109053; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA117117-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA117117-01A2; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA109053-04; None / None / / T32 CA009614-22; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32 CA009614-20; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32 CA009614; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA109053-01A2; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA109053-02; None / None / / T32 CA009614-20; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA109053-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA117117; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA109053-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32 CA009614-21
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chromones; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Morpholines; 154447-36-6 / 2-(4-morpholinyl)-8-phenyl-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one; EC 2.7.1.- / Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS220145; NLM/ PMC2910111
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56. Woltering EA, Mamikunian PM, Zietz S, Krutzik SR, Go VL, Vinik AI, Vinik E, O'Dorisio TM, Mamikunian G: Effect of octreotide LAR dose and weight on octreotide blood levels in patients with neuroendocrine tumors. Pancreas; 2005 Nov;31(4):392-400
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  • [Title] Effect of octreotide LAR dose and weight on octreotide blood levels in patients with neuroendocrine tumors.
  • OBJECTIVES: Octreotide long acting repeatable (LAR) is widely used for the control of symptoms of functional neuroendocrine tumors.
  • Octreotide blood level measurement may be useful to guide LAR therapy in symptomatic patients or in patients who have tumor growth on traditional LAR doses.
  • At identical monthly LAR doses, patients with higher weights will require more medication to achieve similar plasma octreotide levels than individuals with lower body weights.
  • METHODS: Trough plasma, serum, urine, and saliva octreotide levels were obtained from 52 patients with carcinoid syndrome receiving 20 (n = 8), 30 (n = 19), or 60 mg LAR/mo (n = 10).
  • RESULTS: The mean +/- SD plasma octreotide levels for patients receiving 20, 30, or 60 mg LAR/mo were 2518 +/- 1020, 5241 +/- 3004, and 10,925 +/- 5330 pg/mL, respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Frequent measurement of octreotide levels may be useful to guide octreotide therapy in patients with poorly controlled symptoms or those patients experiencing tumor growth.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / administration & dosage. Body Weight. Neuroendocrine Tumors / drug therapy. Octreotide / administration & dosage. Octreotide / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Receptors, Somatostatin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16258376.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-4828
  • [Journal-full-title] Pancreas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pancreas
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; 0 / somatostatin receptor 2; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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57. Basaria S, McCarthy EF, Belzberg AJ, Ball DW: Case of an ivory vertebra. J Endocrinol Invest; 2000 Sep;23(8):533-5
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  • The differential diagnosis of an osteoblastic vertebral lesion (ivory vertebra) includes metastatic prostate cancer, lung cancer, lymphoma, osteosarcoma and Paget's disease.
  • We report a case of a man who was initially diagnosed with Paget's disease on vertebral biopsy.
  • He failed to respond to conventional bisphosphate therapy.
  • The review of the original biopsy specimen showed metastatic carcinoid tumor involving the bone marrow.
  • The various features of carcinoid tumors metastasizing to the skeleton are briefly reviewed.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis. Spinal Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Alendronate / therapeutic use. Alkaline Phosphatase / blood. Biopsy. Bone Marrow / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Diphosphonates / therapeutic use. Humans. Lumbar Vertebrae. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Osteitis Deformans / drug therapy. Osteoblasts / pathology. Technetium. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • [Cites] Radiology. 1973 May;107(2):327-30 [4695897.001]
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  • (PMID = 11021770.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-4097
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Diphosphonates; 7440-26-8 / Technetium; EC 3.1.3.1 / Alkaline Phosphatase; OYY3447OMC / pamidronate; X1J18R4W8P / Alendronate
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58. Gilbert JA, Frederick LM, Ames MM: The aromatic-L-amino acid decarboxylase inhibitor carbidopa is selectively cytotoxic to human pulmonary carcinoid and small cell lung carcinoma cells. Clin Cancer Res; 2000 Nov;6(11):4365-72
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  • [Title] The aromatic-L-amino acid decarboxylase inhibitor carbidopa is selectively cytotoxic to human pulmonary carcinoid and small cell lung carcinoma cells.
  • The carcinoid tumor is an uncommon neuroendocrine neoplasm the hallmark of which is excessive serotonin production.
  • In studying kinetics of tryptophan hydroxylase and aromatic-L-amino acid decarboxylase (AAAD) in human carcinoid hepatic metastases and adjacent normal liver (J. A.
  • Gilbert et al, Biochem.
  • Pharmacol., 50: 845-850, 1995), we identified one significant difference: the Vmax of carcinoid AAAD was 50-fold higher than that in normal liver.
  • Here, we report Western and Northern analyses detecting large quantities of AAAD polypeptide and mRNA in human carcinoid primary as well as metastatic tumors compared with normal surrounding tissues.
  • To assess the feasibility of targeting these high AAAD levels for chemotherapy, AAAD inhibitors carbidopa (alpha-methyl-dopahydrazine), alpha-monofluoromethyldopa (MFMD), and 3-hydroxybenzylhydrazine (NSD-1015) were incubated (72 h) with NCI-H727 human lung carcinoid cells.
  • On exposure to other human tumor lines, carbidopa was lethal only to NCI-H146 and NCI-H209 small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) lines (IC50 = 12 +/- 1 microM and 22 +/- 5 microM, respectively).
  • Carbidopa (100 microM) decreased growth of (but did not kill) SK-N-SH neuroblastoma and A204 rhabdomyosarcoma cells and did not affect proliferation of DU 145 prostate, MCF7 breast, or NCI-H460 large cell lung carcinoma lines.
  • The rank order of lines by AAAD activity was NCI-H146 > NCI-H209 > SK-N-SH > NCI-H727, whereas A204, DU 145, MCF7, and NCI-H460 had no measurable activity.
  • For lung tumor lines (carcinoid, two SCLC, and one large cell lung carcinoma), AAAD activity was correlated with the potency of carbidopa-induced cytotoxicity.
  • However, carcinoid cell death was not solely attributable to complete inhibition of either AAAD activity or the serotonin synthetic pathway.
  • In further evaluating potential applications of these findings with carbidopa, we determined that sublethal doses of carbidopa produced additive cytotoxic effects in carcinoid cells in combination with etoposide and cytotoxic synergy in SCLC cells when coincubated with topotecan.
  • [MeSH-major] Aromatic Amino Acid Decarboxylase Inhibitors. Carbidopa / pharmacology. Carcinoid Tumor / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Small Cell / drug therapy. Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacology. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Division / drug effects. Humans. Ileum / enzymology. Liver / enzymology. Microscopy, Electron. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 11106255.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 58450
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aromatic Amino Acid Decarboxylase Inhibitors; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; MNX7R8C5VO / Carbidopa
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59. Yu DC, Grabowski MJ, Kozakewich HP, Perez-Atayde AR, Voss SD, Shamberger RC, Weldon CB: Primary lung tumors in children and adolescents: a 90-year experience. J Pediatr Surg; 2010 Jun;45(6):1090-5
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  • [Title] Primary lung tumors in children and adolescents: a 90-year experience.
  • PURPOSE: Primary lung tumors in children are rare.
  • A wide range of histopathologic tumor types occurs.
  • This study aims to determine the incidence of different primary lung tumors in children and to contribute data leading to the development of evidence-based treatment models.
  • Patients were included if they had primary, nonhematologic lung tumors.
  • Simple squamous papillomas subjected to endoscopic biopsy and not resected, and vascular lesions associated with multisystem lesions, such as hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, were excluded.
  • RESULTS: Forty patients were identified (23 boys, 17 girls) with a mean age of 9.6 years (range, 3 months to 19 years).
  • Fourteen distinct histopathologic tumor types were identified.
  • The most common tumor types were carcinoid (8), inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (7), and pleuropulmonary blastoma (6).
  • Rare pediatric lung tumors including small cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, and pulmonary capillary hemangiomatosis were also seen.
  • Chemotherapy was used in 23% (9) and radiation in 20% (8) of the patients.
  • Of the 33 survivors, 28 had follow-up with a median duration of 29.5 months (mean, 63.2 months; range, 1-471 months).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Primary lung tumors in children are rare and histopathologically diverse.
  • The tumor spectrum involves many types not seen in adults, and unlike adults, patients rarely have a history of exposure to external predisposing factors.
  • Although complete resection remains the standard for treatment of most tumors, addition of adjuvant therapy is dependent on both tumor stage and histopathologic type.
  • [MeSH-major] Lung Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Age Distribution. Child. Child, Preschool. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant. Male. Morbidity / trends. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Sex Distribution. Survival Rate / trends. Time Factors. United States / epidemiology. Young Adult

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20620301.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-5037
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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60. Liang Z, Hu WD, Gu ZD, Xiong HC, Chen KN: [Evaluation of transhiatus esophagectomy for patients with esophageal cancer]. Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2008 Sep;11(5):451-3
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  • RESULTS: These 46 patients included 44 esophageal squamous cell carcinomas,1 esophageal adenocarcinoma and 1 esophageal carcinoid.
  • All the patients were classified according to UICC TNM stage classification: 3 cases as stage 0, 6 cases as stage I, 17 cases as stage II a, 2 cases as stage II b, 16 cases as stage III.
  • Six patients received preoperative chemotherapy and pathological complete response was seen in 2 cases.
  • Reconstruction with stomach was performed in 42 cases and with colon interposition in 4 cases.All the tumors were resected, and there was no perioperative death.
  • Postoperative complications occurred in 12 cases and were successfully treated, including 2 cases of hoarseness, 3 cases of cardiac arrhythmia,1 case of bilateral pleural effusion, and 6 cases of small anastomotic leakage at neck.
  • CONCLUSION: Transhiatus esophagectomy is an ideal choice in surgical treatment for patients with esophageal cancer, especially for the ones of aged, poor cardiac or pulmonary function, who can not afford the thoracotomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Esophageal Neoplasms / surgery. Esophagectomy / methods

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  • (PMID = 18803048.001).
  • [ISSN] 1671-0274
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua wei chang wai ke za zhi = Chinese journal of gastrointestinal surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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61. Adler JT, Hottinger DG, Kunnimalaiyaan M, Chen H: Combination therapy with histone deacetylase inhibitors and lithium chloride: a novel treatment for carcinoid tumors. Ann Surg Oncol; 2009 Feb;16(2):481-6
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  • [Title] Combination therapy with histone deacetylase inhibitors and lithium chloride: a novel treatment for carcinoid tumors.
  • In carcinoid cell lines, the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors valproic acid (VPA) and suberoyl bis-hydroxamic acid (SBHA) activate the Notch1 pathway, whereas lithium inhibits glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta).
  • These compounds limit growth and decrease hormonal secretion in vitro.
  • We hypothesized that lower-dose combination therapy of HDAC inhibitors and lithium chloride could achieve similar growth inhibition to that of the drugs alone.
  • Gastrointestinal and pulmonary carcinoid cells were treated with either VPA or SBHA and lithium chloride for up to 48 hours.
  • Western blot analysis was used to measure the effects on the Notch1 and GSK-3beta pathways and the neuroendocrine tumor marker chromogranin A (CgA).
  • Growth was measured by a cellular proliferation assay.
  • With lower-dose combination therapy, a decrease in CgA was observed.
  • The HDAC inhibitors increased the amount of active Notch1 protein, whereas treatment with lithium was associated with inhibition of GSK-3beta.
  • Moreover, growth was inhibited with lower-dose combination therapy.
  • Treatment of carcinoid cells with either VPA or SBHA and lithium chloride suppresses the neuroendocrine marker CgA while upregulating Notch1 and inhibiting GSK-3beta.
  • This combination effectively reduces growth.
  • Thus, lower-dose combination therapy may be a viable therapeutic approach for carcinoid tumors.

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  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA117117-01A2; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA109053-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA117117-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA117117; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA109053-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA109053-01A2; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA109053; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA117117-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA117117-01A2; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA109053; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA109053-01A2; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA109053-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA117117; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA109053-02
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adjuvants, Immunologic; 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors; 0 / Hydroxamic Acids; 0 / Immunoglobulin J Recombination Signal Sequence-Binding Protein; 0 / RBPJ protein, human; 0 / Receptor, Notch1; 0 / suberoyl bis-hydroxamic acid; 614OI1Z5WI / Valproic Acid; EC 1.13.12.- / Luciferases; EC 2.7.11.1 / glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta; EC 2.7.11.26 / Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3; EC 3.5.1.98 / Histone Deacetylases; G4962QA067 / Lithium Chloride
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS127901; NLM/ PMC2740795
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62. Hogan BA, Thornton FJ, Brannigan M, Browne TJ, Pender S, O'Kelly P, Lyon SM, Lee MJ: Hepatic metastases from an unknown primary neoplasm (UPN): survival, prognostic indicators and value of extensive investigations. Clin Radiol; 2002 Dec;57(12):1073-7
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  • [Title] Hepatic metastases from an unknown primary neoplasm (UPN): survival, prognostic indicators and value of extensive investigations.
  • AIM: The objectives of this study were to identify prognostic features for patients with hepatic metastases and unknown primary neoplasms (UPN), determine the common primary tumours, assess the value of diagnostic tests in finding these tumours, and evaluate the impact of therapy and knowledge of the primary tumour on patient survival.
  • Histopathology, diagnostic investigations and success at identifying the primary neoplasm were recorded.
  • In addition, in 70 patients with adenocarcinoma histology (M:F, 48:22; age range 27-91 years, median 65 years), treatment and survival data from the date of biopsy were recorded.
  • RESULTS: The histological spectrum included adenocarcinoma in 70, neuroendocrine in four, squamous cell carcinoma in four, small cell carcinoma in four, carcinoid in two, hepatoma in one and three others.
  • Extensive investigation identified a primary neoplasm in 16/88 patients (18%) including colorectal in six, gastric in two, lung in four, oesophageal in two, prostate in one and carcinoid in one.
  • Sixteen of 62 patients received active treatment with either surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy or a combination protocol.
  • The median survival for treated patients (49 days) versus untreated patients (52 days) was not significantly different (P=0.128).
  • Patients <65 years were more likely to receive active treatment than those >65 years (P=0.006).
  • Age with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.01 (P=0.178), active treatment (HR=0.65;P=0.194), knowledge of the primary neoplasm (HR=0.60;P=0.213) and male gender (HR=0.88;P=0.642) had no significant effect on survival.
  • CONCLUSION: Although hepatic metastases are associated with poor prognosis, it is essential that a liver biopsy be performed to obtain a histological diagnosis.
  • Adenocarcinoma metastases carry a dismal prognosis, and no prognostic factors, including knowledge of the primary tumour, are significant for patient survival.
  • Extensive investigation is not warranted in patients with adenocarcinoma liver metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary

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  • (PMID = 12475531.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-9260
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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63. Leo F, Pastorino U: Surgery in small-cell lung carcinoma. Where is the rationale? Semin Surg Oncol; 2003;21(3):176-81
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  • [Title] Surgery in small-cell lung carcinoma. Where is the rationale?
  • Chemotherapy and radiotherapy are the keys of current management of SCLC.
  • For many years, the diagnosis of small cell lung cancer has been considered a contraindication to surgery because radiotherapy was at least equivalent in terms of local control and the rate of resectability of SCLC patients was poor.
  • 1) Several historical series on patients operated for limited SCLC reported some long term survivors, showing that permanent cure can be achieved.
  • For this reason, it is now accepted that for the rare patients with very limited stage disease (T1-T2 tumors) surgical resection followed by platinum-based chemotherapy could be offered.
  • 2) After chemotherapy and radiotherapy, the rate of local relapse is 20-30%.
  • The assumption that surgery might be superior to radiotherapy in local control of limited SCLC has been suggested but not still proved.
  • 3) Surgery can precisely assess pathological response to chemotherapy, identify carcinoids erroneously diagnosed as SCLC, treat the NSCLC component of tumors with a mixed histology.
  • Even if some controversies exist, it is accepted that surgery can be proposed as the first treatment in patents with T1-T2 lesions without sign of lymph nodes involvement, followed by adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Small Cell / surgery. Lung Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Brain / pathology. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Patient Care Planning. Patient Selection. Preoperative Care. Prognosis. Thoracotomy. Tomography, Emission-Computed

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 14508850.001).
  • [ISSN] 8756-0437
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 41
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64. Hage R, de la Rivière AB, Seldenrijk CA, van den Bosch JM: Update in pulmonary carcinoid tumors: a review article. Ann Surg Oncol; 2003 Jul;10(6):697-704
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  • [Title] Update in pulmonary carcinoid tumors: a review article.
  • Pulmonary carcinoid tumors are neuroendocrine malignant tumors that make up 1% to 2% of all lung tumors.
  • According to histopathologic criteria, carcinoids can be divided into typical (TC) and atypical (AC) carcinoids.
  • Carcinoids can be placed in a spectrum of neuroendocrine tumors, ranging from low-grade malignant TC to intermediate AC to high-grade large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma and small-cell lung carcinoma.
  • Familial pulmonary carcinoids are rare.
  • The most common symptoms are hemoptysis, cough, recurrent pulmonary infection, fever, chest discomfort and chest pain, unilateral wheezing, and shortness of breath.
  • Paraneoplastic syndromes are rare and include carcinoid syndrome, Cushing's syndrome, and ectopic growth hormone-releasing hormone secretion.
  • The diagnosis is usually established by flexible bronchoscopy and biopsy, although occasionally this can result in severe hemorrhage.
  • Immunoscintigraphy by somatostatin analogs can also be useful in diagnosis.
  • The treatment of choice is surgical resection, and prognosis is relatively good in TC, although it is worse in AC.
  • The role of radiotherapy and chemotherapy as part of multimodality treatment or palliation is still debated.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Lung Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy. Bronchoscopy. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Cough / etiology. Fever / etiology. Hemoptysis / etiology. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Palliative Care. Prognosis. Radioimmunodetection. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Respiratory Sounds / etiology. Somatostatin

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  • (PMID = 12839856.001).
  • [ISSN] 1068-9265
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin
  • [Number-of-references] 65
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65. Thatipelli MR, Uber PA, Mehra MR: Isolated tricuspid stenosis and heart failure: a focus on carcinoid heart disease. Congest Heart Fail; 2003 Sep-Oct;9(5):294-6
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  • [Title] Isolated tricuspid stenosis and heart failure: a focus on carcinoid heart disease.
  • A rare clinical occurrence, heart failure in the setting of tricuspid stenosis should immediately trigger a search for underlying systemic carcinoid disease.
  • Carcinoid tumor cells can secrete a variety of vasoactive substances that result in skin erythema, excretory diarrhea, bronchospasm, and hemodynamic instability, but these manifestations are noted only in a few patients.
  • Right heart valvular disease is common since the vasoactive noxious substances pass through the right heart unaffected and undergo metabolism in the pulmonary circulation, thereby decreasing involvement of the left-sided valves.
  • Localization of the carcinoid tumor followed by surgically directed valvular treatment is mandatory for relief of symptoms.
  • In nonoperative candidates, cytotoxic chemotherapy or long-term symptomatic drug treatment with somatostatin is indicated.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Heart Disease / complications. Heart Failure / etiology. Tricuspid Valve Insufficiency / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 14564150.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-5299
  • [Journal-full-title] Congestive heart failure (Greenwich, Conn.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Congest Heart Fail
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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66. Kaltsas GA, Mukherjee JJ, Isidori A, Kola B, Plowman PN, Monson JP, Grossman AB, Besser GM: Treatment of advanced neuroendocrine tumours using combination chemotherapy with lomustine and 5-fluorouracil. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2002 Aug;57(2):169-83
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  • [Title] Treatment of advanced neuroendocrine tumours using combination chemotherapy with lomustine and 5-fluorouracil.
  • OBJECTIVE: Combination chemotherapy with the two agents streptozotocin (SZT), which is a nitrosurea, and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), an alkylating agent, has a long-established role in the treatment of neuroendocrine tumours; however, it is often accompanied by considerable toxicity, and it has not been assessed in a comparative manner with other current chemotherapy regimens.
  • In order to assess the therapeutic response and adverse effects using an alternative nitrosurea, lomustine (CCNU), which has a different side-effect profile, in combination with 5-FU, we have reviewed all patients with neuroendocrine tumours who received this form of treatment in our department.
  • DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of the case notes of patients with metastatic neuroendocrine tumours who received treatment with the combination of CCNU and 5-FU, and who were followed up according to a defined protocol in a given time frame.
  • PATIENTS: Thirty-one patients with metastatic neuroendocrine tumours (18 with carcinoid tumours, five islet-cell tumours, five chromaffin-cell tumours and three medullary carcinoma of the thyroid) treated with the combination of CCNU and 5-FU, and when necessary additional therapy, over a 22-year period, were included in this analysis.
  • MEASUREMENTS: The symptomatic, hormonal and tumoural responses before and after chemotherapy with the combination of CCNU and 5-FU over a median follow-up duration of 25 months (range 9-348 months) were recorded.
  • Of the 31 patients (16 males; median age 52 years, range 20-86 years), eight (four males; median age 61 years, range 30-74 years) were treated with the combination of CCNU and 5-FU alone (Group 1), whereas the other 23 patients (12 males; median age 47 years, range 20-86 years) received additional therapy with other chemotherapeutic regimens, somatostatin analogues, alpha-interferon or radiolabelled meta-iodobenzylguanidine (131I-MIBG) therapy (Group 2).
  • RESULTS: A total of 121 therapeutic cycles was administered (mean 3.9, range 1-14 cycles).
  • None of the patients obtained a complete tumour response.
  • A partial tumour response (not a complete but a 50% or greater reduction of all measurable tumour) was seen in six out of the 29 patients (21%) (four out of eight in Group 1 and two out of 21 in Group 2, respectively).
  • There was no tumour progression in eight out of the 29 patients (27.5%) (one out of eight in Group 1 and seven out of 21 in Group 2, respectively).
  • The overall 5-year survival rate was 42% (95% CI, 17-67%) for all patients and 50% (95% CI, 18-83%) for the carcinoid group alone, according to Kaplan-Meier analysis.
  • A complete or partial symptomatic response was obtained in 12 out of 27 (44%) patients who presented with symptoms (four out of eight in Group 1 and eight out 19 in Group 2, respectively) and a complete or partial hormonal response in eight out of 19 patients (42.1%) who presented with hormonally active disease (two out of four in Group 1 and six out of 15 in Group 2, respectively).
  • Nine out of the 15 (60%) patients with carcinoid tumours who presented with symptoms obtained a symptomatic response, five out of 10 patients (50%) a hormonal response, and four out of 16 (25%) patients a partial tumoural response, respectively.
  • The combination of CCNU and 5-FU was safe and well tolerated.
  • Serious side-effects necessitating the termination of CCNU and 5-FU were seen only in two patients, and mainly consisted of reversible bone marrow suppression.
  • No chemotherapy-related death was recorded.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Chemotherapy with CCNU and 5-FU, either alone or in combination with other therapeutic modalities, produces considerable symptomatic and hormonal improvement and moderate tumour regression/stabilization according to currently accepted WHO criteria, particularly in patients with metastatic gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumours with minimal adverse effects.
  • However, long-term survival was still relatively poor.
  • It may therefore be a valuable additional therapeutic option, particularly for well-differentiated carcinoid and islet-cell tumours, but mainly reserved for when there is no response or progression of the disease after currently available first-line treatment with somatostatin analogues or radiopharmaceuticals.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Neuroendocrine Tumors / drug therapy. Neuroendocrine Tumors / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lomustine / administration & dosage. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 12153595.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-0664
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 7BRF0Z81KG / Lomustine; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
  • [Number-of-references] 50
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67. Ruggieri M, Scocchera F, Genderini M, Mascaro A, Paolini A: Therapeutic approach of carcinoid tumours of the lung. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci; 2000 Jan-Apr;4(1-2):43-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Therapeutic approach of carcinoid tumours of the lung.
  • In the carcinoid tumours of the bronchopulmonary tract surgical resection is still the primary goal.
  • Many problems are, however, unclear: the extent of resection, formal lymph node dissection or not, the role of Video-Assisted Thoracic Surgery (VATS) and of the multidisciplinary approach.
  • In the Department of Surgical Sciences and Applied Medical Technologies, "La Sapienza", Rome's University, from 1969 to 1994, we observed 18 patients with carcinoid tumours of the lung: 13 typical carcinoid (TC) and 5 atypical carcinoid (AC).
  • In our series, the choice of therapeutic procedure was made on the basis of histological criteria and TNM classification.
  • We performed 3 conservative and 10 extensive resections on typical carcinoid and 5 extensive resections on atypical carcinoid tumours.
  • In our series VATS played a minor therapeutic role.
  • Formal lymph node dissection was carried out on all our patients except in the cases of those with typical carcinoid tumours without enlarged hilar and mediastinal lymph nodes.
  • The efficacy of adjuvant chemotherapy in carcinoid tumours treatment is controversial and will be confirmed by further trials.
  • In bronchial carcinoid tumours the long-term prognosis is excellent.
  • In our series the ten-year survival rate is 77 per cent in typical carcinoid and 40 per cent in atypical carcinoid cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / therapy. Lung Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 11409188.001).
  • [ISSN] 1128-3602
  • [Journal-full-title] European review for medical and pharmacological sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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68. Bednaríková M, Valík D, Vyzula R: [Somatostatin analogues in the treatment of carcinoid]. Cas Lek Cesk; 2008;147(4):233-5
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  • [Title] [Somatostatin analogues in the treatment of carcinoid].
  • The patient--born in 1960, was first diagnosed in 1981 as having malignant carcinoid of the right lung.
  • The disease relapsed in 2002 in a form of distant dissemination.
  • According to tumor histology--atypical carcinoid--this patient was initially treated with palliative systemic chemotherapy, specifically with cisplatin and etoposid.
  • His disease stabilized after administration of 4 cycles of chemotherapy.
  • The treatment was accompanied by protracted toxicity with marked alteration of his general conditions after the 4th cycle.
  • Due to positive octreoscan, the patient was given somatostatin analogues with a very good and long-term clinical effect.
  • The symptoms disappeared, except a persisting ocular disorder due to periorbital infiltration.
  • When somatostatin analogues were discontinued, serum chromogranin A rose rapidly and was accompanied by new appearance of symptoms.
  • The patient has been still (with two 5,5 years interruptions) treated with somatostatin analogues with very good tolerance and clinical effect--at present there are no symptoms of the disease and, according to imaging methods, long-term stabilization continues.
  • This case study illustrates the necessity of cautious and individual approach to the choice of treatment strategy in patients with malignant carcinoid.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Carcinoid Tumor / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Somatostatin / analogs & derivatives

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  • (PMID = 18578378.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-7335
  • [Journal-full-title] Casopís lékar̆ů c̆eských
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cas. Lek. Cesk.
  • [Language] cze
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin
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69. Berndt A, Köllner R, Richter P, Franz M, Voigt A, Berndt A, Borsi L, Giavazzi R, Neri D, Kosmehl H: A comparative analysis of oncofetal fibronectin and tenascin-C incorporation in tumour vessels using human recombinant SIP format antibodies. Histochem Cell Biol; 2010 Apr;133(4):467-75
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  • [Title] A comparative analysis of oncofetal fibronectin and tenascin-C incorporation in tumour vessels using human recombinant SIP format antibodies.
  • Tumour angioneogenesis is associated with the reexpression of oncofetal fibronectin (oncFn) and tenascin-C (oncTn-C) splice variants, which may serve as targets for antibody-based pharmacodelivery.
  • Knowledge of the vascular distribution and organization in different tumours is of importance for the understanding of tumour vessel formation and might be crucial for therapy.
  • Therefore, human SIP format antibodies against Fn ED-A, Fn ED-B and Tn-C A and C splice domains were used for immunofluorescence labelling in renal, lung, oral, colon, breast and urinary bladder carcinoma specimens and in a renal carcinoma xenograft.
  • The spatial relation to stroma, vessels and vascular basement membrane (vBM) was analysed including CD31 and laminin alpha4 chain antibodies.
  • Renal cell carcinomas and atypical carcinoid of the lung revealed vessel-restricted oncFn and/or oncTn-C depositions; all other entities showed a variable stroma positivity including vessels.
  • The individual pattern of oncFn/oncTn-C incorporation in the vBM depended on tumour type, vessel size and intratumoural heterogeneity.
  • In conclusion, tumours differ in the pattern of Fn or Tn-C isoform positivity in the vessel wall, potentially representing a tumour type specific endothelial cell-tumour cell-stromal cell interaction.
  • [MeSH-major] Blood Vessels / metabolism. Fibronectins / metabolism. Neoplasms / metabolism. Tenascin / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Basement Membrane / chemistry. Basement Membrane / metabolism. Basement Membrane / pathology. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / genetics. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / metabolism. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / pathology. Fluorescent Antibody Technique. Humans. Kidney Neoplasms / genetics. Kidney Neoplasms / metabolism. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Laminin / analysis. Laminin / genetics. Laminin / metabolism. Protein Isoforms / analysis. Protein Isoforms / genetics. Protein Isoforms / metabolism. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / genetics. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / metabolism. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20237793.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-119X
  • [Journal-full-title] Histochemistry and cell biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histochem. Cell Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Fibronectins; 0 / Laminin; 0 / Protein Isoforms; 0 / Tenascin; 0 / oncofetal fibronectin
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70. O'Toole D, Maire F, Ruszniewski P: Ablative therapies for liver metastases of digestive endocrine tumours. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2003 Dec;10(4):463-8
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  • [Title] Ablative therapies for liver metastases of digestive endocrine tumours.
  • Hepatic metastases are frequently encountered in patients with digestive endocrine tumors and their presence plays an important role in quality of life and overall prognosis.
  • Surgery is the treatment method of choice for hepatic metastases but this is frequently impossible due to the extent of disease.
  • Systemic chemotherapy is offered to patients with diffuse and/or progressive liver metastases but results are disappointing especially in patients with metastases of midgut origin.
  • In the latter patients with carcinoid syndrome, somatostatin analogs are frequently initially effective but their efficacy wanes due to disease progression and development of tachyphylaxis.
  • Other therapeutic options in the treatment of hepatic metastases are locoregional strategies where vascular occlusion induces ischemia in these highly vascular tumors using either surgical or radiological techniques.
  • Trans-catheter arterial chemoembolization has proven effective in terms of long palliation and objective tumor responses.
  • Other treatments aimed at regional destruction either alone or in combination with surgery include radiofrequency ablation and cryotherapy.
  • The latter are usually important adjuncts to surgery and are usually reserved for limited disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / therapy. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / therapy. Neuroendocrine Tumors / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Catheter Ablation. Chemoembolization, Therapeutic. Cryotherapy. Humans

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  • (PMID = 14713259.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 50
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71. Reubi JC, Waser B: Concomitant expression of several peptide receptors in neuroendocrine tumours: molecular basis for in vivo multireceptor tumour targeting. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging; 2003 May;30(5):781-93
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  • [Title] Concomitant expression of several peptide receptors in neuroendocrine tumours: molecular basis for in vivo multireceptor tumour targeting.
  • Peptide receptors have been found to represent excellent targets for in vivo cancer diagnosis and therapy.
  • Recent in vitro studies have shown that many cancers can overexpress not only one but several peptide receptors concomitantly.
  • One of the challenges for nuclear medicine in this field in the coming decade will be to take advantage of the co-expression of peptide receptors for multireceptor tumour targeting.
  • In vitro receptor studies can reveal which peptide receptor is overexpressed in which tumour and which receptors are co-expressed in an individual tumour; such knowledge is a prerequisite for successful in vivo development.
  • One group of tumours of particular interest in this respect is the neuroendocrine tumours, which have previously been shown often to express peptide receptors.
  • This review summarises our investigations of the concomitant expression of 13 different peptide receptors, in more than 100 neuroendocrine tumours of the human intestine, pancreas and lung, using in vitro receptor autoradiography with subtype-selective ligands.
  • While the presence of VPAC(1) and sst(2) was detected in the majority of these neuroendocrine tumours, the other receptors, more differentially expressed, revealed a characteristic receptor pattern in several tumour types.
  • Ileal carcinoids expressed sst(2) and VPAC(1) receptors in virtually all cases and had CCK(1), CCK(2), sst(1) or sst(5) in approximately half of the cases; they were the only tumours of this series to express NMB receptors.
  • Most bronchial carcinoids had VPAC(1), while sst(1), sst(2) and CCK(2) were found in two-thirds of the cases and BB(3) in one-third of the cases.
  • These data provide evidence for the vast biological diversity of these neuroendocrine tumours.
  • Moreover, the results represent a basis for starting and/or optimising the in vivo targeting of these tumours by selecting the suitable radiopeptides for tumour diagnosis and/or therapy.
  • Finally, the data strongly encourage concomitant application of several radiopeptides to permit more efficient targeting of these tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Drug Delivery Systems / methods. Neuroendocrine Tumors / metabolism. Receptors, Peptide / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 12707737.001).
  • [ISSN] 1619-7070
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / GLP1R protein, human; 0 / Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor; 0 / Receptors, Bombesin; 0 / Receptors, Cholecystokinin; 0 / Receptors, Glucagon; 0 / Receptors, Peptide; 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; 0 / Receptors, Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide
  • [Number-of-references] 37
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72. Zatelli MC, Maffei P, Piccin D, Martini C, Rea F, Rubello D, Margutti A, Culler MD, Sicolo N, degli Uberti EC: Somatostatin analogs in vitro effects in a growth hormone-releasing hormone-secreting bronchial carcinoid. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2005 Apr;90(4):2104-9
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  • [Title] Somatostatin analogs in vitro effects in a growth hormone-releasing hormone-secreting bronchial carcinoid.
  • A 29-yr-old woman presented with acromegaly, pituitary gland enlargement, and an isolated pulmonary mass of 3.3 cm in diameter, which displayed a very high tracer uptake after OctreoScan.
  • The patient underwent left lung upper lobectomy, and histopathology disclosed a bronchial atypical carcinoid.
  • The tissue was examined for somatostatin (SRIH) receptor subtypes (SSTRs) 1-5 expression by RT-PCR.
  • Cultured tumor cells were treated with SRIH, lanreotide (BIM-23014), or SRIH analogs selective for SSTR2 (BIM-23120), SSTR5 (BIM-23206), or SSTR1 (BIM-23926).
  • GHRH secretion was significantly reduced by SRIH (-50%), Lan (-35%), as well as by the SSTR2, SSTR5, and SSTR1 selective agonists (-55, -75, and -20%, respectively), whereas cell viability was not affected.
  • Our data show SSTR expression in a GHRH-secreting bronchial carcinoid and provide evidence that, in vitro, selective SSTR activation differently inhibit ectopic GHRH secretion.
  • These findings suggest that SSTR-specific SRIH analogs may be useful in the medical therapy of GHRH-secreting bronchial carcinoids.
  • [MeSH-major] Bronchial Neoplasms / drug therapy. Carcinoid Tumor / drug therapy. Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone / secretion. Receptors, Somatostatin / agonists
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cell Survival / drug effects. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 15671091.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; 9034-39-3 / Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone
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73. Abdel Rahman AR: Bronchoplasty for primary broncho-pulmonary tumors. J Egypt Natl Canc Inst; 2010 Mar;22(1):73-8
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  • [Title] Bronchoplasty for primary broncho-pulmonary tumors.
  • This study was conducted to evaluate the short-term and the long-term results of bronchoplastic procedures for patients with centrally located primary bronchopulmonary tumors.
  • METHODS: Between 2000 and 2009, 36 patients with primary lung tumors required bronchoplasty were retrospectively analyzed.
  • Preoperative assessment included computed tomography (CT) of the chest, bronchoscopy, and spirometry.
  • Pre operative diagnosis was acheived by bronchoscopy for all patients, mediastinoscopy was done for patients with primary lung cancer.
  • Neo adjuvant chemotherapy was given for 6 patients with non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
  • RESULTS: We had 15 males and 21 female, the mean age was 37 years and the mean hospital stay was 7.2 days.
  • Twelve patients (33.3%) suffered post-operative problems.
  • Post operative pathology revealed: 27 patients with typical carcinoid, 2 with atypical carcinoid, 4 with squamous cell carcinoma, 2 with adenocarcinoma and one with hamartoma.
  • Pathological TNM staging revealed: 17 patients with stage IA, 11 with IB, 5 with IIA and 2 with stage IIIA.
  • Follow-up data were available for all patients except two.
  • Two patients died with disseminated disease 1.5 year and 2 years after surgery.
  • The patient with hamartoma developed local recurrence 5 years later and re-excision was done.
  • One patient with lung cancer developed bone metastases and was alive with disease, while the remaining 30 patients were alive and disease free.
  • CONCLUSION: Bronchoplastic resections achieve local control and long-term survival comparable to the standard resections in patients with carcinoid tumor and NSCLC in anatomically suited lesions.
  • KEY WORDS: Bronchoplasty - Primary - Lung - Tumors.

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  • (PMID = 21503009.001).
  • [ISSN] 1110-0362
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Egyptian National Cancer Institute
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Egypt Natl Canc Inst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Egypt
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74. Wang WP, Guo C, Berney DM, Ulbright TM, Hansel DE, Shen R, Ali T, Epstein JI: Primary carcinoid tumors of the testis: a clinicopathologic study of 29 cases. Am J Surg Pathol; 2010 Apr;34(4):519-24
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  • [Title] Primary carcinoid tumors of the testis: a clinicopathologic study of 29 cases.
  • Testicular carcinoid tumors are rare with only limited studies.
  • We identified 29 primary testicular carcinoid cases from 7 academic institutions.
  • The most common presenting symptom was the sole finding of either a testicular mass or swelling seen in 15/24 cases with available information.
  • The next most common mode of presentation was as an incidental finding seen in 6 cases.
  • Two patients had carcinoid syndrome including diarrhea, hot flashes, and palpitations.
  • Nineteen were pure carcinoid tumors, 3 were associated with cystic teratoma, 2 with cysts lacking epithelial lining, 4 with epidermoid cyst, and 1 with dermoid cyst.
  • All 29 primary carcinoids lacked associated intratubular germ cell neoplasia, unclassified type.
  • Mitotic figures were rare in primary carcinoid tumors with only 3 cases showing more than 2 per 10 HPF; necrosis was found in only 1 case.
  • Of the 28 cases found premortem, treatment included focal excision in 3 patients and radical orchiectomy in 25 patients.
  • Follow-up, available in 24 cases, ranged from 1 to 228 months (mean 52.7 mo); of the 20 patients with testicular typical carcinoid tumors found premortem, all were alive at last follow-up without recurrences or metastases.
  • Of the 4 patients with a primary atypical carcinoid tumor, 1 at the time of diagnosis had retroperitoneal and lung metastases who after chemotherapy underwent resection of the retroperitoneal tumor showing metastatic yolk sac tumor and embryonal carcinoma.
  • After resection, serum AFP levels remained elevated and the patient is scheduled for salvage chemotherapy and bone marrow transplant.
  • The other 2 patients with atypical carcinoid and follow-up had no evidence of disease at 68 and 114 months.
  • Most primary carcinoid tumors of the testis have a benign clinical course even if associated with epidermoid/dermoid cysts, or histologically mature teratoma.
  • However, lesions with the morphology of atypical carcinoid can occasionally exhibit metastatic spread.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [ErratumIn] Am J Surg Pathol. 2010 Jul;34(7):1075. Ubright, Thomas M [corrected to Ulbright, Thomas M]
  • (PMID = 20351489.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins
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75. Granberg D, Eriksson B, Wilander E, Grimfjärd P, Fjällskog ML, Oberg K, Skogseid B: Experience in treatment of metastatic pulmonary carcinoid tumors. Ann Oncol; 2001 Oct;12(10):1383-91
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  • [Title] Experience in treatment of metastatic pulmonary carcinoid tumors.
  • BACKGROUND: The only cure for patients with pulmonary carcinoids is surgery.
  • In the present paper, we report the results of medical treatment of patients with metastatic tumors, their circulating hormone markers, and immunohistochemical profile of the tumors.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS/RESULTS: The response to systemic antitumoral treatment was studied in 31 patients with metastatic pulmonary carcinoids.
  • Median survival from treatment start was 25 months.
  • Alpha-interferon treatment has resulted in stable disease in 4 of 27 patients (median duration 15 months), while 23 patients showed progressive disease.
  • Somatostatin analogues given as single drug treatment resulted in progressive disease.
  • Streptozotocin and 5-fluorouracil resulted in progressive disease in seven of seven patients.
  • Stable disease was obtained for 8 and 10 months respectively in two of two patients treated with streptozotocin + doxorubicin.
  • Two of eight patients treated with cisplatinum + etoposide showed a significant decrease in tumor size lasting six and eight months respectively, and one displayed stable disease for seven months.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The results of systemic antitumoral treatment of pulmonary carcinoids with distant metastases are generally discouraging.
  • Chemotherapy with cisplatinum + etoposide, or doxorubicin combined with streptozotocin or paclitaxel may be of value.
  • Alpha-interferon and octreotide offer efficient symptomatic relief, but stabilizes tumor growth in merely 15% of the cases.
  • Plasma chromogranin A is the most frequently elevated tumor marker.

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  • (PMID = 11762808.001).
  • [ISSN] 0923-7534
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; 5W494URQ81 / Streptozocin; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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76. Ostoros G, Orosz Z, Kovács G, Soltész I: Desmoplastic small round cell tumour of the pleura: a case report with unusual follow-up. Lung Cancer; 2002 Jun;36(3):333-6
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  • [Title] Desmoplastic small round cell tumour of the pleura: a case report with unusual follow-up.
  • In 1994 a 19-year-old woman presented with a few weeks history of back ache.
  • The tumour was resected during thoracotomy.
  • The histological examination raised the possibility of atypical carcinoid tumour.
  • One year later the tumour recurred.
  • Three years after the initial presentation multiple pulmonary metastases developed.
  • The patient was treated with chemotherapy, receiving vincristine, epi-adriamycin and cyclophosphamide in 8 cycles, which resulted in complete remission.
  • Between 1998 and 1999 progressions and partial remissions were observed, while the patient received further cycles of chemotherapy.
  • Histological revision was performed in 1999 and a final diagnosis of desmoplastic small round cell tumour of the pleura was made.
  • We thought this case to be worth for presentation because this unusual long survival, which was probably due to the aggressive complex anticancer treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Small Cell / therapy. Pleural Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 12009247.001).
  • [ISSN] 0169-5002
  • [Journal-full-title] Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lung Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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77. Romanowska-Dixon B: [Treatment of intraocular metastatic tumors]. Klin Oczna; 2003;105(3-4):136-9
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  • [Title] [Treatment of intraocular metastatic tumors].
  • [Transliterated title] Leczenie wewnatrzgałkowych guzów przerzutowych.
  • PURPOSE: Analysis of the clinical picture of intraocular metastatic tumors and the results of the treatment with various methods.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Between 1994-1997 intraocular metastatic tumors were diagnosed in 14 patients (19 eyes).
  • There were 13 females and 1 male, aged 28 to 69 years (average 50).
  • The primary tumor in 8 patients developed in the breast, in 4 cases in the lungs, 1 in the brain, and 1 in the kidney.
  • In all patients the primary tumor was excised, then chemotherapy was applied in 9 cases, radiotherapy in 3 cases, and hormonal treatment in 2 cases.
  • In 7 patients the metastatic process concerned also other organs: bones, liver, lungs, hypophysis, and lymphatic glands.
  • Metastases developed in 10 months to 11 years since the diagnosis and treatment of the primary tumor.
  • Intraocular tumors were the most often located near the optic disc (8 cases), or near the macula (4 cases).
  • There were usually flat tumors (in 12 cases < 5 mm in thickness), creamy white, sometimes with pigment clamping.
  • In order, to confirm the diagnosis of the tumor, USG was always performed and in 8 cases fluorescein angiography.
  • In all cases topical treatment was applied, which consisted of irradiation with ruthenium (106Ru) in 6 eyes (in 1 case two times), laser coagulation in 3 eyes, and thermotherapy (TTT) with diode laser in 4 eyes, combined treatment (106Ru + TTT) in 2 eyes, 106Ru and 125I brachytherapy in one eye.
  • The dose of radiation for the apex of the tumor was 60-90 Gy (av. 65).
  • The eyeball was enucleated in 3 patients, 4 patients received chemotherapy.
  • 2 patients received hormonal therapy, applied together with the topical treatment.
  • RESULTS: In the majority of cases (14 eyes), a flat scar or the significant decrease of the volume of the tumor was obtained.
  • 8 patients died, two are currently observed, the remaining 4 do not come to the control examination, and there is no information as to their fate.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Good results of the treatment encourage further application of brachy and thermotherapy in the treatment of intraocular metastatic tumors.
  • It allows for the conservative treatment of the eyeball, and also useful visual acuity is retained often.
  • [MeSH-major] Eye Neoplasms / secondary. Eye Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Adenocarcinoma / therapy. Adult. Aged. Brachytherapy. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / secondary. Carcinoid Tumor / therapy. Combined Modality Therapy. Eye Enucleation. Female. Fluorescein Angiography. Humans. Hyperthermia, Induced. Laser Coagulation. Laser Therapy. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Ruthenium / therapeutic use. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 14552170.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-2157
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinika oczna
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin Oczna
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 7UI0TKC3U5 / Ruthenium
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78. Dworakowska D, Gueorguiev M, Laji K, Grossman AB: Multimodality palliative treatment of (111)In-pentetreotide negative/(123)I-MIBG positive metastatic carcinoid - a case report. Endokrynol Pol; 2008 Jul-Aug;59(4):342-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Multimodality palliative treatment of (111)In-pentetreotide negative/(123)I-MIBG positive metastatic carcinoid - a case report.
  • Patients with carcinoid tumours frequently present with metastatic disease.
  • There are only a few therapeutic options for these patients, and the main goal of palliative treatment is to reduce symptoms and thus to improve quality of life.
  • Current therapy includes surgical resection, hepatic artery embolisation, chemotherapy and somatostatin analogue treatment; however, all these options have limitations.
  • It seems probable that therapeutic modalities based on radiopharmaceuticals may provide better therapy, not only in relation to symptom reduction but may also improve patient survival.
  • In this case report we present a 46-year-old woman with a symptomatic carcinoid, who at the time of diagnosis had liver and abdominal lymph node metastases, the primary tumour being located in the terminal ileum. (111)In-pentetreotide scanning was negative, whereas (123)I-MIBG scanning showed high avidity in the tumour tissue.
  • After right hemicolectomy, two courses of (131)I-MIBG treatment were given (12.95 GBq and 12 GBq, respectively).
  • Octreotide therapy was given empirically only for a short time and was stopped because of drug intolerance.
  • The patient underwent tricuspid and pulmonary valve replacement because of her carcinoid heart disease, followed by two courses of embolisation of liver metastases.
  • While (131)I-MIBG therapy reduced the patient's symptoms of flushing and diarrhoea, there has not yet been any effect on tumour response or 5-HIAA production.
  • [MeSH-major] 3-Iodobenzylguanidine / therapeutic use. Carcinoid Tumor / secondary. Carcinoid Tumor / therapy. Ileal Neoplasms / therapy. Palliative Care
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Colectomy. Female. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Octreotide / analogs & derivatives. Octreotide / analysis. Pentetic Acid / analogs & derivatives. Pentetic Acid / analysis

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  • (PMID = 18777505.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 142694-57-3 / SDZ 215-811; 35MRW7B4AD / 3-Iodobenzylguanidine; 7A314HQM0I / Pentetic Acid; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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79. Spaggiari L, D' Aiuto M, Veronesi G, Pelosi G, de Pas T, Catalano G, de Braud F: Extended pneumonectomy with partial resection of the left atrium, without cardiopulmonary bypass, for lung cancer. Ann Thorac Surg; 2005 Jan;79(1):234-40
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  • [Title] Extended pneumonectomy with partial resection of the left atrium, without cardiopulmonary bypass, for lung cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Extended pneumonectomy with partial resection of the left atrium for lung cancer is not frequently performed; therefore, its results remain controversial.
  • The present study analyzed a single center's experience with this extended surgery, highlighting the surgery's technical aspects, postoperative outcomes, and oncologic results.
  • METHODS: From November 1996 to December 2003, 15 patients underwent extended pneumonectomy with partial resection of the left atrium for lung cancer, without cardiopulmonary bypass.
  • RESULTS: Of the 15 patients (median age of 63 years, range 35 to 74 years), 11 were men (73%) and 4 were women.
  • Nine patients (60%) underwent induction chemotherapy.
  • Pathologic analysis of the specimens identified 8 patients (53%) with N2 disease, 5 patients (33%) with N1 disease, and 2 patients with N0 disease.
  • The T status was T4 in 10 patients, pT3 in 3 patients, and T0 in the remaining 2 patients.
  • The were 10 squamous cell carcinomas (60%), 2 adenocarcinomas, 1 adenosquamous carcinoma, 1 mucoepidermoid carcinoma, and 1 atypical carcinoid tumor.
  • The median intensive care unit and hospital stay were 1 day and 6.4 days, respectively.
  • At completion of the study, 9 patients (60%) were still alive, with 8 showing no evidence of disease.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Extended pneumonectomy with partial resection of the left atrium for advanced lung cancer is a feasible procedure, with low postoperative morbidity and mortality.
  • In fact, it can lead to excellent local control of the disease, if not to a permanent cure in select patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / surgery. Heart Atria / surgery. Lung Neoplasms / surgery. Pneumonectomy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma / mortality. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Arrhythmias, Cardiac / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / mortality. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Cardiopulmonary Bypass. Combined Modality Therapy. Databases, Factual. Female. Humans. Length of Stay / statistics & numerical data. Life Tables. Male. Middle Aged. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Neoplasm Staging. Postoperative Complications / epidemiology. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15620949.001).
  • [ISSN] 1552-6259
  • [Journal-full-title] The Annals of thoracic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Thorac. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 11
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80. Larsson DE, Wickström M, Hassan S, Oberg K, Granberg D: The cytotoxic agents NSC-95397, brefeldin A, bortezomib and sanguinarine induce apoptosis in neuroendocrine tumors in vitro. Anticancer Res; 2010 Jan;30(1):149-56
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  • [Title] The cytotoxic agents NSC-95397, brefeldin A, bortezomib and sanguinarine induce apoptosis in neuroendocrine tumors in vitro.
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the apoptosis resulting from NSC 95397, brefeldin A, bortezomib and sanguinarine in neuroendocrine tumor cell lines.
  • The human pancreatic carcinoid cell line, BON-1, human typical bronchial carcinoid cell line NCI-H727 and the human atypical bronchial carcinoid cell line NCI-H720 were tested.
  • After incubation with cytotoxic drugs, the DNA-binding dye Hoechst 33342, fluorescein-tagged probes that covalently bind active caspase-3 and chloromethyl-X-rosamine to detect mitochondrial membrane potential were added.
  • In addition, nuclear morphology was examined on microscopic slides stained with May-Grunewald-Giemsa.
  • RESULTS: A time- and dose-dependent activation of caspase-3 and increase in nuclear fragmentation and condensation were observed for the drugs using a multiparametric apoptosis assay.
  • These results were confirmed with nuclear morphological examination on microscopic slides.
  • CONCLUSION: NSC 95397, brefeldin A, bortezomib and sanguinarine induced caspase-3 activation with modest changes in nuclear morphology.
  • [MeSH-major] Apoptosis / drug effects. Benzophenanthridines / pharmacology. Boronic Acids / pharmacology. Brefeldin A / pharmacology. Isoquinolines / pharmacology. Naphthoquinones / pharmacology. Neuroendocrine Tumors / drug therapy. Pyrazines / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Bortezomib. Carcinoid Tumor / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Bronchogenic / drug therapy. Cell Line, Tumor. Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Pancreatic Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 20150630.001).
  • [ISSN] 1791-7530
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 2,3-bis(2-hydroxyethylsulfanyl)-(1,4)naphthoquinone; 0 / Benzophenanthridines; 0 / Boronic Acids; 0 / Isoquinolines; 0 / Naphthoquinones; 0 / Pyrazines; 20350-15-6 / Brefeldin A; 69G8BD63PP / Bortezomib; AV9VK043SS / sanguinarine
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81. Kong L, Wang Z, Wang R, Zhao X, Li B, Zhou T: [Clinical analysis of 17 cases of lung carcinoid tumor]. Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi; 2002 May;25(5):265-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Clinical analysis of 17 cases of lung carcinoid tumor].
  • OBJECTIVE: To study the classification and treatment modalities of lung carcinoid tumor.
  • METHODS: 17 cases of lung carcinoid tumor from May 1983 to May 1998 were reviewed and analysed.
  • RESULTS: Lung carcinoid tumors were classified into two sub-groups: typical carcinoid tumor and non-typical carcinoid tumor.
  • The prognosis of typical carcinoid tumor was better than that of non-typical carcinoid tumor.
  • 3-year survival was 5/6 for typical carcinoid tumor, 4/11 for non-typical carcinoid tumor.
  • There was no statistic significance in the treatment outcome between patients receiving operation + chemotherapy + radiotherapy and patients receiving chemotherapy + radiotherapy in non-typical carcinoid tumor.
  • CONCLUSION: Operation should be considered as the first choice for typical carcinoid tumor that has a good prognosis.
  • Non-typical carcinoid tumor tends to be metastatic and has a poor prognosis.
  • Chemotherapy should be considered as the first choice and radiotherapy as palliative for non-typical carcinoid tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / therapy. Lung Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Lung / drug effects. Lung / radiation effects. Lung / surgery. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12133316.001).
  • [ISSN] 1001-0939
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua jie he he hu xi za zhi = Zhonghua jiehe he huxi zazhi = Chinese journal of tuberculosis and respiratory diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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82. Auer J, Kirchgatterer A, Berent R, Allinger S, Hinterholzer G, Höbling W, Meindl S, Oppitz P, Kalchmair J, Neuwirth G, Knoflach P: [Gastrointestinal hemorrhage needing blood transfusion as the first manifestation of small bowel carcinoid tumor]. Z Gastroenterol; 2000 Aug;38(8):631-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Gastrointestinal hemorrhage needing blood transfusion as the first manifestation of small bowel carcinoid tumor].
  • Carcinoid tumors arise from enterochromaffin or enterochromaffin-like cells that are present in the gastrointestinal tract, ovaries, and lungs.
  • Over 90% of carcinoids originate in the gastrointestinal tract with the most common sites in order of frequency being the appendix, terminal ileum, rectum, and the remainder of the colon.
  • Gastroduodenal and pancreatic carcinoids are infrequent.
  • Carcinoid syndrome is associated with small intestine carcinoids in about 40%.
  • Upper gastrointestinal bleeding with melaena or hematochezia is a relatively rare early symptom of patients with small intestine carcinoid tumors.
  • Laparotomy revealed bleeding from a small submucosal malignant carcinoid tumor in small intestine and multiple large metastases within mesenteric tissue.
  • Cytotoxic chemotherapy in this adjuvant setting has not been recommended.
  • Small intestinal carcinoid tumor has to be considered as a rare cause of gastrointestinal bleeding with melaena or hematochezia.
  • Nevertheless, bleeding is a relatively rare early symptom of patients with small intestine carcinoid tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Blood Transfusion. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage / etiology. Intestinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Intestine, Small
  • [MeSH-minor] Acenocoumarol / administration & dosage. Acenocoumarol / adverse effects. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Protein S Deficiency / drug therapy. Protein S Deficiency / genetics. Recurrence


83. Kulke MH, Kim H, Stuart K, Clark JW, Ryan DP, Vincitore M, Mayer RJ, Fuchs CS: A phase II study of docetaxel in patients with metastatic carcinoid tumors. Cancer Invest; 2004;22(3):353-9
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  • [Title] A phase II study of docetaxel in patients with metastatic carcinoid tumors.
  • Twenty-one patients with metastatic carcinoid tumors were treated with docetaxel.
  • Although the treatment was well tolerated, no objective radiologic responses were observed.
  • Novel, more effective agents are needed for this disease.
  • BACKGROUND: Traditional combination chemotherapy regimens containing streptozocin, doxorubicin, and 5-fluorouracil have yielded disappointing results in patients with metastatic carcinoid tumors.
  • The lack of efficacy of these combinations, together with their toxicity, has led to efforts to investigate therapeutic agents that are potentially more active and tolerable.
  • We, therefore, assessed the efficacy of docetaxel in the treatment of patients with metastatic carcinoid tumors.
  • METHODS: Twenty-one patients with metastatic carcinoid tumors were treated with docetaxel, administered at a dose of 75 mg/m2 every three weeks.
  • RESULTS: Docetaxel was well tolerated in this patient population.
  • Of the 13 patients who were evaluable for biochemical responses to therapy, four (31%) experienced decreases in 24-hour urinary 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5HIAA) excretion of greater than 50%.
  • The clinical course of the patients enrolled in this study was marked by a high incidence of radiologically stable disease (81%), a median progression-free survival time of 10 months, and a median overall survival time of 24 months.
  • CONCLUSION: Although treatment with docetaxel results in biochemical responses in patients with metastatic carcinoid tumors, the lack of more significant antitumor activity demonstrates the need for novel, more effective agents in this disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / therapeutic use. Carcinoid Tumor / drug therapy. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Salvage Therapy. Taxoids / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Hydroxyindoleacetic Acid / urine. Life Tables. Male. Middle Aged. Octreotide / administration & dosage. Survival Analysis. Treatment Failure

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  • (PMID = 15493355.001).
  • [ISSN] 0735-7907
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / Taxoids; 15H5577CQD / docetaxel; 54-16-0 / Hydroxyindoleacetic Acid; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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84. Kidd M, Schally AV, Pfragner R, Malfertheiner MV, Modlin IM: Inhibition of proliferation of small intestinal and bronchopulmonary neuroendocrine cell lines by using peptide analogs targeting receptors. Cancer; 2008 Mar 15;112(6):1404-14
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: Currently, no consistently effective therapy is available to inhibit cell proliferation or metastasis of neuroendocrine tumor (NET) disease.
  • The effects of 4 novel peptides were analyzed: a targeted cytotoxic analog of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) analog (AN-152), a targeted cytotoxic analog of somatostatin (AN-238), and 2 antagonists of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GH-RH) on 3 NET (carcinoid) cell lines that expressed respective peptide receptors.
  • RESULTS: Proliferation of the LH-RH receptor-expressing lung NET, NCI-H720 line, was inhibited 2-fold by AN-152 containing doxorubicin compared with the chemotherapy alone (IC50 of 9.1 nM vs 24 nM).
  • This was associated with a reduction in Ki67 transcript and an increase in both caspase 3 mRNA levels and activity.
  • Proliferation of the GH-RH receptor expressing lung NET, NCI-H727 line, was inhibited by both GH-RH antagonists, the effects being mediated through changes in Ki67 expression, but not in caspase 3-mediated apoptosis.
  • The small intestinal NET, KRJ-I line, was 8x more sensitive to inhibition by AN-238 than to 2-pyrolino-doxorubicin, reflected by increased caspase 3 transcript as well as activity.
  • AN-238-mediated growth inhibition culminated in complete G1 arrest.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The data demonstrate GH-RH antagonists or peptide-linked antineoplastic agents such as AN-152 and AN-238 are effective inhibitors of NET proliferation in vitro.
  • Because peptide receptors such as those for GH-RH, LH-RH, and SST subtypes are commonly expressed by NETs, the development of antineoplastic agents targeted to specific tumor receptors may provide a more efficacious strategy than systemic chemotherapeutic agents currently in use.
  • [MeSH-major] Bronchial Neoplasms / drug therapy. Carcinoid Tumor / drug therapy. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone / antagonists & inhibitors. Intestinal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Apoptosis / drug effects. Caspase 3 / metabolism. Cell Cycle / drug effects. Cytotoxins / pharmacology. Doxorubicin / analogs & derivatives. Doxorubicin / pharmacology. Flow Cytometry. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / analogs & derivatives. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / antagonists & inhibitors. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / pharmacology. Humans. Intestine, Small / drug effects. Intestine, Small / metabolism. Intestine, Small / pathology. Ki-67 Antigen / genetics. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Pyrroles / pharmacology. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Receptors, LHRH / antagonists & inhibitors. Receptors, Somatostatin / antagonists & inhibitors. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2008 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 18224665.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01-CA1185285
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / AN 238; 0 / Cytotoxins; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Pyrroles; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, LHRH; 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; 27844X2J29 / LHRH, lysine(6)-doxorubicin; 33515-09-2 / Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 9034-39-3 / Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspase 3
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85. Falhammar H: Cyclic ectopic Cushing's syndrome and somatostatin analogue treatment. N Z Med J; 2009 May 8;122(1294):92-5
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  • [Title] Cyclic ectopic Cushing's syndrome and somatostatin analogue treatment.
  • Diagnosing and managing Cushing's syndrome can be challenging, especially cyclic ectopic ACTH-secreting tumours.
  • A case of cyclic Cushing's syndrome due to a bronchial carcinoid with brain metastasis is presented which responded very well to long-term somatostatin analogue treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / biosynthesis. Cushing Syndrome / drug therapy. Peptides, Cyclic / therapeutic use. Somatostatin / analogs & derivatives
  • [MeSH-minor] Acromegaly. Aged. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / complications. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Bronchogenic / complications. Carcinoma, Bronchogenic / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Bronchogenic / secondary. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / complications. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19465952.001).
  • [ISSN] 1175-8716
  • [Journal-full-title] The New Zealand medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] N. Z. Med. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Peptides, Cyclic; 118992-92-0 / lanreotide; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
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86. van Hoek M, Hofland LJ, de Rijke YB, van Nederveen FH, de Krijger RR, van Koetsveld PM, Lamberts SW, van der Lely AJ, de Herder WW, Feelders RA: Effects of somatostatin analogs on a growth hormone-releasing hormone secreting bronchial carcinoid, in vivo and in vitro studies. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2009 Feb;94(2):428-33
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Effects of somatostatin analogs on a growth hormone-releasing hormone secreting bronchial carcinoid, in vivo and in vitro studies.
  • CONTEXT: A 56-yr-old woman presented with acromegaly, a pulmonary mass, and elevated levels of GHRH, GH, and IGF-I.
  • Histological examination revealed a bronchial carcinoid with positive staining for GHRH.
  • Somatostatin analogs (SAs) can play an important role in the treatment of neuroendocrine tumors, dependent on the somatostatin receptor subtype (sst) expression pattern.
  • The sst pattern in bronchial carcinoids and effects of SAs have not been extensively investigated, particularly not for the recently developed universal SA SOM230 (Pasireotide) that has high affinity for sst1, 2, 3, and 5.
  • OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to investigate the in vivo response of a GHRH-producing bronchial carcinoid to octreotide (OCT), its sst-expression profile, and in vitro responses to different SAs, including SOM230.
  • Furthermore, the effects of SOM230 and OCT on GHRH secretion were evaluated in primary cell cultures of the carcinoid tissue.
  • RESULTS: In vivo, OCT administration fully suppressed GH and GHRH levels.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In this case of a GHRH-producing bronchial carcinoid, we demonstrated that SOM230 was a potent inhibitor of GHRH production in vitro and was at least equally potent compared with OCT.
  • Therefore, SOM230 may be a potential therapeutic agent to control GHRH secretion in ectopic acromegaly.
  • [MeSH-major] Bronchial Neoplasms / drug therapy. Carcinoid Tumor / drug therapy. Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone / secretion. Somatostatin / analogs & derivatives
  • [MeSH-minor] Acromegaly / drug therapy. Acromegaly / etiology. Female. Hormones, Ectopic / secretion. Humans. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 19017754.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hormones, Ectopic; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; 9034-39-3 / Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone; 98H1T17066 / pasireotide
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87. Raymond E, Faivre S, Hammel P, Ruszniewski P: Sunitinib paves the way for targeted therapies in neuroendocrine tumors. Target Oncol; 2009 Dec;4(4):253-4
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  • [Title] Sunitinib paves the way for targeted therapies in neuroendocrine tumors.
  • Sunitinib demonstrating efficacy in pancreatic islet cell carcinomas will pave the way for further trials in other neuroendocrine tumor types such as carcinoid, poorly differentiated neuroendocrine disease, and several other endocrine tumors that are dependent on VEGF/VEGFR for angiogenesis.
  • In addition, other drugs with distinct mechanisms of action, such as mTOR inhibitors, currently investigated in phase III trials, may also supply novel options in those diseases to control tumor growth and metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiogenesis Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Indoles / therapeutic use. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Neovascularization, Pathologic / prevention & control. Neuroendocrine Tumors / drug therapy. Pyrroles / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor. Carcinoid Tumor / drug therapy. Cell Line, Tumor. Clinical Trials as Topic. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Humans. Kidney Neoplasms / drug therapy. Melphalan / therapeutic use. Pancreatic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Procarbazine / therapeutic use. Protein Kinase Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / therapeutic use. Vinblastine / therapeutic use. Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays

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  • (PMID = 19911111.001).
  • [ISSN] 1776-260X
  • [Journal-full-title] Targeted oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Target Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Indoles; 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; 0 / Pyrroles; 35S93Y190K / Procarbazine; 5V9KLZ54CY / Vinblastine; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; Q41OR9510P / Melphalan; V99T50803M / sunitinib; PAVe protocol 1
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88. Khuroo MS, Khuroo MS, Khuroo NS: Treatment of type I gastric neuroendocrine tumors with somatostatin analogs. J Gastroenterol Hepatol; 2010 Mar;25(3):548-54
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  • [Title] Treatment of type I gastric neuroendocrine tumors with somatostatin analogs.
  • BACKGROUND AND AIM: There are limited data on response and long-term follow-up of octreotide therapy in type-I gastric neuroendocrine tumors.
  • The objective of the present study was to assess the response of type-I gastric neuroendocrine tumors to octreotide-long acting, repeatable (LAR) therapy and evaluate long-term follow up of such patients after therapy.
  • METHODS: Three patients with documented type-I gastric neuroendocrine tumors from a tertiary gastroenterology centre were studied.
  • Octreotide-LAR therapy 20 mg intramuscularly every 28 days was administered for one year.
  • Serum gastrin and chromogranin levels, gastroscopies and biopsies from tumor nodules at 6 months and one year on therapy and every 6 months after completion of drug therapy were taken.
  • Follow-up after completion of therapy extended for 3 years in two and 2.5 years in one patient.
  • RESULTS: During octreotide therapy there was normalization of serum gastrin levels and serum chromogranin levels.
  • Tumors in all three patients had regressed at 6 months of treatment.
  • Following cessation of therapy, there was progressive rise of serum gastrin to pre-treatment levels.
  • Gastroscopic and histologic examination of gastric biopsies did not reveal recurrence of tumors in any patients.
  • All patients tolerated therapy well and became asymptomatic soon after drug therapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Octreotide-LAR therapy causes regression of type-I gastric neuroendocrine tumors.
  • After completion of drug therapy there was no recurrence of tumors even with continued hypergastrinemia.
  • Octreotide therapy should be considered as one of the treatment options in such patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Carcinoid Tumor / drug therapy. Octreotide / therapeutic use. Stomach Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Chromogranins / blood. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Gastrins / blood. Humans. Injections, Intramuscular. Male. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20074162.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-1746
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of gastroenterology and hepatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Chromogranins; 0 / Gastrins; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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89. Pelosi G, Volante M, Papotti M, Sonzogni A, Masullo M, Viale G: Peptide receptors in neuroendocrine tumors of the lung as potential tools for radionuclide diagnosis and therapy. Q J Nucl Med Mol Imaging; 2006 Dec;50(4):272-87
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  • [Title] Peptide receptors in neuroendocrine tumors of the lung as potential tools for radionuclide diagnosis and therapy.
  • Neuroendocrine tumors of the lung are carcinomas characterized by different impact on the patients' prognosis, ranging from relatively indolent, low- to intermediate-grade neoplasms with longer life expectation (i.e., typical and atypical carcinoids) to very aggressive and poorly differentiated neoplasms with dismal prognosis (i.e., large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma and small cell lung cancer).
  • The standard treatment of typical or atypical carcinoids is the complete surgical resection, whereas the role of radio-chemotherapy in a multimodality treatment or for palliation remains controversial.
  • Conversely, high-grade neuroendocrine carcinomas are in primis treated by aggressive combination chemotherapy, deserving surgical resection for uncommon low-stage tumors.
  • Since evidence has been accumulated that neuroendocrine tumors of the lung are supplied with a wide array of peptide receptors detectable on cell membranes by immunohistochemical methods, innovative strategies for diagnosis and radiometabolic therapy have been devised to target these molecules for the correct clinical management of the patients.
  • In this paper, the structural and functional aspects and the clinical applications of the detection of several peptide receptors in pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors will be reviewed, including somatostatin receptors, vasoactive intestinal peptide/pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide family receptors, cholecystokinin /gastrin receptors, bombesin/gastrin releasing peptide receptors, neurotensin receptors, substance P receptors, neuroepeptide Y receptors, calcitonin/calcitonin gene-related peptide receptors, atrial natriuretic peptide receptors, glucagon-like-peptide-1 receptors, oxytocin receptors and endothelin receptors.
  • Only a detailed knowledge of the peptide receptor distribution in these tumor types, especially in uncommon neoplasms such as atypical carcinoids and large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas, is pivotal for planning the most adequate interventions for the patients' diagnosis and therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine. Lung Neoplasms. Radioisotopes. Receptors, Peptide / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Drug Delivery Systems / methods. Humans. Radiopharmaceuticals / pharmacokinetics. Radiopharmaceuticals / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 17043625.001).
  • [ISSN] 1824-4785
  • [Journal-full-title] The quarterly journal of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging : official publication of the Italian Association of Nuclear Medicine (AIMN) [and] the International Association of Radiopharmacology (IAR), [and] Section of the Society of Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry and Biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Q J Nucl Med Mol Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radioisotopes; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0 / Receptors, Peptide
  • [Number-of-references] 166
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90. Ihtiyar E, Paşaoğlu O, Erkasap S, Karakaş BR, Yaşar FN: Perforated mixed carcinoid-adenocarcinoma in transverse colon and at gastroenterostomy site: case report. World J Surg Oncol; 2010;8:110
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  • [Title] Perforated mixed carcinoid-adenocarcinoma in transverse colon and at gastroenterostomy site: case report.
  • Goblet cell carcinoid of the large intestine is a rare neoplasm, usually located in ascending colon and rectum.
  • A 60-year-old male patient underwent surgery after the diagnosis of acute abdomen.
  • Exploratory laparotomy revealed perforation with a diameter of 1 cm at the site of the previously performed gastroenterostomy and dilatation of the right colic flexure, secondary to a solid obstructive mass located in the mid-portion of transverse colon.
  • Histopathological investigation of the biopsies, taken from the gastroenterostomy site and the tumor, revealed mixed carcinoid-adenocarcinoma with carcinoid component, predominantly composed of goblet cells.
  • Following respiratory distress secondary to pulmonary metastasis, the patient's condition deteriorated and subsequently died in the fourth postoperative month.
  • Our aim with this paper is to point out that more cases should be reported for more effective diagnosis, histopathological study, clinical investigation, treatment and prognosis of this specific neoplasm.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Colonic Neoplasms / pathology. Gastroenterostomy. Intestinal Perforation / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Colon, Transverse / pathology. Combined Modality Therapy. Fluorouracil / therapeutic use. Humans. Laparotomy. Leucovorin / therapeutic use. Male. Middle Aged. Organoplatinum Compounds / therapeutic use. Prognosis

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  • [Cites] Pathol Int. 2003 Jul;53(7):457-62 [12828611.001]
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  • (PMID = 21176192.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-7819
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Organoplatinum Compounds; Q573I9DVLP / Leucovorin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil; Adenocarcinoid tumor; Folfox protocol
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3014938
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96. Harbour JW: Photodynamic therapy for choroidal metastasis from carcinoid tumor. Am J Ophthalmol; 2004 Jun;137(6):1143-5
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  • [Title] Photodynamic therapy for choroidal metastasis from carcinoid tumor.
  • PURPOSE: To determine the efficacy of photodynamic therapy for the treatment of a choroidal metastasis unresponsive to chemotherapy and radiation therapy.
  • METHODS: Photodynamic therapy with verteporfin was performed.
  • Visual acuity, local tumor control, and complications were assessed.
  • RESULTS: A 72-year-old woman was diagnosed with bilateral, biopsy-proven choroidal metastasis from a pulmonary carcinoid tumor that was resistant to chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
  • The tumor in the left eye caused a retinal detachment and vision loss to light perception.
  • The smaller lesion in the right eye progressively enlarged toward the fovea despite therapy and was treated with photodynamic therapy with verteporfin.
  • Within 2 months, the exudative detachment resolved, the visual acuity returned to baseline, and the tumor volume decreased by 50%.
  • CONCLUSION: Photodynamic therapy may be an effective treatment option for selected patients with choroidal metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / drug therapy. Choroid Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Photochemotherapy. Photosensitizing Agents / therapeutic use. Porphyrins / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 15183811.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9394
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Ophthalmol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 0 / Porphyrins; 129497-78-5 / verteporfin
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97. Kałuzny M, Bolanowski M, Sukiennik-Kujawa M, Ponikowski P, Handkiewicz-Junak D, Jarzab B, Jawiarczyk A, Syrycka J: Long-term survival and nearly asymptomatic course of carcinoid tumour with multiple metastases (treated by surgery, chemotherapy, (90)Y-DOTATATE, and LAR octreotide analogue): a case report. Endokrynol Pol; 2009 Sep-Oct;60(5):401-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Long-term survival and nearly asymptomatic course of carcinoid tumour with multiple metastases (treated by surgery, chemotherapy, (90)Y-DOTATATE, and LAR octreotide analogue): a case report.
  • Carcinoids are the most common neuroendocrine tumours.
  • They are usually slowly growing, located in the small intestine, secrete serotonin, and are characterized by long survival of patients, so prognosis is generally good.
  • The most frequently encountered clinical presentations of carcinoids are intermittent abdominal pain and carcinoid syndrome (diarrhoea and flushing).
  • We report a case of carcinoid tumour with primary focus in the ileum, with an appendix infiltration, in a thirty-two-year-old woman with acute appendicitis symptoms only.
  • Carcinoid was diagnosed postoperatively by histopathological examination.
  • Partial metastases resection was performed, followed by chemotherapy, (90)Y-DOTATATE and then long-acting release octreotide analogue therapy.
  • In the meantime, severe chronic heart failure (NYHA IV) due to tricuspid combined valvular heart disease and pulmonary hypertension was diagnosed.
  • Combined therapy, typical for chronic heart failure, together with long-acting octreotide analogue highly improved the patient's heart sufficiency and reduced carcinoid syndrome symptoms.
  • The only adverse events of octreotide therapy were hyperbilirubinaemia and itching.
  • Long-term survival is typical for carcinoids, but 30-years survival has not been described in the literature yet.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / therapy. Ileal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ileal Neoplasms / therapy. Survivors
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoid Heart Disease / diagnosis. Carcinoid Heart Disease / therapy. Combined Modality Therapy. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Hyperbilirubinemia / chemically induced. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Octreotide / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 19885812.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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98. Klee H, Vestring T, Bittmann I: [Pleural metastases of a typical bronchial carcinoid 7 years after lobectomy]. Pneumologie; 2008 Oct;62(10):607-10
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  • [Title] [Pleural metastases of a typical bronchial carcinoid 7 years after lobectomy].
  • BACKGROUND: Bronchial carcinoids are a rare differential diagnosis of solitary pulmonary nodes.
  • Because of their typical manifestation in the major bronchi, carcinoid tumours are visible regularly via bronchoscopy where they show a typical picture.
  • In lymph node-negative disease a favourable outcome can be expected.
  • Typically metastases develop in the lung, liver, brain, bone and adrenal glands.
  • CASE REPORT: Seven years after lobectomy of a bronchial carcinoid, a slow-growing thickening of the pleura parietalis was noted in a 54-year-old male patient.
  • The histological diagnosis of pleural metastases was established via trans-thoracic punctation.
  • Pleural metastases of bronchial carcinoids are extremely rare.
  • Palliative cytotoxic chemotherapy was started.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The postoperative prognosis of bronchial carcinoids in lymph node-negative disease is excellent.
  • Metastatic disease--as in the rare case of pleural metastases shown here--remains a therapeutic dilemma.
  • Extensively evaluated concepts for adjuvant or palliative settings do not exist.
  • [MeSH-major] Bronchial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Bronchial Neoplasms / surgery. Pleural Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pleural Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 18711695.001).
  • [ISSN] 1438-8790
  • [Journal-full-title] Pneumologie (Stuttgart, Germany)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pneumologie
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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99. Wirth LJ, Carter MR, Jänne PA, Johnson BE: Outcome of patients with pulmonary carcinoid tumors receiving chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy. Lung Cancer; 2004 May;44(2):213-20
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  • [Title] Outcome of patients with pulmonary carcinoid tumors receiving chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy.
  • STUDY OBJECTIVES: To determine the outcome of patients with pulmonary typical and atypical carcinoid tumors treated with chemotherapy with or without radiotherapy.
  • METHODS: Patients with pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors treated at our institution from 1990 to 2001 were identified.
  • The medical records of patients with diagnoses of typical or atypical pulmonary carcinoids were reviewed for the presence of evaluable disease, treatment with chemotherapy with or without radiotherapy, response to these treatments, survival and cause of death.
  • RESULTS: Eighteen patients with typical (n = 8) or atypical (n = 10) pulmonary carcinoid tumors who were treated with chemotherapy with or without radiotherapy were identified.
  • Of these, four received chemotherapy plus chest radiotherapy.
  • Three of these had stable disease and one had a partial response.
  • One of the patients with stable disease to chemoradiotherapy subsequently received chemotherapy alone, to which he had a complete response.
  • Fourteen additional patients were treated with 18 chemotherapy regimens.
  • There were two partial responses, eight stable disease, seven progressive disease and one allergic reaction precluding further treatment.
  • The overall response rate to any chemotherapy was 3/15 (20%, 95% CI 0.07-0.45), and the best overall response rate to chemotherapy with or without chest radiotherapy was 4/18 (22%, 95% CI 0.09-0.45).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Patients with typical and atypical pulmonary carcinoid tumors can respond to chemotherapy with or without chest radiotherapy, though with response rates that appear less than those of small cell lung cancers.
  • Further characterization of pulmonary carcinoid tumors and study of treatment alternatives for unresectable disease is warranted.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoid Tumor / drug therapy. Carcinoid Tumor / radiotherapy. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15084386.001).
  • [ISSN] 0169-5002
  • [Journal-full-title] Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lung Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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100. Pelosi G, Masullo M, Leon ME, Veronesi G, Spaggiari L, Pasini F, Sonzogni A, Iannucci A, Bresaola E, Viale G: CD117 immunoreactivity in high-grade neuroendocrine tumors of the lung: a comparative study of 39 large-cell neuroendocrine carcinomas and 27 surgically resected small-cell carcinomas. Virchows Arch; 2004 Nov;445(5):449-55
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  • [Title] CD117 immunoreactivity in high-grade neuroendocrine tumors of the lung: a comparative study of 39 large-cell neuroendocrine carcinomas and 27 surgically resected small-cell carcinomas.
  • Little is known about CD117 prevalence and clinicopathological implications in pulmonary large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma.
  • We studied CD117 immunoreactivity in surgical specimens from 39 large-cell neuroendocrine carcinomas of stages I-III and 27 limited-disease small-cell carcinomas, 56 typical and atypical carcinoids of the lung, and 10 neuroendocrine tumorlets, including the membrane and cytoplasmic immunostaining patterns.
  • Membrane CD117 immunoreactivity in 5% or more tumor cells was documented in 30 (77%) large-cell neuroendocrine carcinomas and 18 (67%) small-cell carcinomas and 4 (7%) carcinoids, whereas cytoplasmic labeling was seen in 17 (44%) large-cell neuroendocrine carcinomas, 19 (70%) small-cell carcinomas, and 3 (5%) carcinoids.
  • Cytoplasmic immunostaining was more prevalent in small-cell carcinomas, whereas membrane labeling did not differ between the two types of high-grade carcinomas.
  • Downregulation of CD117 by neoadjuvant chemotherapy was seen in large-cell neuroendocrine carcinomas but not small-cell carcinomas.
  • Multiple linear regression analysis demonstrated a marginal association between cytoplasmic CD117 immunoreactivity and regional lymph node metastasis in small-cell carcinomas but not large-cell neuroendocrine carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Small Cell / chemistry. Lung Neoplasms / chemistry. Neuroendocrine Tumors / chemistry. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit / analysis

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  • (PMID = 15375659.001).
  • [ISSN] 0945-6317
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit
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